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In order to enable teachers to adjust their historical instruction 
with greater freedom than would otherwise be possible, it seems 
wise to issue as a separate volume that portion of Medieval 
and Modem Times which deals with the period extending from 
the dissolution of the Roman Empire to the opening of the 
eighteenth century. This division docs not correspond to that 
usually called the Middle Ages but is extended to comprise 
the dxteenth and seventeenth centuries. There are, however, a 
number of cogent reasons for viewing these two centuries as 
more medieval th&n modem. To cite a single striking example, 
it was not until after the year 1700 that the intelligent people 
of Europe finally gave up their belief in witchcraft, which seems 
to us now a delusion appropriate only to savages. Those sodal 
<x)nditions and modes of thought produced by sdentific discov- 
eries and inventions, by democracy and world ix)mmerce which 
are characteristic of our day only begin to emerge on a large 
scale in the eighteenth century. It was at the opening of the 
eighteenth century that the Prussian army entered upon those 
preparations which are proving so disastrous for the world 
to-day. So it will be quite proper to include the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries in the " Middle Period " and regard them 
as belonging rather to an introduction to our own times than as 
forming a definite part of the period in which we live. 

J. H. R. 


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I. Western Europe before the Barbakian Invasions 

1.. Prelude 

I. The Roman Empire and its Government 

3. The Weaknesses of the Roman Empire 

^. The Rise of the Christian Church 

J. The Eastern Empire 

I[. The Gbkman Invasions and the Break-up op the 
Roman Empire 

6. Founding oi Kingdoms by Barbarian Chiefe .... 

7. Kingdom of the Franks 

8. Results of the Barbarian Invasions 

ill. The Rise of the Papacy 

9. The Christian Church 

10. Origin of the Power of the Popes . . - 

IV. The Monks and theik Missionary Work; the 


11. Monks and Monasteries 

12. Missionary Work of the Monks 

13. Mohammed and his Religion 

14. Conquests of the Mohammedans; the Caliphate . . 
V. Charlemagne and his Empire 

15. Conquests of Charlemagne . 

16. Establishment of a Line of Emperors in Che West . . 

17. How Charlemagne carried on his Government . . . 
VI. The Age ok Disorder; Feudalism 

iS. The Disruption of Charlemagne's Empire 

19. The Medieval Castle 

lo. The Serfs and the Manor 

il. The Feudal System 

22. Neighborhood Warfare in the Middle Ages .... 
VII. England in the Middle Ages 

23. The Norman Conquest 

24. Heniy II and the Plantagenets 


Tkt Middle Period of European History 

ij. The Great Charter and the Beginnings of Parliament 125 

16. Wales and Scotland iz8 

27. The Hundred Years' War 132 

VIII. Popes and Empbross 

l8. Origin of Che Holy Roman Empire 144 

29. The Church and its Property 146 

30. Powers claimed by the Popca 152 

31. Gregory VII and Emperor Henry IV ...'.. . 153 

32. The Hohenstaufen Emperors and the Popes ... 158 
IX. The Crusades 

33. Origin of the Crusades 166 

34. The First Crusade 170 

35. .Religious Orders of the Hospitalers and Templars . 174 

36. The Second and Later Crusades 176 

37. Chief Results of the Crusades 17S 

X. The Medieval Cmubch at its Height 

38. Organization and Powers of the Church iSi 

39. The Heretics and the Inquisition fS7 

40. The Franciscans and Dominicans 190 

41. Church and State 195 

XI. Medieval Towns — their Business and Buildings 

4S. The Towns and Guilds 203 

43. Business in the Later Middle Ages 308 

44. Gothic Architecture 215 

45. The Italian Cities of the Renaissance 222 

46. Early Geographical Discoveries 232 

XII. Books and Science in the Middle Ages 

47. How the Modem Languages originated 239 

48. The Troubadours and Chivalry 244 

49. Medieval Science 247 

50. Medieval Universities and Studies 250 

Ji. Beginnings of Modem Inventions 255 

52. The Art of the Renaissance 264 

XIII. Emperor Charles V and his Vast Realms 

53. Emperor Maximilian and the Hapsburg Marriages . z6S 

54. How Italy became the Battleground of the European 

Powers 274 

55. Condition of Germany when Charles V became 

Einperor 2$o 


XIV. Martin Luther and the RivoiIt of Germany 


j6. The Question of Refonning the Church : Erannus 3S4 

57, Mow Martin Luther revolted against the Papacy . :S3 

5S. The Uiet at Worms, 1520-1511 299 

59. The Revolt against the Papacy begins in Germany 30: 

60. Division of Gennany into Catholic and Protestant 

Countriea 306 

XV. The Protestant Revolt in Switzerland and 

61. Zwingli and Calvin 311 

62. How England fell away from the Papacy .... 314 

63. England becomes Protestant 320 

XVI. The Wars of Religion 

64. The Council ol Trent; the Jetuits 315 

65. Philip II and the Revolt of the Netherlands ... 331 

66. The Huguenot Wars in France 337 

67. England under Queen Elizabeth 345 

68. The Thirty Years' War 352 

69. The Beginnings of our Scientific Age 35S 

XVII. Stkucgle in England between King and Par- 

70. James I and the Divine Right of Kings .... 365 

71. How Charles I got along without Parliament . . 36S 

72. How Charles I lost his Head 373 

73. Oliver Cromwell: England a Commonwealth . . 376 

74. The Restoration 382 

75. The Revolution of 1688 384 

XVIIL France under Louis XIV 

76. Position and Character of Louis XIV 387 

77. How Louis encouraged Art and Literature . . . 391 

78. Louis XIV attacks his Neighbors 394 

79. Louis XIV and his Protestant Subjects 396 

80. War of the Spanish Succession 39S 


INDEX 413 

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The Roman Empire at its Greatest Extent S 

l^igrations of the Germans 24 

Europe in the Time of Theodoric 29 

Dominions of the Franks under the Merovingians 34 

The Mohammedan Conquests at their Greatest Extent .... 71 

Europe in the Time of Charlemagne 80 

Treaty of Mersen 88 

Planta^net Possessions in England and France 121 

The British Isles 128 

Europe about A. D. 1000 146 

Italian Towns in Ihe Twelfth Century 160 

Routes of the Crusaders 170 

Crusaders' States in Syria 172 

Commercial Towns and Trade Routes, Thirteenth and Four- 
teenth Centuries 2ro 

The Voyages of Discovery Z3J 

The Malay Archipelago 235 

Behaim's Globe, 1492 236 

Europe ahout the Middle of the Sixteenth Century 278 

The Swiss Confederation 312 

Europe when Louis XIV began his Personal Government . . . 38S 

Europe after ihe Treaties of Utrecht and Rastadt 400 

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I. History, in the broadest sense of the word, is all that we object of ih 
know about everything that man has ever done, or thought, or ™ "' 
hoped, or felt. It b the study of past human affairs. The 
present volume deals with only a small, but for us most impor- 
tant, part of the history of the world. Its object is to give a very 
brief, clear account of the great changes which have taken place 
in western Europe since -the German barbarians, some fifteen 
hundred years ago, overcame the armies of the Roman Empire 
and set up kingdoms of their own, out of which the present 
countries of France, Germany, Italy, Austria, Spain, and England 
have grown. 

History used to be defined as " the record of past events." History no 
And most of the older textbooks tell about scarcely anything ^"ord <A 
except events — how battles were fought, how kings came to P»»'e™"" 
the throne one after another, how treaties were concluded and 
the boundary lines between states were changed from time to 
time. But nowadays we are beginning to see that the history of 
past conditions and institutions is far more important than that 
of mere events. We want to know how people lived, what kind 
of buildings they built, whit kind of books they read, how much 
they knew and what they thought about science and religion ; 
how they were governed, what they manufactured and how 
they carried on their business. 

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2 The Middle Period of European History 

lUustratiom It is important to understand clearly what is meant by events, 
meant by put conditions, and institutions, since history deab with all three. 
^ buSw- ^" event is an occurrence, such as the death of Queen. Victoria 
tiona Qi- thg battie of Gettysburg, A condition is a more or less per- 

manoit state of affairs, such as the scarcity of money in the 
early Middle Ages or the fact that a hundred years ago only 
a small part of the English people could read. By mstitution 
we usually mean such things as the English Parliament, public 
schools, or trial by jury. Both conditions and institutions often 
endure for hundreds of years. Events happen in a short time 
but often produce great results, as did the invention of printing 
and the discovery of America. 
Value of ihe The newer kind of history, which deals with past conditions 
hjstoiy as well as events, enables us really to understand the past and 

to compare it with the present, and in that way we come to 
understand the conditions in which we live much better than we 
should otherwise do. We see where our ideas and beliefs and 
inventions came from, how slowly most of them developed, and 
how men have changed their ways "of living as they learned 
impoBibHitjr It is impossible to divide the past into distinct, clearly defined 
the i^'?nta periods and prove that one age ended and another began in a 
totd' periods Particular year, such as 476, or 1453, or 1789. Men do not and 
cannot change their habits and ways of doing things all at once, 
no matter what happens. It is true that a single event, such as 
an important battle which results in the loss of a nation's inde- 
pendence, may produce an abrupt change in the goverrunent. 
This in turn may either encourage or discourage trade and 
manufactures, and modify the language and alter the interests 
All general of a people. But these deeper changes take place only very 
pbSf|Ji^^ gradually. After a battle or a revolution the farmer will sow 
.»"y and reap in his old way ; the artisan will take up his familiar 

tasks, and the merchant his buying and selling. The scholar 
will study and write as he formerly did, and the household will 
go on under the new government just as it did under the okL 

Western Europe before the Barbarian Invasions 3 

So a chai^ in government affects the habits of a people but 
slowly in any case, and it may leave them quite unaltered. 

This tendency of mankind to do, in general, this year what The unity or 
it did last, b spite of changes in some one department of life,-^ hSt^'^ 
such as substituting a president for a king, traveling by rail in- 
stead of on horseback, or getting the news from a newspaper 
instead of from a neighbor, — results in what is called the unity 
or continuity of history. The truth that no sudden change has 
ever taken place in all the customs of a people, and that it can- 
not, in the nature of things, take place, is perhaps the most 
fundamental lesson that history teaches. 

Historiansisometimes sepm to foiget this principle, when they General 
undertake to begin and end their books at precise dates. We nofwmiron 
find histories of Europe from 476 to 918, from 1270 to 1492, s*e''<i»<<» 
as if the accession of a capable German king in 918, or the 
death of a famous French king in 1270, or the discovery of 
America in 1492, marked a general change in European affairs. 
In reality, however, no general change took place at these dates 
or in any other single year. It would doubtless have proved a 
great convenience to the -readers and writers of history if the 
world had agreed to carry out a definite program and alter its 
habits at predse dates, preferably at the opening of each cen- 
tury. But no such agreement has ever been adopted, and the 
historical student must take things as he finds them. He must 
recognize that nations retain their old customs while they adopt 
new ones, and that a small portion of a nation may advance 
while the greater jiart of it stays behind. 

We cannot, therefore, hope to fix any year or event which may Meaning of 
properly be taken as the b^rmmg of that long period which « Middle 
followed the break-up of the Roman Empire in western Europe *«**" 
and which is commonly called the Mkldle Ages. Beyond the 
northern and eastern boundaries of the Roman Empire, which 
embraced the whole civilized world from the Euphrates to Britain, 
mysterious peoples moved about whose history before they came 
into occask>nal contact with the Romans is practJcally luiknowiL 

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4 The Middle Period of European History 

These Germans, or " barbarians," as the Romans called them, 
were destined to put an end to the Roman Empire in western 
Europe. They had first begun to make trouble about a hundred 
years before Christ, when a great army of them was defeated by 
the Roman general Marius. Julius Caesar narrates in polished 
Latin, familiar to all who begin the study of that language, how 
fifty years later he drove back other bands. Five hundred years 
elapsed, however, before German chieftains succeeded in found- 
ing kingdoms within the boundaries of the Empire. With their 
establishment the Roman government in western Europe may be 
said to have come to an end and the Middle Ages to have begun. 

Yet it would be a great mistake to suppose that this means 
that the Roman civilization suddenly disappeared at this time. 
Long before the German conquest, art and literature had begun 
to decline toward the level that they reached in the Middle Ages. 
Many of the ideas and conditions which prevailed after the com- 
ing of the barbarians were common enough before. Even the 
ignorance and strange ideas which we associate particularly with 
the Middle Ages are to be found in the later Roman Empire. 

The term " Middle Ages " will be used in this volume to 
mean, roughly speaking, the period of over a thousand years 
that elapsed between the fifth century, when the disorder of the 
barbarian invasions was becoming general, and the opening of 
the sixteenth century, when Europe was well on its way to recover 
all that had been lost since the break-up of the Roman Empire. 

The Roman Empire and its Government 

3. Before we begi;i our study of the history of western 
Europe since the break-up of the Roman Bnpire we must stop 
to conskier briefly the way in which people were living before 
the German leaders succeeded in establishii^ their kingdoms. 

At the opening of the fifth century there were no separate, 
independent states in western Europe such as we find on the map 
to-day. The whole area now occupied by England, France, Spain, 


Western Europe before the Barbarian Invasions 5 

and Italy formed at that time only a part of the vast realms ruled 
over by the Roman emperor and his host of officials. As for 
Gennany, most of it was still familiar only to the half-savage 
tribes who inhabited it The Romans had tried in vain to con- 
quer this part of Europe, but finally had to content themselves 
with keeping the German hordes out of the Empire by means 
of fortifications and guards along the Rhine and Danube rivers. 

Fig. I. Roman Aqueduct near NImes 

This BtracCure was built by the Romans about the year 20 a.d. to 
supply the Roman colony of Nemausus (now called Ntmes) in south- 
ern France with water from two excellent springs twenly-fiye miles 
distant. It is nearly 900 feet long and 160 feet high, and cairied the 
water over the valley of the river Gard. The channel for the water is 
at the very top, and one can still walk through it. The miles of aque- 
duct on either side of this bridge have almost disappeared 

The Roman Empire, which embraced southern and western Great divei 

Europe, western Asia, and even the northern pwrtion of Africa fncliSe^' 
(see map), included the most diverse peoples and races. Egyp- ^tl"? the 
tians, Arabs, Jews, Greeks, Italians, Gauls, Britons, Iberians, — 
all alike were under the sovereign rule of Rome. One great 
State embraced the nomad shepherds who spread their tents on 
the borders of Sahara, the mountaineers in the fastnesses of 

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6 The Middle Period of European History 

Wales, and the citizens of Athens, Alexandria, and Rome, heirs 
to all the luxury and learning of the ages. Whether one lived 
in York or Jerusalem, Memphis or Vienna, he paid his taxes 
into the same treasury, he was tried by the same law, and looked 
to the same armies for protection. 
Bonds whidi At first it seems incredible that this huge Empire, which in- 
pire together cluded African and Asiatic peoples as well as the most various 
races of Europe in all stages of civilization, could have held 
together for five centuries instead of falling to pieces, as might 
have been expected, long before the barbarians came in sufBdent 
strength to establish their own kingdoms in its midst. 

When, however, we consider the bonds of union which held 
die state together, it is easy to understand why the Empire en- 
dured so long. These were (i) the wonderfully organized gov- 
ernment with its officials in every part of the realm, watching 
everything and allowing nothing to escape them ; (z) the wor- 
ship of the head of the Empire, the emperor; (3) the hardy 
legions of sokliers who had made Rome's conquests and could be 
used to put down revolt and keep out the bariiariam ; (4) the 
Roman law in force everywhere ; (5) the admirable roads, which 
enabled the soldiers to march quickly from place to place ; and, 
lastly, (6) the Roman colonies and the teachers'sent out by the 
government, for through them the same ideas and ways of doing 
things were carried to even the most distant parts of the Empire, 
The Roman Let US first glance at the government and the emperor. His 
ane^'ed"^o decrees were dispatched throughout the length and breadth of 
"^^Trthin ''^^ Roman dominions ; whatsoever pleased him became law, 
according to the well-known principle of the Roman constitution. 
While the cities were permitted some freedom in the manage- 
ment of their own affairs, the emperor and his innumerable of- 
fidals kept an eye upon even the humblest citizen. The Roman 
government, besides keeping order, settling law cases, and de- 
fending the boundaries, assumed many other responsibilities. 
It watched the grain dealers, butchers, and bakers, and saw to 
it that they properly supplied the public and never deserted their 


Western Europe before the Barbarian Invasions 7 

occupation. In some cases it forced the son to follow the profes- 
sion of his father. If it could have had its way, it would have had 
every one belong to a definite class of society, and his children 
after him. It kept the unruly poorer classes in the towns quiet 
by furnishing them with bread, and sometimes with wine, meat, 
and clothes. It provided amusement for them by expensive en- 
tertainments, such as races and gladiatorial combats (see Fig. 3). 
In a word, the Roman government was not only wonderfully 
organized, so that its power was felt throughout its whole ex- 
tent, but it attempted to regulate almost every interest in life. 

Every one was required to join in the worship of the emperor The worship 
because he stood for tlie majesty and glory of the Roman domin- pg„, ^"^ 
ion. The inhabitants of each province might revere their partic- 
ular gods, undbturbed by the government, but all were obliged, 
as good citizens, to join in the official sacrifices to the head of 
the State, as if he were a god. The early Christians were perse- 
cuted, not only because their religion was different from that of 
their fellows, but because they refused to reverence the images 
of the emperor, and openly prophesied the downfall of the 
Roman State. Their religion seemed incompatible with good 
citizenship, since it forbade them to show the usual respect for 
the government 

As there was one government, so there was one law for all The Romm 
the civilized world. The same principles of reason, justice, and 
humanity were believed to hold whether the Roman citizen lived 
upon the Euphrates or the Thames. The law of the Roman 
Einpire is its chief legacy to posterity. Its provisions are still 
in force in many of the states of Europe to-day, and it is one of 
the subjects of study in our American universities. Wives and 
children were protected from the cruelty of the head of the 
house, who, in earlier centuries, had been privileged to treat 
the members of his family as slaves. The law held that it was 
better that a guilty person should escape than that an innocent 
person should be condemned. It conceived mankind, not as a 
group of nations and tribes, each with its own laws, but as one 

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8 The Middle Period of European History 

people included in one great empire and subject to a single 
system of law based upon fairness and reason. 

Magnificent roads were constructed, which enabled the mes- 
sengers of the government and its armies to reach every part 
of the Empire with what at that time seemed incredible speed. 

Fig. z. Roman Bridge at St. Chamas 

This Roman bridge with its handsome portals, at St. Chamas in southern 

France, was built in the time of the Emperor Augustus ; that is, about 

(he beginning of the Christian era 

These highways made trade comparatively easy and encouraged 
merchants and travelers to visit the most distant portions of the 
realm. Everywhere they found the same coins and the same 
system of weights and measures. 

Colonies were sent out to the confines of the Empire, and 
the remains of great public buildings, of theaters and bridges, 
of sumptuous villas and baths at places like Treves, Cologne, 
Bath, and Salzburg, indicate how thoroughly the influence and 
civilization of Rome penetrated to the utmost parts of the terri- 
tory subject to her rule. ITie illustrations in this chapter will 
show what wonderfully fine towns the Roman colonies were. 

The government encouraged education by supporting at least 
three teachers in every tovm of any considerable importance. 
They taught rhetoric and oratory and explained the works of the 

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western Europe before the Barbarian Invasions g 

great Latin and Greek writers, so that an educated man was The same 
pretty sure to find, even in the outlying parts of the great ihroughout 
Empire, other educated men with much the same interests and Pm^J^" 
ideas as his own. Everywhere men felt themselves to be not mere 
natives of this or that country but citizens of the Roman world. 

Fig. 3. Roman Amphitheater at Poi.a 
Every large Roman town had a vast arena, or amphitheater, in which 
thousands of spectators could be seated to watch the public fights 
between professional swordsmen (gladiators) and between men and 
wild beasts. The emperors and rich men paid the expenses of these 
combats. The greatest of these arenas was. the Coliseum at Rome. 
The one here represented shows that a Roman town of perhaps 40,000 
inhabitants was supplied with an amphitheater, holding no less than 
20,000 spectators, who must have assembled from all the region around. 
The seats have disappeared ; only the outside walls remain 

During the four centuries from the first emperor, Augustus, Loyalty ta 
to the barbarian invasions we hear of no attempt on the part of ^^ convi? 
its subjects to overthrow the Empire or to withdraw from it. '"''" '|^^ 
The Roman State, it was universally believed, was to endure 
forever. Had a rebellious nation succeeded in throwing off the 
rule of the emperor and in establishing its independence, it would 
simply have placed itself outside the civilized world. 

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lO The Middle Period of European History 

The Weaknesses of the Roman Empire 
Reasons why 3- Just why the Roman government, long so powerful and 
loit iupowft ^ universally respected, finally became unable longer to defend 
i borders, and gave way before the scattered attacks of the 
German peoples, who never combined in any general alliance 
t, is a very difficult question to answer satisfactorily. 

itself against 

Fig. 4. Roman Temple at NImes 
This beautiful temple at Nimes, France, was probably built about the 
year one of the Christian era. It was situated in the forum with other 
pubhc buildings which have now disappeared. After the break-up of 
the Roman Empire it was used as a Christian church, then as a town 
hall, then as a warehouse, and finally as a stable. In 1824 it was restored 

We know very little about the times, because the accounts that 
have come down to us give us no reasons why things happened 
as they did, and the best we can do is to see what were the 
conditions in the Empire when the Germans invaded it 

The Roman government was in some respects very strong and 
' well organized, but there was no satisfactory way of choosing 


Western Europe before the Barbarian Invasions 1 1 

a new emperor. No candidate could secure the election unless Civil mi 
he was supported by the army, and the soldiers in the various ^^^lio,^ 
parts of the Empire often proposed different men for whom "" *"!* 
they were willbg to fight. Civil war would then follow, which 
would come to a dose only when' one candidate succeeded in 
getting the better of all his rivals. This brought about frequent 
disorder, which did. its part in weakening the Empire. 

It required a great deal of money to support the luxurious Oppress! 
palaces of the emperors at Rome and Constantinople with their 
innumerable officials and servants, and to supply "bread and 
' for the populace of the towns. All sorts of taxes and 
re consequently devised by ingenious officials to 
make up the necessary revenue. The crushing burden of the 
great land tax, the emperor's chief source of income, was greatly 
increased by the bad way in which it was collected. The gov- 
enunent made a group of the richer citizens in each of the 
towns permanently responsible for the whole amount due each 
year from all the landowners within their district It was their 
business to collect the taxes and make up any deficiency, it 
mattered not from what cause. 

This responsibility, together with the weight of the taxes 
themselves, ruined so many landowners that the government was 
forced to decree that no one should desert his estates in order to 
escape the exactions. Only the very rich could stand the drain on 
their resources. 'ITie middle class sank into poverty and despair, 
and in this way the Empire lost just that prosperous class of 
citizeiis who should have been the leaders in business enterprises. 

The sad plight of the poorer laboring classes was largely due siaveiy 
to the terrible institution of slavery which prevailed everywhere 
in ancient times. When the Romans conquered a new region 
they were in the habit, in accordance with the customs of war, 
of reducing a considerable part of the inhabitants to slavery. 
In this way the number of slaves was constantly increased. 
There were millions of them. A single rich landholder might 
own hundreds and even thousands, and it was a poor man that 

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12 The Middle Period of European History 

did not have several at least. For six or seven centuries before 
the barbarian invasions every kind of labor fell largely into 
their hands in both country and town. 

Land was the only highly esteemed form of wealth in the 
Roman Empire, in spite of the heavy taxes imposed upon it. 
Without large holdings of land no one could hope to enjoy a 
high social position or an honorable ofhce under the government. 
Consequently the land came gradually into the hands of the rich 
and ambitious, and the small landed proprietor disappeared. 
Great estates called " villas " covered Italy, Gaul, and Britain. 

Fig. 5. Romas Baths at Bath 

Theie aie hot springs at Balh. England, and here the Roman colonists 
in Britain developed a fashionable watering place. In recent years 
the soil and rubbish which had through the centuries collected over 
the old Roman buildings has been removed and we can get some idea 
of how they were arranged. The picture represents a model of a part 
of the ruins. To the right is a great quadrangular pool, 83 by 40 feet 
in size, and to the left a circular bath. Over the whole, a fine ball was 
built, with recesses on either side of the big pool where one might sit 
and talk with his friends 

These villas were cultivated and managed by armies of slaves, 
who not only tilled the land, but supplied their master, his house- 
hold, and themselves with much that was needed on the planta- 
tion. The workmen among them made the tools, garments, and 
other manufactured articles necessary for the whole community, 
or " family," as it was called. Slaves cooked the food, waited on 


Western Europe before the Barbarian hivasions 13 

the proprietor, wrote his letters, read to him, and entertained 
him in other*ways. Although a villa might be as extensive as 
a large village, all its members were under the absolute control 
of the proprietor of the estate. 

Quite naturally, free men scorned to work with their hands ! 
or even to carry on retail business, for these occupations were i 
associated in their minds with the despised slave. 

Fig. 6. Roman Gate at Treves 

Colonia Augusta Treverorum (now called Trier or Treves) was one of 
the chief Roman colonies on the Gennan houndaries of the Empire. 
The Roman emperors often resided there, and the remains of their 
palace are still to he seen. The great gate here represented was de- 
signed to protect the entrance of the town, which was surrounded 
with a wall, for the Romans were in constant danger of attack from the 
neighboring Gennan tribes. One can also see at Treves the remains 
of a vast amphitheater in which on two occasions Constantine had 
several thousand German prisoners cast to be killed by wild animals 
for the amusement of the spectators. (Cf. Fig. 3.) 


14 The Middle Period of European History 

Each great household where articles of luxury were in de- 
mand reLed upon its own host of skillful slaves to produce them. 
Moreover, the owners of slaves frequently hired them out to 
those who needed workmen, or permitted them to work for 
wages, and in this way left little for the free man to do even 
if he was willing to work. 

It cannot be denied that a notable improvement in the 
condition of slaves took place during the centuries immediately 
preceding the barbarian invasions. Their owners abandoned 
the horrible subterranean prisons in which the farm hands had 
once been miserably huddled at night. The law, moreover, pro- 
tected the slave from some of the worst forms of abuse ; first 
and foremost, it deprived his master of the right to kill him. 

Slaves began to decrease in numbers before the German 
invasions. In the first place, the supply -had been cut off after 
the Roman armies ceased to conquer new territory. In the 
second place, masters began to free their slaves on a large 
scale, — for what reasons we do not know. When a slave was 
freed he was called a.Jreedman, but he was by no means in the 
position of one who had been born free. It was true that he 
was no longer a mere thing that could be bought and sold, but 
he had still to serve his former master, — who had now become 
his patron, — for a certain number of days in the year. He 
was obliged to pay him a part of his earnings and could not 
marry without his patron's consent. 

But, as the condition of the slaves improved, and many of 
thgm became freedmen, the state of the poor free man only 
became worse. In the towns, if he tried to earn his living, he 
was forced to mingle with those slaves who were permitted to 
work for wages and with the freedmen, and he naturally tended 
to sink to their level. 

In the country the free agricultural laborers became coloni, 
a curious intermediate class, neither slave nor really free. They 
were bound to the particular bit of land which some great 
proprietor permitted them to cultivate, and remained attached 

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i6 The Middle Period of European History 

Resemblance to it if it changed hands. Like the medieval serf,' they could 
io/miandihe "ot be deprived of their fields so long as they paid the owner 
later serfs 3 certain part of their crop and worked for him during a period 
fixed by the customs of the estate upon which they lived. This 
system made it impossible for the farmer to become really inde- 
pendent, or for his son to become better off than he. 
DepopuU- When a country is prosperous the population tends to increase. 

In the Roman Empire, even as early as Augustus, a failing off 
in numbers was apparent, which was bound to weaken the State. 
War, plague, the evil results of slavery, and the outrageous 
taxation all combined to hasten the depopulation ; for when it 
is hard to make a living, men are deterred from marrying and 
find it difficult to bring up large families. 
Infiltration of In order to replenish the population great numbers of the 
the Empire neighboring German tribes were encouraged to settie within 
the Empire, where they became coloni. Constantine is said to 
have called in three hundred thousand of a single people. Bar- 
barians were enlisted in the Roman legions to help keep out 
their fellow Germans. Julius Csesar was the first to give them 
a place among his soldiers. This custom became more and more 
common, until, finally, whole armies were German, entire tribes 
being enlisted under their own chiefs. Some of the Germans 
rose to be distinguished generals; others attained important 
positions as officials of the government In this way it came 
about that a great many of the inhabitants of the Roman Empire 
were Germans before the great invasions, and the line divid- 
ing the citizens of the Roman Empire and the barbarian was 
already growing indistinct 
Decline of As the Empire declined in strength and prosperity and was 

mdart gradually permeated by the barbarians, its art and literature 

fell far below the standard of the great writers and artists of 
the golden age of Augustus. Cicero's clear style lost its charm 
for the readers of the fourth and fifth centuries, and a flowery 
kind of rhetoric took its place. No more great men of letters 

1 See below, section 20. 

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Western Europe before the Bariarian Invasiont 17 

arose. Few of those who understand and enjoy Latin literature ' 
to-day would think of reading any of the poetry or prose written 
in the later centuries of the Ronian Empire, 

During the three hundred years before the invasions those Reliance 
who studied at ail did not ordinarily take the trouble to read the ^J,^^ 
best books of the earlier Greek and Roman writers, but relied 
upon mere collections of quotations, and got their information 
from textbooks. 

These textbooks the Middle Ages inherited and continued to 
use. The great Greek writers were forgotten altc^ether, and 
only a few of the better known Latin authors like Cicero, Virgil, 
and Ovid continued to be copied and read. 

The Rise of the Christian Church 

4. We have still to consider the most important thing that Retigioua 
happened in the Roman Empire on the eve of its break-up, oreelLand 
and that is the establishment of the new Christian religion. The Ro"™" 
common people among the Greeks and Romans had always 
believed in a great many gods and had held that the souls of 
men continued after death to exist in the lower regions, but 
they thought of the life to come as a dreary existence much less 
interesting than that in this world. Many of the philosophers, 
however, had come to believe in a great and good God who 
ruled all things and whom it was man's duty to obey. Plato 
and Cicero, for example, held that good men would be rewarded 
in the next world and bad men punished. 

Christianity brought with it hope for all kinds of weary and The appeal of 
discouraged men and women. It proclaimed that God was their "">»">ty 
father, that he had sent his son to save them, and that if they 
believed in Christ and tried their best to lead a good life, their 
sins would be forgiven them, and after death they would find 
everbsting happiness in heaven. 

The first Christians looked for the speedy return of Christ 
before their own generation should pass away. Since all were 

C k")0<^ Ic 


18 The Middle Period of European History 

filled with enthusiasm for the Gospel and eagerly awaited the 
last day, they did not feel the need for much organizatian. But 
as time went on the Christian communities greatiy increased in 
size, and many persons joined them who had litde or none of 
the original earnestness and religion. It became necessary to 
develop a regular system of church government in order to con- 
trol the sinful and expel those who brought disgrace upon their 
religion by notoriously bad conduct. 

Gradually the followers of Christ came to believe in a " Cath- 
olic"— that is, a universal — Church which embraced all the 
groups of true believers in Christ, wherever they might be. To 
this one universal Church all must belong who hoped lo be saved.* 

A sharp distinction was already made between the officers of 
the Church, who were called the clergy, and the people, or laity. 
To the clergy was committed the government of the Church 
as well as the teaching of its members. In each of the Roman 
cities was a >ishop, and at the head of the country communities, 
a priest, who had derived his name from the original elders 
mentioned in the New Testament.* It was natural that the 
bishops in the chief towns of the Roman provinces should be 
especially influential in church affairs. They came to be called 
archbishops, and might summon the bishops of the province to 
a council to decide important matters. 

In 311 the Roman emperor Galerius issued a decree placing 
the Christian religion upon the same legal footing as the worship 
of the Roman gods. His successor, Constantine, the first Chris- 
tian emperor, strictly enforced this edict. Constantine's succes- 
sors soon forbade the worship of the old pagan gods and began 
to issue laws which gave the Christian clergy important privil^es. 

1 " Whoever Beparates him»el( from the Church," writes St Cj^nian (died 
258) "is separated from the promises of the Chuich. ... He is an alien, he is pro- 
fane, he is an enemy ; he can no longer have God tor his father who has not the 
Church for his mother. If anyone could escape who was outside the Ark of 
Noah, so also may he escape wlio sliall be outside the bounds of the Church." 
See FtaSngs in Eurafitan Hhtmy, chap. ii. 

1 Our word "priest" comes from the Latin vaii fnsfyUr, meaning " elder." 


Western Europe before the Barbarian Invasions 19 

In the last book of the Theodosian Code, — a great collection The Church 
of the laws of the Empire, which was completed io 438, — all dJujj^ co^ 
the emperors' decrees are to be found which relate to the Chris- 
tian Church and the clergy. We find that the clergy, m view of 
their holy duties, were exempted from certain burdensome gov^ 
eminent offices and from some of the taxes which the laity had 
to pay. They were also permitted to receive bequests. The 
emperors themselves built churches and helped the Church in 
many ways (see below, section ro). Their example was fol- 
lowed by rulers and private individuals all through the Middle 
Ages, so that the Church became incredibly wealthy and en- 
joyed a far greater income than any state of Europe, The 
clergy were permitted to try certain law cases, and they them- 
selves had the privilege of being tried in their own church courts 
for minor criminal offenses. 

The Theodosian Code makes it ««/aa/a/ for any one to differ Hcniy 
from the beliefs of the Catholic Church. Those who dared to J^Jj,^ 
disagree with the teachings of the Church were called heretUs. 
If heretics ventured to come together, their meetings were to be 
broken op and the teachers heavily fined. Houses in which the 
doctrines of the heretics were tau^t were to be confiscated by 
the government. The books containing their teachings were to 
be sought out with the utmost care and burned under the eyes 
of the magistrate ; and if any one was convicted of concealing 
a heretical book, he was to suffer capital punishment. 

It is clear, then, that very soon after the Christian Church 
was recognized by the Roman government it induced the em- 
perors to grant the clergy particular favors, to destroy the 
pagan temples and prohibit pagan worship, and, finally, to 
persecute all those who ventured to disagree with the orthodox 
teachings of the Church. 

We shall find that the governments in the Middle Ages, fol- 
lowing the example of the Roman emperors, continued to grant 
the clergy special privileges and to persecute heretics, often in 
a very cruel manner (see below, section 39). 

:ectv Google 

20 The Middle Period of European History 

In these provisions of the Theodosian Code the later medie- 
val Church is clearly foreshadowed. The imperial government 
in the West was soon overthrown by the barbarian conquerors, 
but the Catholic Church converted and ruled these conquerors. 
When the officers of the Empire deserted their posts, the bishops 
stayed to meet the oncoming invader. They continued to rep- 
resent the old civilization and ideas of order. It was the Church 
that kept the Latin language alive among those who knew only 
a rude German dialect It was the Church that maintained some 
little education even in the times of greatest ignorance, for with- 
out the ability to read Latin the priests could not have performed 
the religious services and the bishops could not have carried on 
their correspondence with one another. 

The Eastern Eupirb 

The Eastern 5* Although the Roman Empire remained one in law, gov- 
Empire emment, and culture until the Germans came in suffident force 

to conquer the western portions of it, a tendency may never- 
theless be noticed some time before the barbarian conquest for 
the eastern and western portions to drift apart Constantino, 
who established his supremacy only after a long struggle with 
his rivals, hoped to strengthen the vast state by creating a 
second capital, which should lie fax to the east and dominate a 
region very remote from Rome. Constantinople was accord- 
ingly founded in 330 on the confines of Europe and Asia.' 
There were Thereafter there were often two emperors, one in the west 

emperora but and one in the east, but they were supposed to govern one em- 
only Bw pjj-g conjointly and in "unanimity." New laws were to be ac- 

cepted by both. The writers of the time do not speak of two 
states but continue to refer to " the Empire," as if the adminis- 
tration were still in the hands of one ruler. Indeed, the idea of 

■ Constantine built his new capital on the site of an old town, Bysantium 
which he renamed after himseif, Constarjiinople, that is, Constanline City. The 
i lo the eastern part of the Roman Empire i» of 

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Western Europe before the Barbarian Invasions 21 

one government for all civilized mankind did not disappear but 
continued to influence men during the whole of the Middle Ages. 

Although it was in the eastern part of the Empire that the Easiem Em 
barbarians first got a permanent foothold, the empen^rs at Con- £^453 ™ 
stantinople were able to keep a portion of the old possessions of 
the Empire under their rule for centuries after the Germans had 
completely conquered the West When at last the eastern capital 
of the Empire fell, it was not into the hands of the Germans,, 
but into those of the Turks, who have held it ever since 1453. 

There will be no room in this volume to follow the history of Constanti- 
ttie Eastern Empire, although it cannot be entirely ignored in ,^t wealthy 
studying western Europe. Its language and civilization had ^^ iwpulous 
always been Greek, and owing to this and the influence of during ihe 
the Orient, its civilization offers a marked contrast to that of the Ages 
Latin West, which was adopted by the Germans. Learning 
never died out in the East as it did in the West, nor did art 
reach so low an ebb. For some centuries after the break-up of 
the Roman Empire in the West, the capital of the Eastern 
Empire enjoyed the distinction of being the largest and most 
wealthy city of Europe. Within its walls could be found a re- 
finement and- civilization which had almost disappeared in the 
West, and its beautiful buildings, its parks and paved streets, 
filled travelers from the West with astonishment 


Section i . What do you consider the chief uses of studying his- 
tory? Give examples of events, conditions, and institutions in our 
own time. Why is it impossible to divide the past into distinct 
periods ? What is meant by the continuity of history f What were 
the Middle Ages? 

Section 2. Mention some of the peoples included in the bounds 
of the Roman Empire. What were the bonds that held the vast 
Roman Empire tegether? How far is it from York to B^ylon? 
What can you tell about the Roman government and the Roman 
law ? What kinds of public buildings were to be found ia a flourisb 
>ng Roman colony? 

3 by Google 


22 The Middle Period of European History 

Section 3. What troubles did the Roman method of raising taxes 
produce? Describe a Roman villa. What is a slave? What was 
the difference between a freedman and a free man ? Compare the 
condition of the slaves with that of the coloni in the later Roman 

Section 4. Compare the religious beliefs of the pagans vrith 
those of the Chrisdans. What privileges are granted to the Christian 
clergy in the Theodosian Code? Define heresy; how were heretics 
treated according to the Roman law ? 

Section 5. How did Constandnople happen to be founded? 
What can you say about the Eastern Empire? 

by Google 

the oekhan invasions and the break-up of the 
koman empire 

Founding of Kingdoms by Barbarian Chiefs 

6. Previous to the year 375 the attempts of the Germans to The Huns 
penetrate into the Roman Empire appear to have been due to coths into 
their love of adventure, their hope of plundering their civilized ™ Empire 
neighbors, or the need of new lands for their increasing num- 
bers. And the Romans, by means of their armies, their walls, 
and their guards, had up to this time succeeded in preventing 
the barbarians from violently occupying Roman territory. But 
suddenly a nevr force appeared in the rear of the Germans 
which thrust some of them across the northern boundary of the 
Empire. The Huns, a Mongolian folk from central Asia, swept 
down upon the Goths, who were a German tribe settled upon 
the Danube, and forced a part of them to seek shelter across 
the river, within the limits of the Empire. 

Here they soon fell out with the Roman officials, and a great Battle of 
battle was fought at Adrianople in 378 in which the Goths ^^^'^"P' 
defeated and slew the Roman emperor. Valens. The Germans 


24 The Middle Period of European History 

had now not only broken through the boundaries of the Empire, 
but they had also learned that they could defeat the Roman 
legions. The batde of Adrianople may therefore be said to 
mark the beginning of the conquest of the western part of the 
Empire by the Germans. For some years, however, afttr the 
batde of Adrianople the various bands of West Goths — or 
Visigoths, as they are often called — were induced to accept the 
terms of peace offered by the emperor's officials, and some of 
the Goths ^reed to serve as soldiers in the Roman armies. 

Among the Germans who succeeded in getting an important 
position in the Roman army was Alaric, but he appears to have 
become dissatisfied with the treatment he received from the 
emperor. He therefore collected an army, of which his country- 
men, the West Goths, formed a" considerable part, and set out 
for Italy, and finally decided to march on Rome itself. The 
Eternal City fell into his hands in 410 and was plundered by 
his followers. 

Although Alaric did not destroy the city, or even seriously 
'^Gad"^ damage it, the fact that Rome had fallen into the hands of an 
invading army was a notable disaster. The pagans explained it 
on the ground that the old gods were angry because so many 
people had deserted them and become Christians. SL Augustine, 
in his famous book, Tlie City of God, took much pains to prove 
that the Roman gods had never been able on previous occasions 
to prevent disaster to their worshipers, and that Christianity could 
not be held responsible for the troubles of the time. 
West Goths Alaric died before he could find a satisfactory spot for his 
southern people to settle upon permanently. After his .death the West 
Gaul and Goths wandered into Gaul, and then into Spain. Here they 
came upon the Vandals, another German tribe, who had 
crossed the Rhine four years before Alaric had captured 
Rome, For three years they had devastated Gaul and then had 
moved down into Spain, For a time after the arrival in Spain of 
the West Goths, there was war between them and the Vandals. 
The West Goths seem to have got the best of their rivals, for 

t, Augus- 

D.D.t.zea by Google 



D.D.t.zea by Google 

The German Invasions 2$ 

the Vandals detennined to move on across the Strait of Gibraltar Kingdon 
into northern Africa, where they established a kingdom and con- in Africa 
quered the neigh- 
boring islands in the 
Mediterranean (see 
map, p. 29). 

Having rid them- 
selves of the Van- 
dals, the West Goths 
took possession of a 
great part of the Span- 
ish peninsula, and 
this they added to 
their conquests across 
the Pyrenees in Gaul, 
so that their kingdom 
extended from the 
river Loire to the 
Strait of Gibraltar. 

It is unnecessary 
to follow the con- 
fused history of the 
movements of the 
innumerable bands 
of restless barbari- 
ans who wandered 
about Europe dur- 
ing the fifth century. ^'^- ^- Roman Mausoleum at St. Remv 
Scarcely any part The Roman town of Glanum {now called St. 

of western Furone ^^"^V^ '" southern France was destroyed by 
ot western turope ^^^ ^,^^^ ^^^^^ .^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^.^^ ^^ ^^^ 

was left unmolested; to„n except a triumphal arch and the great 

even Britain was con- monument pictured here. Above the main 

^..pwH 1,» r-™an ^'■^•'es is the inscription, SEX. L. M. IVLIEI. 

quered by German ^. ^ p^RENTIBUS. SVEIS, which seems to 

tribes, the Angles mean"Se^tu3 Julius and [his brothers] Lucius 

and Saxons. and Marcus, sons of Gaius, to their parents" 


26 Tke Middle Period of European History 

AttiU and To add to the universal confusion caused by the influx of the 

^. ™^ German tribes, the Runs (the Mongolian people who bad first 
pushed the West Goths into the Empire) now began to fill all 
western Europe with terror. Under their chief, Attila, this sav- 
age people invaded Gaul. But the Romans and the German 
inhabitants joined together against the invaders and defeated 
them in the batde of Chalons, in 45 1 . After this rebuff in Gaul, 
Attila turned to Italy. But the danger there was averted by a 
Roman embassy, headed by Pope Leo the Great, who induced 
Attila to give up his plan of marching upon Rome, Within a 
year he died and with him perished the power of the Huns, 
who never troubled Europe again. 
The"l»il"of The year 476 has commonly been taken as the date of the 
in die'wrat, ■ " f^l " o^ '^^ Western Empire and of the beginning of the 
*76 Middle, Ages. What happened in that year was this. Most of 

the Roman emperors in the West had proved weak and indolent 
rulers. So the barbarians wandered hither and thither pretty 
much at their pleasure, and the German troops in the service 
of the Empire became accustomed to set up and depose 
emperors to suit their own special interest, very much in the 
same way that a boss in an American city often succeeds in 
securing the election of a mayor who will carry out his wishes. 
Odoaeer Finally in 476, Odoacer, the most powerful among the rival 

German generals in Italy, banished the last of the emperors of ■ 
the West and ruled in his stead.' 
Theodoric It was not, however, given to Odoacer to establish an endur- 

Odoacer and 'fg German kingdom on Italian soil, for be was conquered by 
th^Som '^^ E^eat Theodoric, the king of the East Goths (or Ostro- 
of Che East goths). Theodoric had spent ten years of his early youth in 
Italy Constantinople and had thus become familiar with Roman life 

and was on friendly terms with the emperor of the East. 

The struggle between Theodoric and Odoacer lasted for sev- 
eral years, but Odoacer was finally shut up in Ravenna and 


The German Invasions 27 

suirendered, only to be treacherously sMi a few days later by 
Theodoric's ovm hand (493). 

Theodoric put the name of the emperor at Constantinople The East 
on the coins which he issued, and did everything in his power n^y"" 
to gain the emperor's approval of the new German kingdom. 

Fig. 9. Church of Sant' Afollinare Nuovo 
This church was erected at Ra.venna by Theodoric. Although the out- 
side has been changed, the interior, here represented, remains much 
the same as it was originally. The twenty-four marble columns were 
brought from Constantinople. The walls are adorned with mosairi; 
that is, pictures made by piecing together small squares of brightly 
colored marbles or glass 

Nevertheless, although he desired that the emperor should 
sanction his usurpation, Theodoric had no idea of being really 
subordinate to Constantinople, 

The invaders took one third of the land for themselves, but 
this seems to have been done without cauang any serious dis- 
order. Theodoric greatly admired the Roman laws and insti- 
' tutions and did his best to preserve them. The old offices and 
titles were retained, and Goth and Roman lived under the same 
Roman law. Order was maintdned and learning encouraged. In 


28 The Middle Period of European History 

Ravenna, which Tbeodoric chose for his capital, beautiful build- 
ings still exist that date from his reign.' 

While Theodoric had been establishing his tcingdom in Italy 
in this enlightened way, Gaul, which we now call France, was 
coming under the control of the most powerful of all the bar- 
barian peoples, the Franks, who were to play a more important 
r61e in the formation of modem Europe than any of the other 
German races (see next section). 

Besides the kingdom of the East Goths in Italy and of the 
Franks in Gaul, the West Goths had their kingdom in Spain, 
the Burgundians had established themselves on the Rhone River, 
and the Vandals in Africa. Royal alliances were concluded be- 
tween the various reigning houses, and for the first time in the 
history of Europe we see something like a family of nations, 
living each within its own boundaries and deaLng with one 
another as independent powers (see map). It seemed for a 
few years as if the new German kings who had divided up the 
western portion of the Empire among themselves would succeed 
in keeping order and in preventing the loss of such civilization 
as remained. 

But no such good fortune was in store for Europe, which 
was now only at the beginning of the turmoil which was to 
leave it almost completely barbarized, for there was little to 
encourage the reading or writing of books, the study of science, 
or attention to art, in a time of constant warfare and danger. 

Theodoric had a distinguished Roman counselor named Cassi- 
odorus (d. 575), to whose letters we owe a great part of flur 

I The headpiece of this chaptei represenia the lomb of Theodoric. Emperors 
and rich men were accustomed in Roman lijnes to build handsome tombs for 
themselvea (see Fig. 8), Theodoric followed their example and erected this two- 
Btoiied building at Ravetma to aerve as his mausoleum. The dome consists of a 
single great piece of rock j6 feel in diametei, weighing <;oo tons, brought from 
across the Adriatic. Theodoric was a heretic in the eyes of the Catholic Church, 
and rot long after his death his remains were taken out of his tomh and scattered 
to the winds, and the building converted into a church. The picture represents 
the tomb as it probably looked originally ; it has been somewhat altered in modem 
limes, but is well preserved. 

D.D.t.zea by Google 

Map of Europe in the Time of Theodoric 

It will be noticed that Theodoric's kingdom of ihe East Goths included 
a considerable part of what we call Austria to-day, and that the West 
Gothic kingdom entended into southern France. The Vandals held 
northern Africa and the adjacent islands. The llurgundians lay in be- 
tween the East Goths and the Franks. The Lombards, who were later 
to move down into Italy, were in Theodoric's time east of the Bavarians, 
after whom modern Bavaria is named. Some of the Saxons invaded 
England, but many remained in Germany, as indicated on the map. 
The F.astem Empire, which was all that remained of the Roman Empire, 
included the Balkan Peninsula, Asia Minor, and the eastern portion of 
the Mediterranean. The Britons in Wales, the Picts in Scotland, and 
the Scots in Ireland were Celts, consequently modern Welsh, Gaelic, and 
Irish are closely related and belong to the Celtic group of languages 

D.D.t.zea by Google 

30 The Middle Period of European History 

knowledge of this period, and who busied himself in his old age 
in preparing textbooks of the " liberal " arts and sciences, — 
grammar, arithmetic, logic, geometry, rhetoric, music, and as- 
tronomy. His treatment of these seven important subjects, to 
which he devotes a few pages each, seems to us very silly and 
absurd and enables us to estimate the low plane to which learn- 
ing had fallen in Italy in the sixth century. Yet these and similar 
works were regarded as standard treatises and used as textbooks 
all through the Middle Ages, while the really great Greek and 
Roman writers of an earlier period were forgotten. 
Scarceljf any Between the time of Theodoric and that of Charlemagne 
wesiem three hundred years elapsed, during which scarcely a person 

^^Se^jrth "^^^ ^ ^ found who could write out, even in the worst of 
Latin, an account of the events of his day.' Everything con- 
spired to discourage education. The great centers of learning — 
Carthage, Rome, Alexandria, Milan — had all been partially 
destroyed by the invaders. The libraries which had been kept 
in the temples of the pagan gods were often burned, along 
with the temples themselves, by Christian enthusiasts, who 
were not sorry to see the heathen books disappear with the 
heathen religion. Shortly after Theodoric's death the emperor 
at Constantinople withdrew the support which the Roman gov- 
ernment had been accustomed to grant to public teachers, and 
closed the great school at Athens, The only important historian 
of the sixth century was the half-illiterate Gregory, bishop of 
Tours (d. 594)1 whose whole work is evidence of the sad state 
of affairs. He at least heartily appreciated his own ignorance 
and exclaims, in bad Latin, " Woe to our time, for the study of 
books has perished from among us." 
The year after Theodoric's death one of the greatest of the 
iJ"o{ emperors of the East, Justinian (527-565), came to the throne 
OTci Ae^Mt ^' Constantinople. He undertook to regain'tor the Empire the 
Goths ^ provinces in Africa and Italy that had been occupied by the 
Vandals and East Goths. His general, Belisariu3, overthrew 

' See SeaSngi, dbap. lii (end), for hiatoiical writings of this period. 

destroys t 


The German Invasions 31 

the Vandal kingdom in northern Africa in 534, but it was 3 
more difficult task to destroy the Gothic rule in Italy, How- 
ever, in spite of a brave resistance, the Goths were so com- 
pletely defeated in 553 that they agreed to leave Italy with all 
their movable possessions. What became of the remnants of 
the race we do not know. 

The destruction of the Gothic kingdom was a disaster for The Lom- 
Itaiy, for the Goths would have helped defend it against later J^' occupy 
and far more barbarous invaders. Immediately after the death 
of Justinian the country was overrun by the Lombards, the 
last of the great German peoples to establish themselves within 
the bounds of the former Empire. They were a savage race, a 
considerable part of which was still pagan. The newcomers 
first occupied the region north of the Po, which has ever 
since been called " Lombardy " after them, and then extended 
their conquests s&uthward. Instead of settling themselves with 
the moderation and wise statesmanship of the East Gotbs, the 
Lombards moved about the peninsula pillaging and massacring. 
Such of the inhabitants as could, fled to the islands off the 
coast. The Lombards were unable, however, to conquer all of 
Italy. Rome, Kavenna, and southern Italy continued to be held 
by the emperors who succeeded Justinian at Constantinople. 
As time went on, the Lombards lost their wildness and adopted 
the habits and religion of the people among whom they lived. 
Their kingdom lasted over two hundred years, until it was 
conquered by Charlem^ne (see bektw, p. 80). 

Kingdom of the Franks 

7. The various kingdoms established by the- German chief- The Frank*; 
tains were not very permanent, as we have seen. The Franks, tan™™?"^' 
however, succeeded in conquering more territory than any other **"■ "«<^ 
people and in founding an empire far more important than the 
kingdoms of the West and East Goths, the Vandals, or the 
Lombards. We must now see how this was accomplished. 



The Middle Period of European History 

When the Franks are first heard of in history they were set- 
tled along the lower Rhine, fjpm Cologne to the North Sea. 
Their method of getting a foothold in the Empire was essen- 
tiaUy difEerent from that which 
the Goths, Lombards, and 
Vandals had adopted. Instead 
of severing their connection 
with Gennany and becoming 
an island in the sea of the 
Empire, they conquered by de- 
grees the territory about them. 
However far they might ex- 
tend their control, they re- 
mained in constant touch with 
their fellow bartiarians behind 
them. In this way they re- 
tained the warlike vigor that 
was lost by the races who 
were completely surrounded 
by the luxuries of Roman civil- 

In the early part of the fifth 
century they had occupied the 
district which forms to-day 
the kmgdom of Belgium, as 
well as the regions east of 
it In 486, seven years before 
Theodoric founded his Italian 
kingdom, they went forth un- 
der their great king, Clovis 
(a name that later grew into 
Louis), and defeated the 
Roman general who opposed them. They extended their control 
over Gaul as far south as the Loire, which at that time formed 
the northern boundary of the kingdom of the West Goths. 

Fig. 10. Prankish Warrior 
It is very hard to find illustrations 
for a chapter on the barbarian ii 
vasions. for this period of disorder 
was not one in which pictures w 
being painted or buildings erect 
From the slight descriptions 
have of the costume worn by the 
Frankish soldiers, we infer that 
was something like that repi 
aented here. We know that they 
wore their hair in long braids and 
carried weapons similar to those 
in the picture 


The German Invasions 33 

Clovis next enlarged his empire on the east by the conquest 
of the Alemanni, a German people living in the region of the 
Black Forest 

The battle in which the Alemanni were defeated (496) is in Converekm 
one respect important above all the other battles of Qovis. 0*^1496 

Although stiil a pagan himself, his wife had been converted to 
Christianity. In the midst of the battle, seeing his troops giving 
way, he called upon Jesus Christ and pledged himself to be 
baptized in his name if he would help the Franks to victory' 
over their enemies. When he won the battle he kept his word 
and was baptized, together with three thousand of his warriors. 
It is from Bishop Gregory of Tours, mentioned above, that most 
of our knowledge of Clovis and his successors is derived. In 
Gregory's famous History of the Franks the cruel and unscrupu- 
lous Clovis appears as God's chosen instrument for the support 
of the Christian faith.' Certainly Clovis quickly learned to com- 
bine his own interests with those of the Church, and, later, an 
alliance between the pope and the Frankish kings was destined 
to have a great influence upon the history of w^estem Europe. 

To the south of Clovis's new possessions in Gaul lay the Conquesw of 
kingdom of the West Goths ; to the southeast that of another 
German people, the Burgundians. Clovis speedily extended his 
power to the Pyrenees, and forced the West Goths to confine 
themselves to the Spanish portion of their realm, while the Bur- 
gundians soon fell completely under the rule of the Franks. 
Then Qovis, by a series of murders, brought portions of the 
Frankish nation itself, which had previously been independent 
of him, under his scepter. 

When Clovis died in 511 at Paris, which he had made his Bloody 
residence, his four sons divided his possessions among them, of prankish 
Wars between rival brothers, interspersed with the most horrible '"'""5' 
murders, fill the annals of the Frankish kingdom for over a hun- 
dred years after the death of Clovis. Yet the nation continued 
to develop in spite of the unscrupulous deeds of its rulers. 

> See Riadings, cbap. ui, for passages from Gregory of Tours. 


34 The Middle Period of European History 

The Frankish kings who followed Clovis succeeded in ex- 
tending their power over pretty nearly all the territory that is 
included to-day in France, Belgium, and the Netherlands, as 
well as over a goodly portion of western Germany. Half a 
century after the death of Clovis, their dominions extended from 
the Bay of Biscay on the west to a point east of Salzburg. 

h ' "1 "J 



Km. .r 1»«|**' Ji 

The Dominions op the Franks i 

! Merovingians 

This map shows hovf the Frankish kingdom grew up. Clovis while slill 
a young man defeated the Roman general Syagrius in 486, near Sois- 
Bons, and so added the region around Paris to his possessions. He 
added Alemannia on the east in 496. In 50; he made Paris his capital 
and conquered Aquitania, previously held by the West Goths. He also 
made a beginning in adding the kingdom of the Burgundians to his 
realms. Hediedinsii. His successors in the next half century com- 
pleted the conquest of Burgundy and added Provincia, Bavaria, and 
Gascony. There were many divisions of the Frankish realms after the 
time of Clovis, and the eastern and western portions, called Austrasia 
and Neustria, were often ruled by different branches of the Mcrovingiatis, 
as Clovis's family was called from his ancestor Mermieut 

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The German Invasions 

Results of the Barbarian Invasions 

8. As one looks back over the German invasions it is natural Fusion of 
to ask upon what terms the newcomers lived among the old ana and the 
inhabitants of the Empire, how far they adopted the customs ^2™"'"'"* 
of those among whom they settled, and how far they clung to 
their old habits ? These questions cannot be answered very sat- 
isfactorily. So little is known of the confused period of which 
we have been speaking that it is impossible to follow closely 
the mixing of the two races. 

Yet a few things are tolerably clear. In the first place, we The number 
must be on our guard against exaggerating the numbers in the barians "^ 
various bodies of invaders. The writers of the time indicate 
that the West Goths, when they were first admitted to the 
Empire before the battle of Adrianople, amounted to four or 
five hundred thousand persons, including men, women, and chil- 
dren. This is the largest band reported, and it must have been 
greatly reduced before the West Goths, after long wanderings 
and many battles, finally settled in Spain and southern Gaul. The 
Burgundians, when they appear for the first time on the banks 
of the Rhine, are reported to have had eighty thousand warriors 
among them. When Clovis and his army were baptized, Gregory 
of Tours speaks of " over three thousand " soldiers who became 
Christians upon that occasion. This would seem to indicate 
that this was the entire army of the Prankish king at this time. 

Undoubtedly these figures are very meager and unreliable. 
But the readiness with which the Germans appear to have 
adopted the language and customs of the Romans wouW tend 
to prove that the invaders formed but a small minority of the 
population. Since hundreds of thousands of barbarians had 
been absorbed during the previous five centuries, the invasions 
of the fifth century can hardly have made an abrupt change in 
the character of the population. 

The barbarians within the old Empire were soon speaking the 
same conversational Latin which was everywhere used by the. 


3^ ^^^ Middle Period of Enrvpean History 

ortiast be- Romans about them. This was much simpler than the elaborate 
id^^n " and complicated language used in books, which we find so much 
*''° difficulty in learning nowadays. The speech of the common peo- 

ple was gradually diverging more and more, in the various coun- 
tries of southern Europe, from the written Latin, and finally grew 
into French, Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese. But the barba- 
rians did not produce this change, for it had begun before they 
came and would have gone on without them. They did no more 
than contribute a few convenient words to the new languages. 
he Gei^ The northern Franks, who did not penetrate far into the 

mges Empire, and the Germans who remained in what is now Ger- 

many and in Scandinavia, had of course no reason for giving 
up their native tongues ; the Angles and Saxons in Britain also 
kept theirs. These Germanic languages in time became Dutch, 
English, German, Danish, Swedish, etc. Of this matter some- 
thing will be s^d later (see below, section 47), 

The Germans and the older inhabitants of the Roman Empire 
appear to have had no dislike for one another, except when 
there was a difference in religion.^ Where there was no religious 
barrier the two races intermarried freely from the first. The 
Prankish kings did not hesitate to appoint Romans to impor- 
tant positions in the government and in the army, just as the 
Romans had long been in the habit of employing the barbarians 
as generals and officials. In only one respect were the two 
races distinguished for a time — each had its particular law. 
The Roman The West Goths were probably the first to write down their 
German law ancient laws, using the Latin language for the purpose. Their 
example was followed by the Franks, the Burgundians, and later 
by the Lombards and other peoples. These codes make up the 
" Laws of the Barbarians," which form our most important 
source of knowledge of the habits and ideas of the Germans at 
the time of the invasions. For several centuries following the 

1 The West and East Goths and the Burgundians were hetetks in the eyes 
of the Catholic Church, for they had been taught their Christianity by mission- 
aiies nho disagreed nith the Catholic Church on certain points. 



The German Invasions 37 

barbarian conquests, the members of the various Gennan tribes 
appear to have been judged by the laws of the particular people to 
which they belonged. The older inhabitants of the Empire, on 
the contrary, continued to have their lawsuits decided according 
to the Roman law. 

The German laws did not provide for trials, either in the Medieval 
Roman or the mbdem sense of the word. There was no attempt *"' * 
to gather and weigh evidence and base the dedsion upon it 
Such a mode of procedure was far too elaborate for the simple- 
minded Germans. Instead of a regular trial, one of the parties 
to the case was designated to prove that his side of the case was 
true by one of the following methods : 

r. He might solemnly swear that he was teUing the truth Compurga- 
and get as many other persons of his own class as the court 
required, to swear that they believed that he was telling the truth. 
This was called compurgation. It was believed that God would 
punish those who swore falsely. 

2. On the other hand, the parties to the case, or persons Wager of 
representing them, might meet in combat, on the supposition 

that Heaven would grant victory to the right. This was the 
so-called wager of battU. 

3. Lastly, one or other of the parties might be required to Onie«i« 
submit to the ordeal in one of its various forms : He might 
plunge his arm into hot water, or carry a bit of hot iron for 
some distance, and if at the end of three days he showed no in 

'effects, the case was decided in his favor. Or he mi^t be 
ordered to walk over hot plowshares, and if he was not burned, 
it was assumed that God had intervened by a miracle to establish 
the right.' This method of trial is but one example of the rude 
civilization which displaced the refined and elaborate organization 
of the Romans. 

The account whidi has been given of the conditions in the 
Roman Empire, and of the manner in which the barbarians 

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38 The Middle Period of European History 

occupied its western part, serve to explain why the following 
centuries — known as the eariy Middle Ages — were a lime of 
ignorance and disorder. The Germans, no doubt, varied a good 
deal in their habits and character. The Goths differed from the 
Lombards, and the Franks from the Vandab ; but they were all 
alike in knowing nothing of the art, literature, and science which 
had been developed by the Greeks and adopted by the Romans. 
The invaders were ignorant, simple, vigorous people, with no 
taste for anything except fighting, eating, and drinking. Such was 
the disorder that their coming produced that the declining civiliza- 
tion of the Empire was pretty nearly submerged. The libraries, 
buildings, and works of art were destroyed or neglected, and 
there was no one to see that they were restored. So the western 
world fell back into a condition similar to that in which it had 
been before the Romans conquered and civilized it. 

The loss was, however, temporary. The great heritage of 
skill and invention which had been slowiy accumulated in ^ypt 
and Greece, and which formed a part of the civilization which 
the Romans had adopted and spread abroad throughout their 
great Empire, did not wholly perish. 

It is true that the break-up of the Roman Empire and the 
centuries of turmoil which followed set everything back, but we 
shall see how the barbarian nations gradually developed into our 
modem European states, how universities were estabLshed in 
which the books of the Greeks and Romans were studied. 
Architects arose in time to imitate the old buildings and build 
a new kind of their own quite as imposing as those of the 
Romans, and men of science carried discoveries far beyond 
anything knovm to the wisest of the Greeks and Romans. 


Section 6. How did the Germans first come into the Roman 
Empire, and for what reasons? What is meant by the barbarian in- 
vasions? Give some examples. Trace the history of the West Goths. 
Where did they finally establish their kingdom? Why has the 

D.D.t.zea by Google 

Tke German Invasions 39 

year 476 been regarded as the date of the fall of the Roman Empire 7 
Tell what you can of Theodoric and his kingdom. Contrast the 
Lombard invaders of Italy with the East Goths. 

Section 7. Who were the Franks, and how did their invasion 
differ from that of the other German peoples? What did Clovis 
aecompUsh, and what was the extent of the kingdom of the Franks 
under his successors? Compare the numbers of the barbarians who 
seem to have entered the Empire with the number of people in our 
large cities to-day. 

Section 8. On what terms do the Germans seem to have lived 
with the people of the Roman Empire? Why are the Laws of the 
Barbarians useful to the historian 1 Compare the ways in which the 
Germans tried law cases with those we use to-day in the United States. 
Tell as clearly as possible why the Middle Ages w 
disorder and ignorance as compared with the earlier period. 

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TflE Christian Church 

9. Besides the emperors at Constantinople and the various 
German kings, there grew up in Europe a line of rulers far 
more powerful than any of these, namely, the popes. We must 
now consider the Christian Church and see how the popes 
gained their great influence. 

We have already seen how marvelously the Christian com- 
munities founded by the apostles and their fellow missionaries 
multiplied until, by the middle of the third century, writers like 
St. Cyprian came to conceive of a " Catholic," or all-embracing. 
Church. We have seen how Emperor Constantine favored 
Christianity, and how his successors worked in the interest of 
the new religion ; how carefully the Theodosian Code safe- 
guarded the Church and the Christian clergy, and how harshly 
those were treated who ventured to hold another view of 
Christianity from that sanctioned by the government.' 

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The Rise of the Papacy 4 1 

We must now follow this most powerful and permanent of all 
the institutions of the later Roman Empire into the Middle Ages. 
We must stop first to consider how the Western, or Latin, 
portion of Christendom, which gradually fell apart from the 
Eastern, or Greek, region, came to form a separate institution 
under the popes, the longest and mightiest line of rulers that 
the world has ever seen. We shall see how a peculiar class of 
Christians, the monks, appeared ; how they joined hands with 
the clergy ; how the monks and the clergy met the barbarians, 
subdued and civilized them, and then ruled them for centuries. 

One great source pf the Church's strength lay in the gen- Contrast be- 
eral fear of death and judgment to come, which Christianity and'cilriM^ 
had brought with it. The educated Greeks and Romans of the "'*" 
classical period usually thought of the next life, when they 
thought of it at all, as a very uninteresting existence compared 
with .that on this earth. One who committed some great crime 
might suffer for it after death with pains similar to those of the 
hell in which the Christians believed. But the great part of 
humanity were supposed to lead in the next world a shadowy 
existence, neither sad nor glad. Religion, even to the de- 
vout pagan, was mainly an affair of this life; the gods were 
worshiped with a view to securing happiness and success in 
this world. 

Since no great satisfaction could be expected in the next 
life, according to pagan ideas, it was naturally thought wise to 
make the most of this one. The possibility of pleasure ends — 
so the Roman poet Horace urg;es — when we join the shades 
below, as we all must do soon. Let us, therefore, take advan- 
tage of every harmless pleasure and improve our brief oppor- 
tunity to enjoy the good things of earth. We should, however, 
be reasonable and temperate, avoiding all excess, for that 
endangers happiness. Above all, we should not worry use- 
lessly about the future, which is in the hands of the 'gods and 
beyond our control. Such were the convictions of the majority 
of thoughtful pagans. 

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42 The Middle Period of European History 

Other- Christianity opposed this view of life with an entirely differ- 

of medieval ent one. It constantly emphasized man's existence after death, 
Cbiiatianity ^hich It declared to be infinitely more important than his brief 
sojourn on earth. Under the influence of the Church this con- 
ception of life gradually supplanted the pagan one in the Roman 
world, and it was taught to the barbarians. 
Themonka The " other-worldliness " became so intense that thousands 
gave up their ordinary occupations altogether and devoted their 
entire attention to preparation for the next life. They shut 
themselves in lonely cells; and, not satisfied with giving up 
most of their natural pleasures, they inflicted bodily suffering 
upon themselves by hunger, cold, and other discomforts. They 
trusted that in this way they might avoid some of the sins into 
which they were apt to fall, and that, by self-inflicted punish- 
ment in this world, they might perchance escape some of that 
reserved for them in the next. 
The Church The barbarians were taught that their fate in the next world 
of salvation" depended largely upon the Church. Its ministers never wearied 
of presenting the alternative which faced every man so soon as 
this short earthly existence should be over, —the alternative 
between eternal bliss in heaven and perpetual, unspeakable tor- 
ment in hell. Only those who had been duly baptized could 
hope to reach heaven ; but baptism washed away only past sins 
and did not prevent constant relapse into new ones. These, un- 
less their guilt was removed through the Church, would surely 
drag the soul down to hell. 
Miracles a The divine power of the Church was, furthermore, estab- 

Church'« lished in the eyes of the people by the wonderful works which 
power Christian saints were constantiy performing. They healed the 

sick, made the blind to see and the lame to walk. They called 
down God's wrath upon those who opposed the Church and 
invoked terrible punishments upon those who treated her holy 
rites with' contempt To the reader of to-day, the frequency of 
the miracles narrated by medieval writers seems astonishing. 
The lives of the saints, of which hundreds and hundreds have 


The Rise of the Papacy 43 

been preserved, conttun little else than accounts of them, and 
no one appears to have doubted their everyday occurrence.' 

A word should be said of the early Christian church build- The early 
ings. The Romans were accustomed to build near their market basi^:a« ' 
places a species of public hall, in which townspeople could meet 
one-another to transact business, and in which judges could hear 
cases, and public officials attend to their duties. These buildings 
were called basilUas. There were several magnificent ones in 
Rome itself, and there was doubtless at least one to be found in 
every town of considerable size. The roofs of these spacious 
halls were usually supported by long rows of columns; some- 
times there were two rows on each side, forming aisles. When, 
after Constantine had given his approval to Christianity, large, 
fine churches began to be built they were constructed like these 
familiar public halls and, like them, were called basilicas. 

During the sixteen hundred years that have passed since 
Constantine's time naturally almost all the churches of his day 
have disappeared or been greatly altered. But the beautiful 
church of Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome (Fig. 1 1) was built 
only a hundred years later, and gives us an excellent notion of 
a Christian basilica with its fine rows of columns and its hand- 
some mosaic decorations. In general, the churches were plain 
and unattractive on the outside. A later chapter will explain 
how the basilica grew into the Gothic cathedral, which was as 
beautiful outside as inside. 

The chief importance of the Church for the student of The Church 
medieval history does not lie, however, in its religious func- Roman gov- 
tions, vital as they were, but rather in its remarkable relatkins ^™™=''* 
to the government. From the days of Constantine on, the 
Catholic Church had usually enjoyed the hearty support and 
protection of the government But so long as the Roman 
Empire remained strong and active there was no chance for the 
clergy to free themselves from the control of the emperor, even 
if they had been disposed to do so. He made such laws for 

^ For reporti of miracles, see Rtadings, especially chaps, v, xvi, 


44 "^^^ Middle Period of European History 

die Church as he saw tit, and the clergy did not complain. The 
government was, indeed, indispensable to them. It undertook 
to root out paganism by destroying the heathen shrines and 
preventing heathen sacrifices, and it punished severely those 
who refused to accept the teachings sanctioned by the Church. 

Fig, ii. Santa Makia Maggiore 

This beautiful church at Rome was built shortly after Constantine'a 

time, and the interior, here shown, with its stately columns above which 

are fine mosaics, ia still nearly as it was in the time of St. Augustine, 

fifteen hundred years ago. The ceiling is of the sixteenth century 

But as the great Empire began to fall apart, there was a 
growing tendency among the churchmen in the West to resent 
the interference of the new rulers whom they did not respect. 
Consequently they managed gradually to free themselves in 
large part from the control of the government. They then pro- 
ceeded to assume themselves many of the duties of government, 
which the weak and disorderly states into which the Roman 
Empire fell were unable to perform properly. 

One of the bishops of Rome (Pope Gelasius I, d. 496) briefly 
stated the principle upon which the Church rested its claims, as 

The Rise of the Papacy 45 

follows : " Two powers govern the world, the priestly and the Pope Geta- 
kingly. The first is assuredly the superior, for the priest is of the rela^ 
responsible to God for the conduct of even the emperors them- J-?' "i,'!'^ 
selves." Since no one denied that the eternal interests of man- ti"* State 
kind, which were under the care of the Church, were infinitely 
more important than those merely worldly matters which the 
State regulated, it was natural for the clergy to hold that, in 
case of conflict, the Church and its officers, rather than the 
kii^, should have the last word. 

Gradually, as we have said, the Church began to undertake The Church 
the duties which the Roman government had previously per- peSom^the 

formed and which our governments perform to-day, such as ™n"'onso£ 
" "^ ■" government 

keeping order, the management of public education, the trial of 
lawsuits, etc There were no well-organized states in western 
Europe for many centuries after the final destruction of the 
Roman Empire. The authority of the various barbarian kings 
was seldom sufficient to keep their realms in order. There 
were always many powerful landholders scattered throughout 
the kingdom who did pretty much what they pleased and set- 
tled their grudges against their fellows by neighborhood wars. 
Fighting was the main business as well as the chief amusement 
of this class. The king was unable to maintain peace and 
protect the oppressed, however anxious he may have been 
to do so. 

Under these circumstances it naturally fell to the Church to 
keep order, when it could, by either threats or persuasion; to 
see that contracts were kept, the wills of the dead carried out, 
and marriage obligations observed. It took the defenseless 
widow and orphan under its protection and dispensed charity ; 
it promoted education at a time when few laymen, however rich 
and noble, were able even to read. TTiese conditions serve to 
explain why the Church was finally able so greatly to extend 
the powers which it had. enjoyed under the Roman Empirei 
and why it undertook duties which seem to us to belong to the 
State rather than to a religious organization. 


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46 The Middle Period of European History 

Origin of the Power of the Popes 

Origin of \a. We must now turn to a consideration of the origin and 

P^ P°*'^ growth of the supremacy of the popes, who, by raising them- 
selves to the head of the Western Church, became in many 
respects more powerful than any of the kings and princes with 
whom they frequently found themselves in bitter conflict. 
Prestige of While we cannot discover in the Theodosian Code any recog- 

ChrisUan" nition of the supreme headship of the bishop of Rome, there is 
community ]jj(]g doubt that he and his flock had almost from the very first 
enjoyed a leading place among the Christian communities. The 
Roman Church was the only one in the West which could claim 
the distinction of having been founded by the immediate followers 
of Christ, — the "two most glorious apostles, Peter and Paul"" 
Belief that The New Testament speaks repeatedly of Paul's presence in 

fim bi^p Rome. As for Peter, there had been from early times a tra- 
of Rome dition, accepted throughout the Christian Church, that he was 
the first bishop of Rome. This belief appears in the works 
of Christian writers before the dose of the second century. 
There is, certainly, no conflicting tradition, no rival claimant. 
The belief itself, whether or not it corresponds with actual events, 
is a fact of the greatest historical importance, Peter enjoyed a 
preeminence among the other aposdes and was singled out by 
Christ upon several occasions. In a passage of the New Testa- 
ment which has affected history more profoundly than the edicts 
of the most powerful monarch, Christ says ; " And I say also unto 
thee. That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my 
church ; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it And I 
will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven : and what- 
soever thou shall bind on earth shall he hound in heaven ; and 
whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven." * 

' Man, ivi, ig-19. Two other passages in the New Testament were held 
to substantiate the divinely ordained headship of Peter and his successors: 
Luke nil, 32, where Christ says to Peter, " Strengthen thy brethren," and John ijii, 
15-17, where Jesos said to him, " Feed my sheep." See Readings, chap. iv. The 
keys always appear in the papal aims (see headpiece of diia chapter, p. 40). 


D.i,.t.zea by Google 

48 The Middle Period of European History 

Thus it was natural that the Roman Church should early have 
been looked upon as the " mother church " in the West. Its 
doctrines were considered the purest, since they had been handed 
down from its exalted founders. When there was a difference 
of opinion in r^ard to the truth of a particular teaching, it was 
■ natural that all should turn to the bishop of Rome for his view. 
Moreover, the niajesty of Rome, the capital of the world, 
helped to exalt its bishop above his fellows. It was long, how- 
ever, before all the other bishops, especially those in the large 
cities, were ready to accept unconditionally the authority of 
the bishop of Rome, although they acknowledged his leading 
position and that of the Roman community. 

We know comparatively little of the bishops of Rome during 
the first three or four centuries of the Church's existence. It is 
only with the accession of Leo the Great (440-461) that the 
history of the papacy may, in one sense, be said to have begun. 
At his suggestion, Valentinian III, the emperor in the West, 
issued a decree in 445 declaring the power of the bishop of Rome 
supreme, by reason of Peter's headship, and the majesty of the 
dty of Rome. He commanded that the bishops throughout the 
West should receive as law all that the bishop of Rome ai>- 
proved, and that any bishop refusing to answer a summons to 
Rome should be forced to obey by the imperial governor. 

But a council at Chalcedon, six years later, declared that 
new Rome on the Bosporus (Constantinople) should have the 
same power in the government of the Church as old Rome 
on the Tiber. This decree was, however, never accepted in 
the Western, or Latin, Church, which was gradually separating 
from the Eastern, or Greek, Church, whose natural head was at 
Constantinople. Although there were times of trouble to come 
when for years the claims of Pope Leo appeared an empty 
boast, still his emphatic assertion of the supremacy of the 
Roman bishop was a great step toward bringing the Western 
Chiirch under a single head.^ 

1 See Readings, chap, iv, for development of the pops'! power. 

C k")0<^ Ic 

The Rise of the Papacy 


The name "pope" (Latin, papa, "father") was originally Title of p 
and quite naturally given to all bishops, and even to priests. It 
began to be especially appliedto the bishops of Rome, perhaps 
as early as the sixth century, but was not apparently confined 
to them until two or three hundred years later. Gregory VII 

Fig. 13. The Ancient Basilica of St. Peter 

Of the churches built by Constantine in Rome that in honor of St. Peter 
was, next to the Lateran, the most important. It was constructed on 
the site of Nero's circus, where Si. Peter was believed to have been 
crucified. It retained its original appearance, as here represented, for 
twelve hundred years, and then the popes (who had given up the 
Lateran as their residence and come to live in the Vatican palace close 
to St. Peter's) determined to build the new and grander church one 
sees to-day, (See section 45, below.) Constantine and the popes made 
constant use in their buildings of columns and stones taken from the 
older Roman buildings, which were in this way demolished 

(d. To8s ; see section 30, below) was the first to declare explicitly 
that the title should be used only for the bishop of Rome. 

Not long after the death of Leo the Great, Odoacer put an Dudea that 
end to the Western line of emperors. Then, as we know, ^^°^ ^^ 
Theodoric and his East Goths settled in Italy, only to be '^riy popes 

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50 The Middle Period of European History 

followed by still less desirable intruders, the Lombards. During 
this tumultuous period the people of Rome, and even of all Italy, 
came to regard the pope as their natural leader. The Eastern 
empieror was far away, and his officers, who managed to hold a 
portion of central Italy around Rome and Ravenna, were glad 
to accept the aid and counsel of the pope. In Rome the pope 
watched over the elections of the city officials and directed the 
manner the public money should be spent. He had to manage 
and defend the great tracts of land in different parts of Italy 
which from time to time had been given to the bishopric of 
Rome. He negotiated with the Germans and even gave orders 
to the generals sent against them. 

The pontificate of Gregory the Great, one of the half dozen 
most distinguished heads that the Church has ever had, shows 
how great a part the papacy could play. Gregory, who was the 
son of a rich Roman senator, had been appointed by the 
emperor to the honorable office of prefect. He began to fear, 
however, that his proud position and fine clothes were making 
him vain and worldly. His pious mother and his study of the 
writings of Augustine and the other great Christian writers 
led him, upon the death of his father, to spend all his hand- 
some fortune in founding seven monasteries. One of these 
he established in his own house and subjected himself to 
such severe discipline that his health never entirely recovered 
from it. 

When Gregory was chosen pope (in 590) and most reluctantly 
left his monastery, ancient Rome, the capital of the Empire, 
was already transforming itself into medieval Rome, the capi- 
tal of Christendom. The temples of the gods had furnished 
materials for the many Christian churches. The tombs of the 
apostles Peter and Paul were soon to become the center of 
religious attraction and the goal of pilgrimages from every part 
of western Europe. Just as Gregory assumed office a great 
plague was raging in the city. In true medieval fashion he 
arranged a solemn procession in order to obtain from heaven a 

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, Tke Rise of the Papacy 5 1 

cessation of the pest Then the archangel Michael was seen 
over the tomb of Hadrian (Fig. 14) sheathing his fiery sword 
as a sign that the wrath of the Lord had been turned away. 
With Gregory we leave behind us the Rome of Ctesar and 
Trajan and enter upon that of the popes. 

Fig. 14. Hadrian's Tomb 

The Roman emperor Hadrian (d. ij8) built a great circular tomb at 
Rome, on the west bank of the Tiber, for himself and his successors. 
It was 240 feet across, perhaps 165 feet high, covered with mart)1e and 
adorned with statues. When Rome was besieged by the Germans in 
537, the inhabitants used the tomb for a fortress and threw down the 
statues on the heads of the barbarians. Since the time when Gregory 
the Great saw the archangel Michael sheathing his sword over Hadrian's 
tomb it has been called the Castle of the Holy Angel 

Gregory enjoyed an unrivaled reputation during the Middle GrKoiy's 
Ages as a writer. His works show, however, how much less ^^ • 
cultivated his period was than that of his predecessors. His 
most popular book was his Dialogues, a collection of accounts 
of miracles and popular legends. It is hard to believe that it 

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52 The Middle Period of European History 

could have been composed by the greatest man of the time and 
that it was written for adults.' In his commentary on Job, 
Gregory warns the reader that he need not be surprised to find 
mistakes in Latin grammar, since in dealing with so holy a work 
as the Bible a writer should not stop to make sure whether 
his cases and tenses are right. 

Gregory's letters show clearly what the papacy was coming 
to mean for Europe when in the hands of a really great man. 
While he assumed the humble tide of " Servant o_f the servants 
of God," which the popes still use, Gregory was a statesman 
whose influence extended far and wide. It devolved upon him 
to govern the city of Rome, — as it did upon his successors 
down to the year 1870, — for the Eastern emperor's control 
had become merely nominal. He had also to keep the Lombards 
out of central Italy, wjiicli they failed to conquer largely on 
account of the valiant defense of the popes. These duties were 
functions of the state, and in assuming them Gregory may be 
said to have founded the " temporal " power of the popes. 

Beyond the borders of Italy, Gregory was in constant com- 
, munication with the emperor and the Prankish and Bui^ndian 
rulers. Everywhere he used his influence to have good clergy- _ 
men chosen as bishops, and everywhere he watched over the 
interests of the monasteries. But his chief importance in the 
history of the papacy is due to the missionary enterprises he 
undertook, through which the great countries that were one 
day to be called England, France, and Germany were brought 
tinder the sway of the Roman Church and its head, the pope. 

As Gregory had himself been a devoted monk it was natural 
that he should rely chiefly upon the morJt s in his great work of con- 
verting the heathen. Consequently, before considering his mission- 
ary achievements, we must glance at the origin and character of 
the monks, who are so conspicuous throughout the Middle Ages. 

1 He is reckoned, alon 
four great Latin " fathers 
see RtaSngs, chap. iv. 

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The Rise of the Papacy 


Section 9. Why is it essential to know about the hisb»y of the 
.Church in order to understand the Middle Ages? Compare the 
Christian idea of the importance of life in this world and the next 
with the pagan views. Describe a basilica. Mention some govern- 
mental duties that were assumed by the Church. Give the reasons 
why the Church became such a great power in the Middle Ages. 

Section 10. Why was the Roman Church the most important of 
all the Christian churches? On what grounds did the bishop of Rome 
claim to be the head of the whole Church ? Did the Christians in the 
eastern portion of the Roman £m{Mre accept the bishop of Rome as 
their head? Why did the popes become influential in the governing 
notontyof Rome but of Italy? Tell what you can of Gregory the Great 

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ths moh a mmepaws 

Monks akd Monasteries 

II. It would be difficult to overestimate the influence that the 
monks exercised for centuries in Europe. The proud annals of 
the Benedictines, Franciscans, Dominicans, and Jesuits contain 
many a distinguished name. The most eminent philosophers, 
scientists, historians, artists, poets, and statesmen may be found 
in their ranks. Among those whose achievements we shall men- 
tion later are "The Venerable Bede," Boniface, Thomas Aquinas, 
Roger Bacon, Fra Angelico, Luther, Erasmus — all these, and 
many others who have been leaders in various branches of 
human activity, were monks. 

The life in a monastery appealed to many different kinds of 

nSwdiffer- people. The monastic life was safe and peaceful, as well as 
holy. The monastery was the natural refuge not only of the 
religiously minded, but of those of a studious or thoughtful dis- 
position who disliked the career of a soldier and were disinclined 
to face the dangers and uncertainties of the times. Even the 

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The Monks and their Missionary Work 55 

rude and unscrupulous warriors hesitated to destroy the proper^ 
or disturb the life of those who were believed to enjoy God's 
special favor. The monastery furnished, too, a refuge for the 
friendless, an asylum for the disgraced, and food and shelter for 
the indolent, who would otherwise have had to earn their living. 
There were, therefore, many different motives which led people 
to enter monasteries. Kings and nobles, for the good of their 
souls, readily gave land upon which to found colonies of monks, 
and there were plenty of remote spots in the mountains and 
forests to invite those who wished to escape from the world and 
its temptations, its dangers or its cares. 

Monastic communities first developed on a large scale in Egypt NeccB^tv foi 
in the fourth century. The idea, however, was quickly taken up yon ofmo- 
in Europe. At the time that the Germans were winning their ""*" '™ 
first great victory at Adrianople, St. Jerome was busily engaged 
in writing letters to men and women whom he hoped to induce 
to become monks or hermits. In the sixth century monasteries 
multiplied so rapidly in western Europe that it became necessary 
to establish definite rules for these communities which proposed 
'to desert the ordinary ways of the world and lead a holy life 
apart Accordingly St. Benedict drew up, about the year 526, 
a sort of constitution for the monastery of Monte Cassino, in 
southern Italy, of which he was the head.^ 'ITiis was so saga- 
cious, and so well met the needs of the monastic life, that it was 
rapidly accepted by the other monasteries and gradually became 
the " rule " according to which all the Western monks lived.* 

' The illuetration on page 54 shows ihe monastei; of Monte Cassino. It u 
utuated on a lofty hill, lying some ninety milea soulh of Rome. Benedict 
wiecled a site formerly occupied by a temple to Apollo, of which the columns 
may still be seen in one of the courts of Ihe present building. The monastery 
was destroyed by the Lombards not long after its foundation and later by the 
Mohammedans, so none of the present buildings go bacit to the time of Benedict 

posed, nor did he even found an order in the proper sense of the word, under a 
single head, Ulie the bier Franci^ns and Dominicans. Nevertheless, the 
monks who lived under his rule are ordinarily spoken of as belonging to the 
Benedictine order. A translation cf the Rcnedictine rule may be found in 
HenderBon, Historkal DxvmeiUi, pp. 274-314. 

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S6 The Middle Period of European History 

The Rule of St. Benedict is as important as any constitution 
that was ever drawn up for a state. It is for the most part veiy 
wise and sensible. It provided that, since every one is not fitted 
for the monk's life, the candidate for admission to the monastery 
should pass throu^ a period of probation, called the novitiate, 
before he was permitted to take the solemn, final vows. The 
brethren were to elect the head of the monastery, the abbot, 
as he was called. Along with frequent prayer and meditation, 
the monks were to do the necessary cooking and washing for the 
monastery and raise the necessary vegetables and grain. They 
were also to read and teach. Those who were incapacitated for 
outdoor work were assigned lighter tasks, such as copying books. 

The monk had to take the three vows of obedience, poverty, 
and chastity. ' He was to obey the abbot without question in all 
matters that did not involve his committing a sin. He pledged 
himself to perpetual and absolute poveri^, and everything he 
used was the property of the convent. He was not permitted 
to own anything whatsoever — not even a book or a pea Along 
with the vows of obedience and poverty, he was also required 
to pledge himself never to marry. For not only was the single 
life considered more holy than the married, but the monastic 
organization would have been impossible unless the monks re- 
maned single. Aside from these restrictions, the monks were 
commanded to live reasonable and natural lives and not to 
destroy their health, as sonie earlier ones had done, by undue 
fasting in the supposed interest of their souls. 

The influence of the Benedictine monks upon Europe is in- 
calculable. From their numbers no less than twenty-four popes 
and forty-six hundred bishops and archbishops have been chosen. 
They boast almost sixteen thousand writers, some of great dis- 
tinction. Their monasteries furnished retreats during the Mid- 
dle Ages, where the scholar might study and write in spite of 
the prevailing disorder of the times. 

The copying of books, as has been said, was a natural occu- 
pation of the monks. Doubtless their work was often done 


The Monks and their Missionary Work 57 

carelessly, with little heart and less understanding. But, with the The monki 
great loss of manuscripts due to the destruction of libraries and ™i|,^ ,h^ 
the general lack of interest in books, it wks most essential that "•" '"tho" 
new copies should be made. Even poor and incorrect ones were 
better than none. Almost ail the books written by the Romans 
disappeared altogether during the Middle Ages, but from time to 
time a monk would copy out the poems of Vergil, Horace, or Ovid, 
or the speeches of Cicero. In this way some of the chief works of 
the Latin writers have continued to exist down to the present day. 

The monks regarded good hard work as a great aid to salva- The monka 
tion. They set the example of careful cultivation of the lands {^arialde^ 
about their monasteries and in this way introduced better farm- wiopmeni ot 
ing methods into the regions where they settled. They enter- 
tained travelers at a time when there were few or no inns and so 
increased the intercourse between the various parts of Europe. 

The Benedictine monks were ardent and faithful supporters The "regu- 
of the papacy. The Church, which owes much to them, ex- "^eeSiar" 
tended to them many of the privileges enjoyed by the clergy. '^"^ 
Indeed, the monks were reckoned as cietgymen and were called 
the " regular " clergy, because they lived according to a regula, 
or rule, to distinguish them from the " secular " clergy, who con. 
tinued to live in the world (saeculum) and did not take the 
monastic vows described above. 

The home which the monks constructed for themselves was Arrangement 
called a monastery or abbey. This was arranged to meet their ^leiy °" 
particular needs and was usually at a considerable distance from 
any town, in order to insure soUtude and quiet* It was mod- 
eled upon the general plan of the Roman country house. The 
buildings were arranged aroimd a court, called the (leister. On The cioiner 
all four sides of this was a covered walk, which made it possible 
to reach all the buildings without exposing one's self to either the 
rain or the hot sun. Not only the Benedictines but all the orders 
which sprang up in later centuries arranged their homes in 
much the same way. 

t» built in towns, or Just outMde the walli. 

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58 The Middle Period of European History 

On the north side of the cloister was the church, which always 
faced west. As time went on and certain groups of monks 
were given a great deal of property, they constructed very beau- 
tiful churches for their monasteries. Westminster Abbey was 
originally the church of a monastery lying outside the city of 

Fig. 15. Cloisters of Heiligenkreuz 

This picture of the cloister in the German monastery of Heiligenkreuz 

is chosen to show how the more ordinary monastery courts looked, with 

their pleasant sunny gardens 

London, and there are in Great Britain many picturesque re- 
mains of ruined abbey churches which attract the attention of 
every traveler. 
Therefec- On the west side of the cloister were storerooms for pro- 

an^'dJj^-f'' visions ; on the south side, opposite the church, was the " re- 
">iy fectory," or dining room, and a sitting room that could be 

warmed in cold weather. In the cloister near the dining room 
was a " lavatory " where the monk could wash his hands before 
meals. To the east of the cloister was the " dormitory," where 
the monks slept. This always adjoined the church, for the Rule 
required that the monks should hold services seven times a day. 

DD.:eab, Google 

The Monks and their Missionary Work 5$ 

One of these services, called vigils, came well before daybreak, 
and it was convenient when you were summoned in the dark- 
ness out of your warm bed to be able to go down a short passage 
that led from the dormitory into the choir of the church, where 
the service was held. 

The Benedictine Rule provided that the monks should so far 
as possible have everything for their support on their own land. 

Fig. i6. Monastery of Val di Chisto 

This monastety in southern Spain lias two cloislers, the main one lies 

to the left. One can see how the buildings were surrounded by vegeuble 

gardens and an orchard which supplied the monks with food. Compare 

picture of another monastery (Fig^26, below) 

So outside the group of buildings around the cloister would be The i 
found the garden, the orchard, the mill, a fish pond, and fields ,fonf 
for raising grain. There were also a hospital for the sick and a '"°'" 
guest house for pilgrims or poor people who happened to come 
along. In the greater monasteries there were also quarters 
where a king or nobleman might spend a few nights in comfort. -^ 

D.D.t.zeab, Google 

■ ^4 = 


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The Monks and their Missionary Work 6i 

\ Missionary Work of the Monks 

Ti. The first great undertaking of the monks was the con- Tbc mook> 
version of those Gennan peoples who had not yet been won over ,„„ 
to Chiisiianity. These the monks made not merely Christians, 
but also dutiful subjects of the pope. In this way the strength 
of the Roman Catholic Church was greatly increased. The first 
people to engage the attention of the monks were the heathen 
Gennan tribes who had conquered the once Christian Britain. 

The islands which are now known as the kingdom of Great Eariy Briiaia 
Britain and Ireland were, at the opening of the Christian era, 
occupied by several Celtic peoples of whose customs and re- 
ligion we know almost nothing. Julius C^sar commenced the 
conquest of the islands (55 b.c.) ; but the Romans never suc- 
ceeded in establishing their power beyond the wall which they 
built, from the Clyde to the Firth of Forth, to keep out the 
wild tribes of the North. Even south of the wall the country 
was not completely Romanized, and the Celtic tongue has 
actually survived down to the present day in Wales (see 
p. 29, above). 

At the opening of the fifth century the barbarian invasions ShothmicI 
forced Rome to withdraw its legions from Britain in order to ,j,!^^Bri^ 
protect its frontiers on the Continent. The island was thus left 
to be conquered gradually by the Germans, mainly Saxons and 
Angles, who came across the North Sea from the region south 
of Denmark. Almost all record of what went on during the two 
centuries following the departure of the Romans has disap- 
peared. No one knows the fate of the original Celtic inhabitants 
of England. It was formerly supposed that they were all killed 
or driven to the mountain districts of Wales, but this seems un- 
likely. More probably they were gradually lost among the dom- 
inating Germans with whom they merged into one people. The 
Saxon and Angle chieftains established small kmgdoms, of which 
there were seven or eight at the time when Gregory the Great 
became pope. 

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62 The Middle Period of European History 

Gregory, while still a simple monk, had been struck with the 
beauty of some Angles whom he saw one day in the slave market 
at Rome. When he learned who they were he was grieved that 
such handsome beings should still belong to the kingdom of the 
Prince of Darkness, and he wished to go as a missionary to their 
people, but permission was refused him. So when he became 

Fig. i8. St. Martin's, Canterburv 

A church built during the period when the Romans nere occupying 
England had been used by Beitha, the Christian wife of the king of 
Kent. Augustine found this on his arrival in Canterbury and is said Co 
have baptized the king there. It has been rebuilt and added to in later 
times, but there are many Roman bricks in Ihe walla, and the lower parts 
of the church as we now see it may go back to the Roman period 

pope he sent forty monks to England under the leadership of 
a prior, named Augustine (who must not be confused with the 
church father of that name). The heathen king .of Kent, in 
whose territory Augustine and his monks landed with fear and 
trembling (597), had a Christian wife, the daughter of a Prankish 
king. Through her influence the monks were kindly received 
and were given an ancient church at Canterbury, dating from 
the Roman occupation before the German invasions. Here they 

C k")0<^ Ic 

Tke Monks and their Missionary Work 63 

established a monastery, and from this center the conversion, 
first of Kent and then of the whole island, was gradually accom- 
plished. Canterbury has always maintained its early preeminence 
and may still be considered the religious capital of Ei^land' 

England thus became a part of the evergrowing tcrritoiy em- England and 
braced in the Roman Catholic Church and remained for nearly church"^ 
a thousand years as faithful to the pope as any other Catholic 

The conversion of England by the missionaries from Rome was Early culture 
followed by a period of genera! enthusiasm for Rome and its " "^ 
literature and culture. The English monasteries became centers 
of learning unrivaled perhaps in the rest of Europe. A constant 
intercourse was maintained with Rome. Masons and glass- 
tnakers were brought across the Channel to replace the wooden 
churcdies of Britain by stone edifices in the style of the Romans, 
The young English clei^ were taught Latin and sometimes 
Greek. Copies of the ancient classics were brought from the 
Continent and copied. The most distinguished writer of the 
seventh and early eighth centuries in Europe was the English 
motik Bceda (often called "The Venerable Bede," 673-735), "TheVener 
from whose admirable history of the Church in England most ' " ' 
of our information about the period is derived.' 

In 718 St. Boniface, an English monk, was sent by the pope st. Boniface, 
as a missionary to the Germans. After four years spent in re- the^^ian* 
connoitering the field of his future labors, he visited Rome and 
was made a missionary bishop, takmg the same oath of obedi- 
ence to the pope that the bishops in the immediate vicinity of 
Rome were accustomed to take. Indeed, absolute subordination 
to the pope was a part of his religion, and he became a powerful 
agent in extending the papal power. 

Boniface succeeded in converting many of the more remote Convenion 
German tribes who still clung to their old pagan beliefs. His " "'""'' 
energetic methods are illustrated by the story of how he cut 

ns to his miaaionarie*. 

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64 .The Middle Period of European History 

down the sacred oak of the old German god, Odin, at Fritzlar, 
in Hesse, and used the wood to build a chapel, around which a 
monastery soon grew up. In 732 Boniface was raised to the 
dignity of Archbishop of Mayence and proceeded to establish 
in the newly converted region a number of German bishoprics, 
Salzburg, Regensburg, Wiirzburg, and others; this gives us some 
idea of the geograpiacal extent of his labors. \ 

-- '<i^:^\ %, : 

Mohammed and his Religion 


(X^' ^ Moi 

13. Just at the time that Gregory the Great was doing so 
much to strengthen the power and influence of the popes in 
Rome, a young Arab camel driver in far away Mecca was med- 
itating upon the mysteries of life and devising a religion which 
was destined to spread with astounding rapidity into Asia, Africa, 
and Europe- and to become a great rival of Christianity. And 
tOKiay the millions who believe in Mohammed as God's greatest 
prophet are probably equal in number to those who are faithful 
to the pope, as the head of the Catholic Church. 

Before the time of Mohammed the Arabs had played no great 
part in the world's history. The scattered tribes were constantly 
at war with one another, and each tribe worshiped its own gods, 
when it worshiped at all. Mecca was considered a sacred spot, 
however, and the fighting was stopped four months each year 
so that all could peacefully visit the Kaaba, a sort of temple 
full of idols and containing in particular a black stone, about as 
long as a man's hand, which was regarded as specially worthy 
of reverence. 

Mohammed was poor and earned a living by conducting 
caravans across the desert. He was so fortunate as to find ? 
rich widow in Mecca, named Kadijah, who gave him employ- 
ment and later fell in love with him and became his wife. She 
was his first convert and kept up his courage when few of his 
fellow townsmen in Mecca were inclined to pay any attention 
to his new religious teachings. 

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The Mohammedans 65 

As Mohammed traveled back and forth across the desert with Mohunmed't 
his trains of camels heavily laden with merchandise he had plenty [„„ ^^ An- 
of time to think, and he became convinced that God was sending «•' G»briel 
him messages which it was his duty to reveal to mankind. He 
met many Jews and Christians, of whom there were great num- 
bers in Arabia, and from them he got some ideas of the Old and 
New Testaments. But when he tried to convince people that he 
was God's prophet, and that the Angel Gabriel had appeared to 
him in his dreams and toki him of a new religion, he was treated 
with scorn. 

Finally, he discovered that his enemies in Mecca were plan- The Hijira. 
ning to kill him, and he fled to the neighboring town of Medina, 
where he had friends. His flight, which took place in the year 
622, is called the Hejira by the Arabs. It was taken by his 
followers as the beginning of a new era — the year One, as 
the Mohammedans reckon time. 

A war followed between the people of Mecca and those who isUm 
had joined Mohammed in and about Medina. It was eight years 
before his followers became numerous enough to enable him to 
march upon Mecca and take it with a victorious army. Before 
his death in 632 he had gained the support of all the Arab 
chiefs, and his new religion, which he called Islam (submission 
to God), was accepted throughout the whole Arabian peninsula. 

Mohammed could probably neither write nor read well, but The Aaron 
when he fell into trances from time to time he would repeat to 
his eager listeners the words which he heard from heaven, and 
they in turn wrote them down. These sayings, which were col- 
lected into a volume shortly after his death, form the Koran, the 
Mohammedan Bible. This contains the chief beliefs of the new 
religion as well as the laws under which all good Mohammedans 
were to live. It has been translated into English several times. 
Parts of it are very beautiful and interesting, while other portions 
are dull and stupid to a modem reader. 

The Koran follows the Jewish and Christian religions in pro- 
claiming one God, " the Lord of the worlds, the merciful and 

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66 The Middle Period of European History 

Islam pro- compassionate." Mohammed believed that there had been great 
God'anT* prophets before him, — Abraham, Moses, and Jesus among 
as?da™™^et **'^''^rs, — but that he himself was the last and greatest of 
God's messengers, who 
brought the final and 
highest form of religion 
to mankind. He de- 
stroyed all the idols in 
the Kaaba at Mecca 
and forbade his follow- 
ers to make any images 
whatsoever — - but he 
left the black stone. 
Chief Besides serving the 

^f *' "' one God, the Moham- 

"0^^- medan was to honor his 

parents, aid the poor, 
protect the orphan, 
keep his contracts, give 
full measure, and weigh 
with a just balance. He 
was not to walk proudly 
on the earth, or to be 
wasteful, " for the waste- 
ful were ever the devil's 
brothers." He was to 
avoid, moreover, all 
strong drink, and this 
command has saved 
Mohammed's faithful 
followers from the terrible degradation which alcohol has made 
so common in our Western world. 

Besides obeying these and other commands the Mohammedan 
who would be saved must do five things : First, he must recite 
daily the simple creed, "There is no god but God, and 

Fig. 19. Arabic Writing 
This is a page from the Koran, with an 
elaborate decorated border. It gives an 
idea of the appearance of Arabic writing. 
The Arabic letters are, next to the Roman 
alphabet, which we-use, tbe most widely 
employed in the world 

The Mohammedans 


Mohammed is his prophet." Secondly, he must pray five times 
a day — just before sunrise, just after noon, before and after 
sunset, and when the day has closed. It is not uncommon to 
see in well-furnished houses in this country the so-called 
"prayer rugs" brought from Mohammedan countries. These 
are spread down on the ground or the flat roof of the oriental 
house, and on them the worshiper kneels to pray, turning his 

face toward Mecca _____ 

and bowing his head 
to the ground. The 
pattern on the rug 
indicates the place 
where the bowed 
head is to be placed. 
Thirdly, the Moham- 
medan must fast 
during the whole 
month of rantadan ; 
he may neither eat 
nor drink from sun- 
rise to sunset, for 
this is the month 
in which God sent 

Gabriel down from the seventh heaven to bring the Koran, 
which he revealed, paragraph by paragraph, to Mohammed. . 
Fourthly, the Mohammedan must give alms to the poor, and, t 
fifthly, he must, if he can, make a pilgrimage to Mecca at 
least once during his lifetime. Tens of thousands of pilgrims 
flock to Mecca every year. They enter the great courtyard 
surrounding the Kaaba, which is a plain, almost cubical, 
building, supposed to have been built in the first place by 
Abraham. The sacred black stone is fixed in the outside wall 
at the southeast comer, and the pilgrims must circle the build- 
ing seven times, kissing the black stone each time as they pass 

, Mohammedan kneeling on 
A Prayer Rug 

by Google 

« -S ^ '^ 1 

DD.:eab, Google 

Stkekt Scene in Cair 

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The Mohammedans 69 

The Koran announces a day of judgment when the heavens Moham- 
rfiall be opened and the mountains be powdered and become 
like flying dust. Then all men shall receive their reward. Those 
who have refused to accept Islam shall be banished to hell to 
be burned and tormented forever. " They shall not taste therein 
coolness or drink, save scalding water and running sores," and 
the scalding water they shall drink like thirsty camels. 

Those, on the other hand, who have obeyed the Koran, Heaven 
especially those who die fighting for Islam, shall find themselves 
in a garden of delight. They shall recline in rich brocades 
upon soft cushions and rugs and be served by surpassingly 
beautiful maidens, with eyes like hidden pearls. Wine may be 
drunk there, but "their heads shall not ache with it, neither shall 
they be confused." They shall be content with their past life 
and shall hear no foolish words ; and there shall be no sin but 
only the greeting, "-Peace, peace." 

The religion of Mohammed was much simpler than that of The mosque 
the medieval Christian Church ; it did not provide for a priest- 
hood or for any great number of ceremonies. The Moham- 
medan mosque or temple is a house of prayer and a place for 
reading the Koran ; no altars or images or pictures of any kind 
are permitted in it. The mosques are often very beautiful build- 
ings, especially in great Mohammedan cities, such as Jerusalem, 
Damascus, Cairo, and Constantinople. They have great courts 
surrounded hy covered colonnades and are adorned with beau- 
tiful marbles and mosaics and delightful windows with bright 
stained glass. The walls are adorned with passages from the 
Koran, and the floors covered with rich rugs. They have one 
or more minarets from which the muezzin, or call to prayer, is 
heard five times a day. 

The Mt^ammedans, like other Eastern peoples, are very Women and 
particular to keep the women by themselves in a separate part 
of the house, called the harem, or woman's quarters. They 
may not go out without the master's permission and even then 
not without weahng a vdl ; no man must ever see a respectable 

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70 The Middle, Period of European History 

woman's face, except her father, brother, or husband. The Koran 
permits a man to have as many as four wives, but in practice 
only the men of the richer classes have more than one. For a 
woman to attempt to escape from the harem is a crime punish- 
able with death. Sometimes the women seem to lead pleasant 
lives, but, for the most part, their existence is very monotonous.' 
Slaves are very common in Mohammedan countries, but 
once they are freed they are as good as any one else and may 
then hold the highest places in the government 

Conquests of the Mohammedans; the Caliphate 

14. Mohammed had occupied the position of pope and king 
combined, and his successors, who took the title of caliph 
(which means " successor " or " representative "), were regarded 
as the absolute rulers of the Mohammedans. Their word was 
law in both religious and worldly matters. Mohammed's father- 
in-law. All, was the first cahph, and under him the Arabs went 
forth to conquer Syria, Egypt, and the great empire of Persia. 
The capital of the caliphate was then transferred from Medina 
to Damascus, which occupied a far better position for govern- 
ing* the new realms. Although the Mohammedans were con- 
stantiy fightir^ among themselves, they succeeded in extending 
their territory so as to include Asia Minor and the northern 
coast of Africa. A great part of the people whom they con- 
quered accepted the new religion of the prophet. 

Something over a hundred years after Mohammed's death a 
new line of caliphs came into power and established (762) a 
new capital on the river Tigris near the site of ancient Babylon. 
This new city of Bagdad became famous for its wealth, magnifi- 
cence, and learning. It was five miles across and at one time 
is supposed to have had two millions of inhabitants. In the 

J The colored place (opp.p.68) shows the minarets of a great mosque in Cairo. 
One can also see th* gralings of the upper stories of the houses, through which 
the women can look out of their harem without being seen from the atreet 

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72 The Middle Period of European History 

ninth century it was probably the richest and most splendid 
dty in the world. 

The most entertaining example of Arabic literature which 
has been translated into English is the Thousand and One 
Nights, or The Arabian Nights' Entertainments, as it is com- 
monly called. These include the story of " Sindbad the Sailor," 
" Aladdin and the Lamp," " Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves," 
and other famous tales. The great collection was got together in 
E^ypt, perhaps in the fifteenth century, but many of the stories 
are very much older and were translated by the Arabs from the 
Persian, when the caliphs of Bagdad were at the height of their 
power. Some of these stories give one a lively idea of Moham- 
medan manners and customs. 

The Mohammedans made two or three attempts to cross 
over from Asia into Europe and take Constantinople, the capital 
of the Eastern Empire, but failed. It was more than eight 
hundred years after Mohammed's death that the Turks, a 
Mohammedan people, succeeded in this, and Constantinople is 
now a Mohammedan city and the Sultan of Turkey is the 
nominal head of Islam. Long before the Turks captured Con- 
stantinople, however, the Arabs at the other end of the caliph's 
empire had succeeded in crossing the Strait of Gibraltar from 
Africa and possessing themselves of Spain. 

The kingdom of the West Goths was in no condition to 
defend itself when a few Arabs and a much larger number of 
Berbers, inhabitants of northern Africa, ventured to invade 
Spain. Some of the Spanish towns held out for a time, but the 
invaders found allies in the numerous Jews, who had been shame- 
fully treated by their Christian countrymen. As for the innumer- 
able serfs who worked on the great estates of the aristocracy, 
a change of landlords made very little difference to them. In 7 1 1 
the Arabs and Berbers gained a great battle, and the peninsula 
was gradually overrun by new immigrants from Africa. 

In seven years the Mohammedans were masters of almost 
the whole region south of the Pyrenees. They then began to 


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The Mohammedans 

cross into Gaul. For some years 
the Duke of Aquitaine kept them 
in check, but in 732 they col- 
lected a large army, defeated the 
duke near Bordeaux, advanced 
to Poitiers, and then set out for 

Here they met the anny of 
the Franks which Charles the 
Hammer (Martel), the king's 
chief minister, had brought to- 
gether to meet the new danger. 
We know very little indeed of 
this famous battle of Tours, ex- 
cept that the Mohammedans 
were repulsed, and that they 
never again made ai ^ serious 
attempt to conquer western 
Europe beyond the Pyrenees. 
They retired to Spain and there 
developed a great and prosper- 
ous kingdom, far in advance of 
the Christian kingdoms to the 
north of them. 

Some of the buildings which 
they erected soon after their 
arrival still stand. Among these 
is the mosque at Cordova with 
its forest of columns and arches.' 
They also erected a great tower 
at Seville {Fig. 22). This has 
been copied by the architects of 

'The great mosque, which the M<>- 
hammedan mlets built at Cordova on the 
lite of a Christian chuich of the West 
Goths, was second in size only to the 

Fig. 22. GiHALDA 
This tower, called the Giralda, 
was originally the great minaret 
of the chief mosque at Seville. 
It was built, 11S4-1196, out of 
Roman and West Gothic mate- 
rials, and many Roman ir 

> be f 

1 the 

SCones used for the walls. Orig- 
inally the tower was lower than 
it now is. All the upper part, 
including the story where the 
bells hang, was rebuilt by the 
Christians after they drove 
the Moors out of the cily 

C k")o<^ Ic 

74 The Middle Period of European History 

Madison Square Garden in New Yoik. The Mohammedanb 
built beautiful palaces and laid out charming gardens. One of 
these palaces, the Alhambra, built at Granada some centuries 
after their arrival in Spain, is a marvel of lovely detail. They 
also founded a great university at Cordova, to which Christians 
from the North sometimes went in search of knowledge. 

Historians commonly regard it as a matter of great good luck 
that Charles the Hammer and his barbarous soldiers succeeded 
in defeating and driving back the Mohammedans at Tours. But 
had they been permitted to settle in southern France they might 
have developed science and ait far more rapidly than did the 
Franks. It is difficult to say whether it was a good thing or a 
bad thing that the Moors, as the Mohammedans in Spain were 
called, did not get control of a portion of Gaul. » / ' '_, 


Section ii. What various reasons led men toentermonasteries? 
When and where did Christian monasteries originate? Give some 
of the chief provisions of St. Benedict's Rule. What is meant by the 
"regular" and the "secular" clergy? Why did the monks some- 
times devote part of their time to copying books? Describe the 
general plan of a monastery. 

Section IZ. Tell about the conversion of the king of Kent. Did 
England become a part of the medieval Catholic church ? 

Section 13. Give a short account of Mohammed's life. Define 
Kaaba, Islam, Koran. What does the Mohammedan religion require 
of its adherents ? 

Section 14. What countries did the Mohammedans conquer 
during the century following Mohammed's death? Where is Mecca, 
Bagdad, Damascus, Cordova? Tell what you can of the Moorish 
buildings in Spain. 

Kaaba at Mecca (Fig. ai). It was begun about 78; and gradually enlarged and 
beautitied during the following two centuries, with the hope that it would rival 
Mecca as a place of pilgrimage. The part represented in the illustratioD was 
built by Caliph Al-Hakim, who came to the throne in 961. The beautiful holy of 
bolies (the entrance of which may be seen in the background) is richly adorned 
with magnificent mosdca. The whole mosque ia 570 by 415 feet; that U, »b»ut 
the MM of St. Peter's in Rome. 

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CoNguESTs OF Charlemagne 

15. We have seen how the kings of the Franks, Clovis and How Rppin 
his successors, conquered a large territory, including western ofSeFralllM, 
Germany and what is called France to-day. As time went on, ^^,^.{^3. 
the king's chief minister, who was called the Mayor of the ptova], 75a 
Palace, got almost all the power into his hands and really ruled 
in the place of the king, Charles Martel, who defeated the 
Mohammedans at Tours in 732, was the Mayor of the Palace 
of the western Frankish king. His son, Pippin the Short, finally 
determined to do away altogether with the old line of kings and 
put himself in their place. Before taking the decisive step, how- 
ever, he consulted the pope. To Pippin's question whether it 
was right that the old line of kings should continue to rdgn 
when they no longer had any power, the pope replied r " It 
seems better that he who has the power in the State should be 
king, and be called king, rather than he who is falsely called 
king." With this sanction, then (752), the Frankish counts and 
dukes, in accordance with the old German ceremony, raised 
Pippin on their shields, in somewhat the way collie boys now- 
adays carry off a successful football player on their shoulders. 
He was then anointed king by St. Boniface, the apostle to the 
Germans, of whom we have spoken, and received the blessing 
of the pope.' 

It would hardly be necessary to mention this change of dynasty 
in so short a history as this, were it not that the calling in of the 

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The Middle Period of European History 

kings " by 
of God" 

pope brought about a revolution in the ideas of kingship. The 
kings of the German tribes had hitherto usually been successful 
warriors who held their office with the consent of the people, 
or at least of the nobles. Their election was not a matter that 
concerned the Church at all. But when, after asking the pope's 
opinion, Pippin had the holy oil poured on his head, — in ac- 
cordance with an ancient religious custom of the Jews, — first 
by Bishop Boniface and later by 
the pope himself, he seemed to 
ask the Church to approve his 
usurpation. As the historian Gib- 
bon puts it, "A German chieftain 
was transformed into the Lord's 
anointed." The pope threatened 
with God's anger any one who 
should attempt to supplant the 
consecrated family of Pippin. 

It thus became a religious duty 
to obey the king and his succes- 
sors. He came to be regarded 
by the Church, when he had 
received its approval, as God's 
representative on earth. Here 
we have the beginning of the 
later theory of kings "by the 
grace of God," against whom it 
was a sin to revolt, however bad they might be. We shall see 
presendy how Pippin's famous son Charlemagne received his 
crown from the hands of the pope. 

Charlemagne, who became king of all the Prankish realms in 
771, is the first historical personage among the German peoples 
of whom we have any satisfactory knowledge.' Compared with 

1 " Chailemagne " is the French form for the Lalin Caralus Xfagaus {ChaikS 
the Great). We must never forget, however, thai Charlemagne was a Girman, 
that he talked a German language, namely Frankish, and that his favorite palaces 
at ALt-la-Chapelle, lagelheim, and Nimwegea were in German regions. 

Fig. 23. Charlemagne 

This bronze figure of Charle- 
magne on horseback was made 
in his time, and the artist may 
have succeeded in reproducing 
the general appearance of the 

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Charlemagne and his Empire yj 

him, Theodoric, Clovis, Charles Martel, Pippin, and the rest are 
but shadowy f^res. I'he chronicles tell us something of their 
deeds, but we can make only the vaguest inferences in regard 
to their appearance or 

Charlemagne's looks, 
as described by his sec- 
retary, so exactly corre- 
spond with the character 
of the king as exhibited 
in his reign that they are 
worthy of attention. He 
was tall and stoutly built ; 
his face was round, his 
eyes were large and keen , 
his nose somewhat above 
the a>mmon size, his 
expression bright and 
cheerful. The good pro- 
portions and grace of his . 
body prevented the ob- 
server from noticing that 
his neck was rather short 
and his person somewhat 
too stout. His voice was 
dear, but rather weak 
for his big body. He 
delighted in riding and 
hunting, and was an ex- 
pert swimmer. His ex- 
cellent health and his 
physical endurance can 
alone explain the astonishing swiftness with which he moved 
about his vast realm and conducted innumerable campaigns 
against his enemies in widely distant regions in rapid succession. 

Fig. 24. Charlemagne and 

HIS Wife 

There is no picture of Charlemagne that 
we can be sure looked like him. The 
rather comical one here given occurs in a 
law document of about the year 820 and 
shows what passed for a picture in those 
days. It may be meant for Charlemagne 
and his wife, but some think that it is a 
religious painting representing the Angel 
Gabriel announcing the birth of Jesu* to 
the Virgin Mary 

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78 The Middle Period of European History 

His educa- Charles was an educated man for his time, and one who knew 

wS tOTrard 'I'lw to appreciate and encourage ^olarship. While at dinner 
h^*™JIbUc™^ he had some one read to him ; he delighted especially in history, 
Bpint and in St, Augustine's CUy of God. He tried to learn writing, 

which was an unusual accomplishment at that time for any but 
churchmen, but began too late in life and got no farther than 
signing his name. He called learned men to his court and did 
much toward reestablishing a regular system of schools. He 
was also constantly occupied with buildings and other public 
works calculated to adorn his kingdom. He himself planned the 
remarkable cathedral at Aix-la-Chapelle and showed the greatest 
interest in its furnishings. He commenced two palaces, one 
near Mayence and the other at Nimwegen, in Holland, and had 
a long bridge constructed across the Rhine at Mayence. 
The Charie- The impression which his reign made upon men's minds con- 
JJ^^° tinued to grow even after his death. He became the hero of a 

whole series of romantic adventures which were as firmly be- 
lieved for centuries as his real deeds. In the fancy of an old 
monk in the monastery of St Gall,' writing of Charlemagne not 
long after his death, the king of the Franks swept over Europe 
surrounded by countless legions of soldiers who formed a very 
sea of brisding steel. Knights of superhuman valor formed his 
court and became the models of knighthood for the following 
centuries. Distorted but imposing, the Charlemagne of poetry 
meets us all through the Middle Ages. 

A study of Charlemagne's reign will make clear that he was 

a truly remarkable person, one of the greatest figures in the 

world's records and deservedly the hero of the Middle Ages. 

Charie- It was Charlemagne's ideal to bring all the German peoples 

of^g^t together into one great Christian empire, and he was wonder- 

chrwiian fy^y successful in attaining his end. Only a small portion of 

what is now called Germany was included in the kingdom ruled 

1 Professor Emetton (Intrmbtctioyi, pp. 183-185) gives an eiample of the 
style and spirit of the monk of St Gail, who w»» formerly much relied upon 
for knowledge of Charlemagne. 


Chaiiemagtte and his Empire 79 

over by Charlemagne's father. Pippin the Short. Fiisia and 
Bavaria had been Christi^ized, and their rulers had been in- 
duced by the efforts of Charlemagne's predecessors and of the 
missionaries, especially Boniface, to recognize the overlordship 
of the Franks. Between these two half-independent countries 
lay the unconquered Saxons. They were as yet pagans and 
appear still to have clung to much the same institutions as those 
under which they had lived when the Roman historian Tadtus 
described them seven centuries earlier. 

The Saxons occupied the region beginning somewhat east The eon- 
of Cologne and extending to the Hbe, and north to where the '^oat 
great dtieS of Bremen and Hamburg are now situated. They 
had no towns or roads and were consequently very difficult to 
conquer, as they could retreat, with their few possessions, into 
the forests or swamps as soon as they found themselves unable 
to meet an invader in the open field. Yet so long as they 
remained ^unconquered they constantly thieatened the Prankish 
kii^dom, and their country was necessary to the rounding out 
of its boundaries. Charlemagne never undertook, during his 
long military career, any other task half so serious as the 
subjugation of the Saxons, which occupied many years. 

Nowhere do we find a more striking example of the influence Convereion 
of the Church than in the reliance that Charlemagne placed 
upon it in his dealings with the Saxons. He deemed it quite 
as essential that after a rebellion they should promise to honor 
the Church and be baptized, as that they should pledge them- 
selves to remain true and faithful subjects of the king. He was 
in quite as much haste to found bishoprics and monasteries as 
to build fortresses. The law for the newly conquered Saxon 
lands issued some time between 775 and 790 provides the same 
death penalty for him who " shall have shown himself unfaithful 
to the lord king " and him who " shaH scorn to come to baptism 
and shall wish to remain a pagan." 

Charlemagne believed the Christianizing of the Saxons so 
important a part of his duty that he decreed that any one should 



The Middle Period of European History 


suffer death who broke into a church and carried off anything 
by force. No one, under penalty of heavy fines, was to make 
vows, in the pagan fashion, at trees or springs, or partake of 
any heathen feasts in honor of the demons (as the Christians 
termed the heathen gods), or fail to present infants for baptism 
before they were a year old. 

These provisions are characteristic of the theory of ihe Middle 
Ages according to which the government and the Church went 
hand in hand in ordering and governing the life of the people. 
Disloyalty to the Church was regarded by the State as quite as 
serious a crime as treason against itself. While the claims of the 
two institutions sometimes conflicted, there was no "question in 
the minds either of the king's officials or of the clergy that both 
the civil and ecclesiastical governments were absolutely neces- 
sary ; neither of them ever dreamed that they could get alor^ 
without the other. 

Before the Frankish conquest the Saxons had no towns. Now, 
around the seat of the bishop, or about a monastery, men be- 
gan to collect, afrid town? and cities grow up. Of these the 
chief was Bremen, which is still one of the most important 
ports of Germany. , 

Summoned by the pope to protect him from his old enemies 
the Lombards, Charlemagne invaded Lombardy in 773 with a 
great army and took Pavia, the capital, after a long siege. The 
Lombard king was forced to become a monk, and his treasure 
was divided among the Frankish soldiers, Charlemagne then 
took the extremely impbrtant step, in 774! of having himself 
recognized by all the Lombard dukes and counts as king of 
the Lombards. 

So far we have spoken only of the relations of Charlemagne 
with the Germans, for even the Lombard kingdom was estab- 
lished by the Germans. He had, however, other peoples to deal 
with, especially the Slavs on the east (who were one day to build 
up the kingdoms of Poland and Bohemia and the vast Russian 
empire) and, on the opposite boundary of his dominion, the 

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Charlemagne and his Empire 8 1 

Moors in Spain. Against these it was necessary to protect his 
realms, and the second part of Charlemagne's reign was devoted 
to what may be called his foreign policy. A single campaign in 
789 seems to have sufficed to subdue the Slavs, who lay to the 
north and east of the Saxons, and to force the Bohemians to 
acknowledge the supremacy of the Frankish king and pay 
tribute to him. 

The necessity of protecting the Frankish realms against any The 
new uprising of these non-German nations led to the establish- margraves 
ment, on the confines of the kir^om, of marches, that is, districts 
under the military control of counts of the march, or margraves} 
Their business was to prevent any invasion of the interior of 
the kingdom. Much depended upon the efficiency of these 
men ; in many cases they founded powerful families and later 
helped to break up the empire by establishing themselves as 
practically independent rulers. 

At an assembly that Charlemagne held in 777, ambassadors Charlemagne 
appeared before him from certain dissadsfied Mohammedans '" ''*'" 
in Spain. They had fallen out with the emir of Cordova* at\d 
now offered to become the faithful subjects of Charlemagne 
if he would come to their aid. In consequence of this embassy 
he undertook his first expedition to Spain in the following year. 
After some years of war the district north of the Ebro was con- 
quered by the Franks, and Charlemagne established there the 
Spanish march. In this way he began that gradual expulsion 
of the Mohammedans from the peninsula, which was to be car- 
ried on by slowly extending conquests until 1492, when Granada, 
the hst Mohammedan stronghold, fell. 

' The king of Prussia 

still has, amo 


^r titles, that o 

f Margrave ol 


burg. The Geiman ■ 

«otd Mart i: 

! often 

, used for "71 

narch" on m 

aps of 

many. In English and French the title is 


aliphate brolt 


, the eighth ct 

e ruler 

pain lirsl assumed thi 

: title of emir 


756) and later 

(929) that of 


latter title had origii 

lally been enj 

nly by the hea 

d of the whol. 


liie, who had his capi 

lal at Damasci 

js, and 

later at Bagdi 


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82 J, The Middle Period of European History 

Establishment of a Line of Emperors in the West 

e i6. But the most famous of all the achievements of Charle- 
magne was his reestablishment of the Western Eknpire in the 
year 800, It came about in this wise. Charlemagne went to 
Rome in that year to settle a dispute between Pope Leo III 
and his enemies. To celebrate the satisfactory sedJement of the 
dispute, the pope held a solemn service on Christmas Day in 
St. Peter's. As Charlemagne was kneeling before the altar 
during this service, the pope approached him and set a crown 
upon his head, saluting him, amid the acclamations of those 
present, as " Emperor of the Romans." 

e The reasons for this extraordinary act, which Charlemagne 
insisted took him completely by surprise, are given in one of 
the Prankish histories, the Chronicles of Lorsch, as follows : 
" The name of Emperor had ceased among the Greeks, for they 
were under the reign of a woman [the Empress Irene], where- 
fore it seemed good both to Leo, the apostolic pope, and to the 
bishops who were in council with him, and to all Christian men, 
that they should name Charles, King of the Franks, as Emperor. 
For he held Rome itself, where the ancient Cassars had always 
dwelt, in addition to all his other possessions in Italy, Gaul, 
and Germany. Wherefore, as God had granted him aJl these 
dominions, it seemed just to all that he should take the title 
of Emperor, too, when it was offered to him at the wish of all 

Charlemagne appears to have accepted gracefully the honor 
thus thrust upon him. Even if he had no right to the imperial 
title, it was obviously proper and wise to grant it to him under 
the circumstances. Before his coronation by the pope he was 
only kir^ of the Franks and of the Lombards; but his con- 
quests seemed to give him a right to a higlier title which should 
include all his outlying realms. 

The empire thus reestablished in the West was considered to 
be a continuation of the Roman Empire founded by Augustus. 

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Charlemagne and his Empire 83 

Charleinagne was reckoned the immediate successor of the em- continuity of 
peror at Constantinople, Constantine VI, whom Irene had de- Empire™" 
posed and blinded. Yet, it is hardly necessary to say that the 
position of the new emperor had little in common with that of 
Augustus or Constantine. In the first place, the eastern em- 
perors continued to reign in Constantinople for centuries, quite 
r^aidless of Charlemagne and his successors. In the second 
place, the German kings who wore the imperial crown after 
Chariemagne were generally too weak really to rule over Ger- 
many and northern Italy, to say nothing of the rest of western 
Europe. Nevertheless, the Western Empire, which in the twelfth 
century came to be called the Holy Roman Empire, endured for 
over a thousand years. It came to an end only in 1806, when 
Napoleon reconstructed southern Germany and the last of the 
emperors laid down the crown. 

The assumption of the title of emperor was destined to make The title d ~} 
the German rulers a great deal of trouble. It constantly led '^ce^of ' 
them into unsuccessful efforts to keep control over Italy, which q"^'^'"*''^ ' 
really lay outside their natural boundaries. Then the drcum- ™iera 
stances under which Charlemagne was crowned made it possible 
for the popes to claim, later, that it was they who had transferred 
the imperial power from the did eastern line of emperors to 
Charlemagne and his family, and that this was a proof of their 
light to dispose of the crown as they pleased. The difficulties 
which arose necessitated many a weary journey to Rome for 
the emperors, and many unfortunate conflicts between them and 
the popes. 

How Charlemagne carried on his Government 
17. The task of governing his vast dominions taxed even the Difficulty 
highly gifted and untiring Charlemagne; it was quite beyond soLrgean 
the power of his successors. The same difficulties continued to ^^P'™ 
exist that had confronted Charles Martel and Pippin — above 
all, 3 scanty royal revenue and overpowerful officials, who were 
apt to neglect the interests and commands of their sovereign. 


84 The Middle Period of European History 

Charie- Charlemagne's income, like that of all medieval rulers, came 

bi^ chiefly from his royal estates, as there was no system of general 

taxation such as had existed under the Roman Empire. He 
consequently took the greatest care that his numerous planta- 
tions should be well cultivated, and that not even a turnip or an 
egg which was due him should be withheld. An elahorate set of 
r^ulations for his farms is preserved, which sheds much light 
upon the times.' 
Origin of The officials upon whom the Frankish kings were forced to 

nobility rely chiefly were the counts, the " hand and voice of the king " 

wherever he could not be in person. They were expected to 
maintain order, see that justice was done in their district, and 
raise troops when the king needed them.. On the frontier were 
the counts of the march, or margraves (marquises), already 
mentioned. These titles, together with that of duke, still exist 
as titles of nobility in Europe, although they are no longer asso- 
ciated with any governmental duties except in cases where their 
holders have the right to sit in the upper House of Parliament. 
Charlemagne held assemblies of the nobles and bishops of 
his realm each spring or summer, at which the interests of the 
empire were considered. With the sanction of his advisers he 
issued an extraordinary series of laws, called capitularies, a num- 
ber of which have been preserved. With the bishops and abbots 
he discussed the needs of the Church, and, above all. the neces- 
sity of better schools for both the clergy and taity. The reforms 
which he sought to introduce give us an opportunity of learning 
the condition in which Europe found itself after four hundred 
years of disorder. 
The dark Charlemagne was the first important king since Theodoric 

before^harie- to pay any attention to book learning. About 650 the supply 
"'*™' of papyrus — a kind of paper that the Greeks and Romans 

used — had been cut off, owing to the conquest of Egypt by 
the Arabs, and as our'kind of paper had not yet been invented, 
ui account of one of Charlenugne's 

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Charlemagne and his Empire 85 

there was only the very expensive parchment to write upon. 
While this had the advantage of being more durable than papy- 
rus, its high cost discouraged the copying of books. Tbe eighth 
century — -that immediately preceding Charlemagne's coronation 
— is commonly regarded as the most ignorant, the darkest, and 
the most barbarous period of the Middle Ages. 

Yet, in spite of this dark picture, there was promise for the The elements 
future. It was evident, even before Charlemagne's time, that ^™md% 
Europe was not to continue indefinitely in the path of ignorance. ^"•""ch 
Latin could not be forgotten, for that was the language of the 
Church, and all its official communications were in that tongue. 
Consequently it was absolutely necessary that the Church should 
maintain some sort of education in order that there might be 
persons who knew enough to write a Latin letter and conduct 
the church services. Some of those who learned Latin must 
have used it to read the old books written by the Romans. Then 
the textbooks of the later Roman Empire ' continued to be 
used, and these, poor as they were, contained something about 
grammar, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and other subjects. 

It seemed to Charlemagne that it was the duty of the Church 
not only to look after the education of its own officers but to 
provide the opportunity of at least an elementary educadon for 
the people at large. In accordance with this conviction, he issued 
(789). an order to the clergy to gather together the children of 
both freemen and. serfs in their nei^borhood and establish 
schools " in which the boys may learn to read." * 

It would be impossible to say how many of the abbots and Eaubiish- 
bishops established schools in accordance with Charlemagne's monastery 
recommendations. It is certain that famous centers of learning 'he™School 
existed at Tours, Fulda, Corbie, Orleans, and other places during of the ^^ 
his reign. Charlemagne further promoted the cause of education 
by the establishment of the famous " School of the palace " for 
the instruction of his own children and the sons of his nobles. 
He placed the Englishman Akuin at the head of the school, 
3 See above, p. 30. ' See Rtad'mgs, chap. vii. 

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86 The Middle Period of European History 

and called distinguished men from Italy and elsewhere as 
teachers. The best known of these was the historian Paulus 
Diaconus, who wrote a history of the Lombards, to which we 
owe most of what we know about them. 
:harlemagne Charlemagne appears to have been particularly impressed 
iwresied in *''^'' t^e constant danger of mistakes in copying books, a task 
^^"' frequendy turned over to ignorant and careless persons. He 

thought it very important that the religious books should be 
carefully copied. It should be noted that he made no attempt 
to revive the learning of Greece and Rome. He deemed it 
quite sufficient if the churchmen would learn their Latin well 
enough to read the church services and (he Bible intelligently. 
Discourage. The hopeful beginning that was made under Charlemagne 

acion Jier"" in ''^^ revival of education was destined to prove disappointing 
Mpie'a time '" '^ immediate results. It is true that the ninth century 
produced a few noteworthy men who have left works which 
indicate acuteness and mental training. But the break-up of 
Charlemagne's empire, the struggles between his descendants, 
the coming of new barbarians, and the disorder causefl by the 
unruly feudal lords, who were not indini:d to recognize any 
master, all combined to keep Europe back for at least two cen- 
turies more. Indeed, the tenth and the first half of the eleventh 
century seem, at first s^ht, little better than the seventh and 
the eighth. Yet ignorance and disorder never were quite so 
prevalent after, as they were before, Charlemagne. 


Section i 5, Explain the importance of the coronation of Pippin. 
Describe Charlemagne's appearance and character. How did the 
Church cooperate with Charlemagne in his efforts to incorporate the 
Saxons in his empire? 

Section 16. What led to Charlemagne's becoming emperor? 
What modem countries did his empire include? 

Section 17. What were the chief sources of Charlem^ne's 
revenue? How did tides of nobility originate in medieval Europe? 
What did Charlemagne do for education? 

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The Disruption of Charlemagne's Empire 

i8. It was a matter of great importance to Europe whether Division of 
Charlemagne's extensive empire held together or fell apart niagTi?s 
after his death in 814. He does not seem to have had any ^"ip'™ 
expectation that it would hold together, because some years 
before his death he arranged that it should be divided among 
his three sons. But as two of these died before he did, it fell 
into the hands of the only surviving son, Louis, who succeeded 
his august father as king of all the various parts of the Prankish 
domains and was later crowned emperor. 

Louis, called the " pious," proved a feeble ruler. He tried Division of 
all sorts of ways of dividing the empire peaceably among his empire into 
rebellious and unruly sons, but he did not succeed, and after ^'"** '''"S- 
his death they, and their sons as well, continued to fight over Mersen, 870 
the question of how much each should have. It is not neces- 
sary to speak of the various temporary arrangements that were 
made. Finally, it was agreed in 870, by the Treaty of Mersen, 

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88 The Middle Period of European History 

that there should be three states, a West Frankish kingdom, an 
East Frankish kingdom, and a kingdom of Italy. The West 
Frankish realm corresponded roughly with the present bound- 
aries of France and Belgium. Its people talked dialects derived 
from the spoken Latin, which the Romans had introduced after 
their army, under the command of Julius Cffisar, conquered 
Gaul. The East Frankish kingdom included the rest of Charle- 
magne's empire -outside of Italy and was German in language. 

Map of Treaty of Mersen 

This map shovus the division of Chariemagtie's empire made in 870 by ■ 
his descendants in the Treaty of Mersen 

Each of the three realms established by the Treaty of Mersen 
was destined finally to grow into one of the powerful modem 
states which we see on the map of Europe to-day, but hundreds 
of years elapsed before the kings grew strong enough to con- 
trol their subjects, and the Treaty of Mersen was followed by 
several centuries of constant disorder and local warfare. Let us 
consider the difficulties which stood in the way of peace. 


The Age of Disorder ; Feudalism 89 

In the first place, a king found it veiy hard to get rapidly Bad roads 
from one part of his realms to another in order to put down 
rebellions, for the remarliable roads which the Romans had so 
carefuUy constructed to enable their armies to move about had 
fallen into disrepair. 

To have good roads one must be constantly working on 
them, for the rains wash them out and the floods carry away the 
bridges. As there was no longer a body of engineers employed 
by the government to keep up the roads and repair the bridges, 
they often became impassable. In the East Prankish kingdom 
matters must have been worse than in the West Prankish realm, 
for the Romans had never conquered Germany and consequently 
no good roads had ever been constructed there. 

Besides the difficulty of getting about quickly and easily, the Lack of 
king had very little money. This was one of the chief troubles goveromel 
of the Middle Ages. There are not many gold or silver mines ""i'^"'* 
in western Europe, and there was no supply of precious metals 
from outside, for commerce had largely died out. So the king 
had no treasury from which to pay the many officials which 
an efficient government finds it necessary to employ to do its 1 

business and to keep order. As we have seen, he had to give 
his officers, the counts and margraves, land instead of money, 
and their land was so extensive that they tended to become 
rulers themselves within their own possessions. 

Of course the king had not money enough to support a stand- No perma. 
ing army, which would have enabled him to put down the con- 
stant rebellions of his distant officers and of the powerful and 
restless nobility whose chief interest in life consisted in fighting. 

In addition to the weakness and poverty of the kings there New 
was another trouble, — and that the worst of all, — namely, the 
constant new invasions from all directions which kept all three 
parts of Charlernagne's empire, and England besides, in a con- 
stant state of terror and disaster. These invasions were almost 
as bad as those which had occurred before Charlemagne's time ; 
they prevented western Europe from becoming peaceful and 


90 The Middle Period of European History 

prosperous and serve to explain the dark period of two hundred 
years which followed the break-up of Charlemagne's empire. 
The Moham- We know how the Mohammedans had got possession of 
attack Italy northern Africa and then conquered Spain, and how Charles 
Martel had frustrated their attempt to add Gaul to their pos- 
sessions. But this rebuff did not end their attacks on southern 
Europe. They got control of the island of Sicily shortly after 

Fig. 25. Amphitheater at Arles in the Middle Ages 

The great Roman amphitheater at Aries (built probably in the first or 
second century) is about fifteeti hundred feet in circumference. During 
the eighth century, when Che Mohammedans were invading southern 
France, it was converted into a fortress. Many of the inhabitants settled 
iiwide its walls, and towers were constructed, which still stand. The pic- 
ture shows it before the dwellings were removed, about TS30 

Charlemagne's deatii, and then began to terrorize Italy and 
southern France, Even Rome itself suffered from them. 
The accompanying picture shows how the people of Aries, 
in southern France, built their houses inside the old Roman 
amphitheater in order to protect themselves from these Moham- 
medan invaders. 

On the east the German rulers had constantly to contend 
with the Slavs. Charlemagne had defeated them in his time, as 


Fig. 26. Monastery of St. Germai.v des FRks, Paris 

This famous monastery, now in the midst of Paris, was formerly outside 
of the walls when the town was much smaller, and was fortified as shown 
in the picture, with a moat (C) and drawbridge [Z>). One can see the 
abbey church (A), which still stands ; the cloister {B) ; the refectory, or 
dining room (£) ; and the long dormitory (G). It was common in the 
age of disorder to fortify monasteries and sometimes even churches, as 
nothing was so Mcred as to protect it from the danger of attack 

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gteat land- 

92 The Middle Period of European History 

mentioned above, but they continued to make much trouble for 
two centuries at least. Then there were also the Hungarians, 
a savage race from Asia, who ravaged Germany and northern 
Italy and whose wild horsemen penetrated even into the West 
Frankish kingdom. Finally, they were driven back eastward and 
settled in the country now named after them — Hungary. 
. - And lastly there came the Northmen, bold and adventurous 
pirates from the shores of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway. 
These skillful and daring seamen not only attacked the towns 
on the coast of the West Frankish kingdom but made their way 
up the rivers, plundering and burning the villages and towns 
as far inland as Paris. In England we shall find them, under 
the name of Danes, invading the countiy and forcing Alfred the 
Great to recognize them as the masters of northern England.' 

So there was danger always and everywhere. If rival nobles 
were not fighting one another, there were foreign invaders of 
some kind devastating the country, bent on robbing, maltreat- 
ing, and enslaving the people whom they found in towns and 
villages and monasteries. No wonder that strong castles had 
to be built and the towns surrounded by walls ; even the mon- 
asteries, which were not of course respected by pagan invaders, 
were in some cases protected by fortifications. 

In the absence of a powerful king with a well-organized army 
at his back, each district was left to look out for itself. Doubt- 
less many counts, margraves, bishops, and other great landed 
proprietors who were gradually becoming independent princes 
earned the loyalty of the people about them by taking the lead 
in defending the country against its invaders and by estab- 
lishing fortresses as places of refuge when the community was 
hard pressed. These conditions serve to explain why such 
government as continued to exist during the centuries following 
the death of Charlemagne was necessarily carried on mainly, 
not by the king and his officers, but by the great landholders. 



The Age of Disorder ; Feudalism 

The Medieval Castle 

19. As one travels through England, France, or Germany The 1 
t j-day he often comes upon the picturesque ruins of a medieval ™ "^ 
castle perched upon some rocky clifE and overlooking the sur- 
rounding country for miles. As he looks at the thick walls 
often surrounded by a deep, wide trench once filled with water. 

Fig. 27. A Medieval Castle .veak Klagenfukt, Austria 

ions to have fortresses 
perched so high on rocky eminences that it was piactically 
impossible xa capture them 

and observes the great towers with their tiny windows, he can- 
not but wonder^why so many of these forts were built, and why 
people lived in them. It is clear that they were never intended 
to be dwelling places for the peaceful households of private 
citizens; they look rather like the fortified palace of a ruler. 
Obviously, whoever lived there was in constant expectation of 
being attacked by an army, for otherwise he would never have 

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94 The Middle Period of European History 

gone to the trouble and expense of shutting himself up in those 
dreary, cold, stone rooms, behind walls from ten to twenty feet 
thick. We can picture the great hall of the casde crowded 
with the armed followers of the master of the house, ready to 
fight for him when he wished to make war on a neighbor ; 
or if he himself were attacked, they would rush to the little 
windows and shoot arrows at those who tried to approach, or 

Fig. 28. Machine for Hurling Stones 
This was a medieval device for throwing stones and bolts of iron, which 
were often healed red hot before they were fired. It consisted of a great 
bow [^A) and the beam (5), which was drawn back by the windlass (C) 
turned by a crank applied at the point (D). Then a stone was put in 
the pocket \F) and the trigger pulled by means of the string (£). This 
let the beam fly up with a bang against the bumper, and the missile went 
sailing against the wall or over it among the defenders of the castle 

pour lighted pitch or melted lead down on their enemies if they 
were so bold as to get close enough to the walls. 

The Romans had been accustomed to build walls around their 
camps, and a walled camp was called eastrum ; and in such 
names as Rochester, Winchester, Gloucester, Worcester, we 
have reminders of the fact that these towns were once fort- 
resses. These camps, however, were all government fortifica- 
tions and did not belong to private individuals. 

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The Age of Disorder ; Feudalism 95 

But as the Roman Empire grew weaker and the disorder Easily cuiics 
caused by the incoming barbarians became greater, the various 
counts and dukes and even other large landowners began to 
buiid forts for themselves, usually nothing more than a great 
round mound of earth surrounded by a deep ditch and a wall 
made of stakes interwoven with twigs. On the top of the mound 
was a wooden fortress, surrounded by a fence or palisade, 

Fig. 29. MEDIEVAL Batteri.s-g-ham 

This is a simple kind of a battering ram which was trundled up to the 

walls of a besieged caslle and then swung back and forth by a group 

of soldiers, with the hope of making a breach. The men were often 

protected by a covering over the ram 

similar to the one at the foot of the mound. This was the type 
of " castle " that prevailed for several centuries after Charle- 
magne's death. There are no remains of these wooden castles 
in existence, for they were not the kind of thing to last very long, 
and those that escaped being burned or otherwise destroyed, 
rotted away in time. 

About the year iioo these wooden buildings began to be re-- 1 
placed by great square stone towers. This was due to the fact \ 
that the methods of attacking castles had so changed that wood ' 
was no longer a sufficient protection. The Romans when they i 
besieged a walled town were accustomed to hurl great stones 
and heavy-pointed stakes at the walls and over them. They had 
ingenious machines for this purpose, and they also had ways of 


Fic. 30, Movable Tower 

This attacking tower was rolled up to the wall of the besieged town 
after the moat had been tilled up at the proper poinL The soldiers then 
swarmed up the outside and over a bridge onto the wall. Skins of ani- 
mals were hung on the side to prevent the lower from being set on fire 

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The Age of Disorder ; Feudalism 97 

protecting their soldiers when they crept up to the walls with 
their battering-rams and pickaxes in the hope of making a breach 
and so getting into (he 
town. But the Ger- 
man barbarians who 
overran the Roman 
Empire were unaccus- 
tomed to these ma- 
chines which therefore 
had fallen into disuse. 
But the practice of 
taking towns by means 
of them was kept up 
in the Eastern Empire, 
and during the Cru- 
sades, which, as we 
shall see, began about 
1 100 (see Chapter IX, 
below), they were in- 
troduced once more 
into western Europe, 
and this is the reason 
why stone castles be- 
gan to be built about 
that time. 

A square tower 
(Fig. 31) can, how- 
ever, be more easily 
attacked than a round 
tower, which has no 
comers, so a century 
later round towers be- 
came the rule and con 

>o, when gunpowde 

Fig. 31. Tower of Beaugencv 

This square donjon not far from Orleans, 
France, is one of the very earliest square 
lowers that survive. It is a translation into 
stone of the wooden donjons that prevailed 
up to that lime. It was built about 1 100 just 
after the beginning of the First Cnisade. It 
is about 76 by 66 feet in size and 1 15 feet high 

inued to be used until about the year 
and cannon had become so common 
that even the strongest castle could no longer be defended, 

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lOO . The Middle Period of European History 

The Serfs and the. Manor 

ao. Obviously the owner of the castle had to obtain supplies 
to support his family and servants and armed men. He could 
not have done this had he not possessed extensive tracts of land. 
A great part of western Europe in the lime of Charlemagne 
appears to have been divided into great estates or plantations. 
. These medieval estates were called vih, or manors, and closely 
resembled the Roman villas described in an earlier chapter.' 
The peasants who tilled the soil were called villains, a word 
derived from vil. A portion of the estate was reserved by the 
lord for his own use ; the rest of the plowed land was divided 
up among the peasants, usually in long strips, of which each 
peasant had several scattered about the manor. 

The peasants were generally serfs who did not own their 
fields, but could not, on the other hand, be deprived of them 
so long as they worked for the lord and paid him certain dues. 
They were attached to the land and went with it when it changed 
hands. The serfs were required to till those fields which the 
lord reserved for himself and to gather in his crops. They might 
not marry without their lord's .permission. Their wives and 
daughters helped vrith the indoor work of the manor house. In 
the women's buildings the women serfs engaged in spinning, 
weaving, sewing, baking, and brewing, thus producing clothes, 
food, and drink for the whole community. 

We get our clearest ideas of the position of the serfs from 
the ancient descriptions of manors, which give an exact account 
of what each member of a particular community owed to the 
lord. For example, we find that the abbot of Peterborough 
held a manor upon which Hugh Miller and seventeen other 
serfs, mentioned by name, were required to work for him three 
days b each week during the whole year, except one week at 
Christmas, one at Easter, and one at Whitsuntide. Each serf 
' was to give the lord abbot one bushel of wheat and eighteen 
' See above, p. ta. 

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Th£ Age of Disorder; Feudalism lOI 

sheaves of oats, three hens, and one cock yearly, and five ^gs at 
Easter. If he sold his horse for more than ten shillings, he was 
to give the said abbot fourpence. Five other serfs, mentioned by 
name, held but half as much land as Hugh and bis companions, 
by paying and doing in all respects half as much service. 

One of the most remarkable characteristics of the manor was 
its independence of the rest of the world. It produced nearly 


This castle of Pierrefonds, not very far from Paris, was built by the 
brother of the king of France, about 1400. It iias been very carefully 
restored in modern limes and gives one a good idea of the way in which 
the feudal lords of that period lived. Within the walls is a hand- 
some central courtyard and magnilicent apartments 

everything that its members needed, and might almost have con- 
tinued to exist indefinitely without communication with those who 
lived beyond its bounds. Little or no money was necessary, 
for the peasants paid what was due to the lord in the form of 
labor and farm products. They also rendered the needful help 
to one another and found little occasion for buying and selling. 

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I02 Tke Middle Period of European History ' 

lonot- There was almost no opportunity to better one's condition, 

' of the and life must have gone on for generation after generation in a 

'" weary routine. And the life was not merely monotonous, it was 

wretched. The food was coarse and there was little variety, as 

the peasants did not even take pains to raise fresh vegetables. 

The houses usually had but one room, which was ill-lighted by 

a single littie window and had no chimney. 

re- The increased use of money in the twelfth and thirteenth 

, centuries, which came with the awakening trade and industry, 

cuons tended to break up the manor. The old habit of trading one 

thing for another without the intervention of money began to 

disappear. As time went on, neither the lord nor the serf was 

satisfied with the old system, which had answered well enough 

in the time of Charlemagne. The serfs, on the one hand, began 

to obtain money by the sale of their products in the markets of 

neighboring towns. They finally found it more profitable to pay 

the lord a certain sum instead of working for him, for they 

could then turn their whole attention to their own farms. 

The landlords, on the other hand, found it to their advantage 
to accept money in place of the services of their tenants. With 
this money the landlord could hire laborers to cultivate his fields 
and could buy the luxuries which were brought to his notice as 
commerce increased. So it came about that the lords gradually 
gave up their control over the peasants, and there was no longer 
very much difference between the serf and the freeman who 
paid a regular rent for his land. A serf might also gain his lib- 
erty by running away from his manor to a town. If he remained 
undiscovered, or was unclaimed by his lord, for a year and a 
day, he became a freeman.' 

I The slow extinction of serfdom in westem Europe appears to have begun 
as early as the twelfth century. A very general emancipation had taken place in 
England and France during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, though there 
were still some serfs in France when the revolution came in [7E9. German}' was 
far more backward in this respect. We lind the peasants revolting against their 
hard lot in Luther's time (1524-1 525), and it was not until the, beginning of the 
nineleentb centuiy thu the serfs wete (reed in Prussia. 

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The Age of Disorder ; Feudalism 103 

These manors served to support their lords and left them 
free to busy themselves fighting with other landowners in the 
same position as themselves. 

Feudal System 

31. Landholders who had large estates and could spare a Lo^uid 
portion of them were accustomed to grant some of their manors 
to another person on condition that the one receiving the land 
would swear to be true to the giver, should fight for him on 
certain occasions, and should lend him aid when particular diffi- 
culties arose. It was in this way that the relation of lord and 
vassal originated. The vassal who received the land pledged 
himself to be true to his lord, and the lord, on the other hand, 
not only let his vassal have the land but agreed to protect him 
when it was necessary. These arrangements between vassals Thefeud«l 
and lords constituted what is called the feudal system. *''* " 

The feudal system, or feudalism, was not established by Gradual de- 
any decree of a king or in virtue of any general agreement be- feuXlsm 
tween all the landowners. It grew up gradually and irregularly 
without any conscious plan on any one's part, simply because 
it seemed convenient and natural under the circumstances. 
The owner of vast estates found it to his advantage to par- 
cel them out among vassals, that is to say, men who agreed to 
accompany him to war, guard his casdc upon occasion, and 
assist him when he was put to any unusually great expense. 
Land granted upon the terms mentioned was called A^f. One The fief 
who held a fief might himself become a lord by granting a 
portion of his fief to a vassal upon terms similar to those upon 
which he held his lands of his lord, or suzerain. 

The vassal of a vassal was called a subvassal. There was Vaaral and 
still another way in which the number of vassals was increased. 
The owners of small estates were usually in a defenseless con- 
dition, unable to protect themselves against the attacks of the 
great nobles. They consequently often deemed it wise to put 

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I04 The Middle Period of European History 

their land into the hands of a neighboring lord and receive it 

back from him as a fief. They thus became his vassals and 

could call upon him for protection. 

Homage and The one proposing to become a vassal knelt before the lord 

"Fedij"' ^nd rendered him homage ' by placing his hands between those 

of the lord and declaring himself the lord's " man " for such and 

such a fief. Thereupon the lord gave his vassal the kiss of 

peace and raised him from his kneeling posture. Then the 

vassal swore an oath of fidelity upon the Bible, or some holy 

relic, solemnly binding himself to fulfill all his duties toward his 

lord. This act of rendering homage by placing the hands in 

those of the lord and taking the oath of "fidelity was the first 

and most essential duty of the vassal (Fig. 35). For a vassal to 

refuse to do homage for his fief when it changed hands 

amounted to a declaration of revolt and independence. 

Obligations The obligations of the vassal varied greatly." He was ex- 

MiiiBnT ' pccted to join" his lord when there was a military expedition on 

service iaax, although it was generally the case that the vassal need not 

serve at his own expense for more than forty days. The rules 

in regard to the length of time during which a vassal might 

be called upon to guard the castle of his lord varied almost 


Other feudal Besides the military service due from the vassal to his lord, 

he was expected to attend the lord's court when summoned. 

There he sat with other vassals to hear and pronounce upon 

those cases in which his fellow vassals were involved. Moreover 

1 " Homage " is derived from the Lalin 

a The conditions upon which fiefs were granted might be dictated either by 
interest or by mere fancy. Sometimes the m " 
obligations were imposed. We hear of ^ 
the lord ac supper with a tall candle, 01 
Christmas. Perhaps the most extiaotdinaiy in 
in Guienne who solemnly declared upon oath, when questioned by the commii 
sioners of Edward I, that he held his fief of the king upon the following terms 
When the lord king came through his estate he was to accompany him to a cei 
tain oak. There he must have waiting a cart loaded with wood and drawn by tw 
cxms without any tails. When the oak was reached, lire was to be applied to th 
cart and the whole burned up, " unless mayh^ the cowa mal^ their escape." 

word h<mis, meanin 

g '■ man." ' 

granted might be 

dictated either 1 

most fantastic and 

als holding on corn 

mishing him with ; 

1 great yule log 

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The Age of Disorder ; Feudalism 


he had to give the lord the benefit of his advice when required, 
and attend him upon solemn occasions. 

Under certain circumstances vassals had to make money Money pay- 
payments to their lord ; as, for instance, when the lord was 
put to extra expense by the necessity of knighting his eldest 
son or providing a dowry for his daughter, or when he was 
captured by an enemy 
and was held for ransom. 
Lastly, the vassal might 
have to entertain his lord 
should he be passing his 
castie. There are amus- 
in^y detailed accounts 
in some of the feudal 
contracts of exactly bow 
often the lord might 
come, how many fol- 
lowers he might bring, 
and what he should have 

*" ^^^' Fig. 35. Ceremonv of Homage 

There were fiefs of 
jl , . J , r n This is a modern piclure of the way m 

aJL kinds and of all „hich the ceremony of homage took place, 
grades of importance. The new vassal is putting his hands be- 
from that of a duke or '""" t''°^'' "^ *>■= '°^^- 1"° t^e left are 
, , , , ,. , retainers in their chain armor, and hack 
count, who held direcdy ^j ^^^ ^^^^ ^^j his lady is the jester, or 
of the king and exercised court fool, whose business it is to amuse 
the powers of a pracd- '''^ »^^'^'' "■»=" ^'^ n*«^« entertainment 
cally independent prince, 

down to the holding of the simple knight, whose bit of land, 
cultivated by peasants or serfs, was barely sufficient to enable 
him to support himself and provide the horse upon which he 
rode to perform his military service for his lord. 

It is essential to observe that the fief was not granted for a 
certain number of years, or simply for the life of the grantee, 
to go back at his death to the owner. On the contrary, it became 

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io6 The Middle Period of European History 

The heredi- hereditary in the family of the vassal and passed down to the 
{rffie/aand eldest Son from one generation to another. So long as the 
□uemSr vassal remained faithful to his lord and perfonned the stipu- 
lated services, and his successors did homage and continued to 
meet the conditions upon which the fief had originally been 
granted, neither the lord nor his heirs could rightfully regain 
possession of the land. 

The result was that Ltde was left to the original owner of the 
fief except the services and dues to which the practical owner, 
the vassal, had agreed in receiving It. In short, the fief came 
really to beloi^ to the vassal, and only the shadow of owner- 
ship remained in the hands of the lord. Nowadays the owner 
of land either makes some use of it himself or leases It for a 
definite period at a fixed money rent But in the Middle Ages 
most of the land was held by those who neither really owned it 
nor paid a regular rent for it, and yet who could not be deprived 
of it by the nominal owner or his successors, 
Subvassais of Obviously the great vassals who held directly of the king 
iinder"luB'' became almost independent of him as soon as their fiefs were 
""'"' granted to them and their descendants. Their vassals, since 

they had not done homage to the king himself, often paid little 
attention to his commands. From the ninth to the thirteenth 
century, the king of France or the king of Germany did hot 
rule over a great realm occupied by subjects who owed him 
obedience as their lawful sovereign, paid him taxes, and were 
bound to fight under his banner as the head of the State, As 
a feudal landlord himself, the king had a right to demand fidel- 
ity and certain services from those who were his vassals. But 
the great mass of the people over whom he nominally ruled, 
whether they belonged to the nobility or not, owed little to the 
king directly, because they lived upon the lands of other feudal 
brds more or less independent of him. 

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The Agt of Disorder : Feudalism 107 

Neighborhood Warfare in the Middle Ages 

22. One has only to read a chronicle of the time to discover The feudal 
that brute force governed almost everything outside of the SiMdon^J^ 
Church. The feudal obligations were not fulfilled except when '>)' '""* 
the lord was sufficiently powerful to enforce them. The oath of 
fidelity was constantly broken, and faith was violated by both 
vassal and lord. 

It often happened that a vassal was discontented with his ThebTeaking 
lord and transferred his allegiance to another. This he had bond* '" 
a right to do under certain circumstances, as, for instance, 
when his lord refused to see that justice was done him in his 
court. But such dianges were generally made merely for the 
sake of the advantages which the faithless vassal hoped to gain. 
The records of the time are full of accounts of refusal to do 
homage, which was the commonest way in which a vassal re- 
volted from his lord. So soon as a vassal felt himself strong 
enough to face his lord's displeasure, or when the lord was 
a helpless child, the vassal was apt to declare his independence 
by refusing to recognize as his lord the one from whom he had 
received his land. 

We may say that war, in all. its forms, was the law of the War the law 
feudal world. War formed the chief occupation of the resdess „orid '" 
nobles who held the land and were supposed to govern it. An 
enterprising vassal was likely to make war upon each of the 
lords to whom he had done homage ; secondly, upon the bishops 
and abbots with whom he was brought into contact, and whose 
control he particularly disliked ; thirdly, upon his fellow vassals ; 
and lastly, upon his own vassals. The feudal bonds, instead of 
offering a guarantee of peace and concord, appear to have been 
a constant cause of violent conflict. Every one was bent upon 
profiting by the permanent or temporary weakness of his neigh- 
bor. This chronic fighting extended even to members of the 
same family \ the son, anxious to enjoy a part of his heritage 
immediately, warred against his father, younger brothers against 

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io8 The Middle Period of European History 

older, and nephews against uncles who might seek to deprive 
them of their rights. 

In theory, the lord could force hb vassals to setde their dis- 
putes in an orderly manner before his court ; but often he was 
neither able nor inclined to bring about a peaceful adjustment. 
and he would frequently have found it hard to enforce the 
decisions of his own court. So the vassals were left to fight 
out their quarrels among themselves, and they found their chief 
interest in life in so doing. War was practically sanctioned by 
law. This is'shown by two striking examples. The great French 
code of laws of the thirteenth century and the Golden Bull, a 
most important body of law drawn up for Germany in 1356, 
did not prohibit neighborhood war, but merely provided that 
it should be conducted in what was considered a decent and 
gentlemanly way. 

Justs and tourneys were military exercises — play wars -— to 
fill out the tiresome periods which occasionally intervened be- 
tween real wars. They were, in fact, diminutive battles in which 
whole troops of hostile nobles sometimes took part. These 
rough plays called down the condemnation of the popes and 
even of the kings. The latter, however, were much too fond of the 
sport themselves not to forget promptiy their own prohibitions. 

The horrors of this constant fighting led the Church to try 
to check it. About the year 1000 several Church councils in 
southern France decreed that the fighters were not to attack 
churches or monasteries, churchmen, pilgrims, merchants, and 
women, and that they must leave the peasant and his cattle 
and plow alone. Then Church councils began to issue what 
was known as the " Truce of God," which provided that all 
warfare was to stop during Lent and various other holy days 
as well as on Thursday, Friday, Saturday, and Sunday of every 
week. During the truce no one was to attack any one else. 
Those besieging castles were to refrain from any assaults during 
the period of peace, and people were to be allowed to go quietly 
to and fro on their business without being disturbed by soldiers. 


The Age of Disorder ; Feudalism log 

If any one failed to observe the truce, he was to be excom- 
municated by the Church — if he fell sick no Christian should 
dare to visit him, and on his deathbed he was not to receive the 
comfort of a priest, and his soul was consigned to hell if he 
had refused to repent and mend his ways. It is hard to say 
how much good the Truce of God accomplished. Some of the 
bishops and even the heads of great monasteries liked fighting 
pretty well themselves. It is certain that many disorderly lords 
paid little attention to the truce, and found three days a week 
altogether too short a time for plaguing their neighbors. 

Yet we must not infer that the State ceased to exist altogether The kings 
during the centuries of confusion that followed the break-up of the letter of 
Charlemagne's empire, or that it fell entirely apart into little *^*'"'^ 
local governments independent of each other. Tn the first place, 
a king always retained some of his ancient majesty. He might 
be weak and without the means to enforce his ri^ts and to 
compel his more powerful subjects to meet their obligations 
toward him. Yet he was, after all, the king, solemnly anointed 
by the Church as God's representative on earth. He was always 
something more than a feudal lord. The kings were destined to 
get the upper hand before many centuries in England, T^'rance, 
and Spain, and finally in Italy and Germany, and to destroy the 
castles behind whose walls their haughty nobles had long defied 
the royal power. ,- 


Section i8. What led to the breaking up of Charlemagne's em- 
pire? What is the importance of the Treaty of Mersen? What 
were the chief obstacles that prevented a king in the early Middle 
Ages from really controlling an extensive realm ? What invasions 
occurred in western Europe after Charlemagne's time? Tell what 
you can of the Northmen. 

Section ig. Describe the changes that took place during the 
Middle Ages in the method of constructing castles. Describe the 
arrangement of a castle. 

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no The Middle Period of European History 

Section 20. What was a manor, and what Roman institution did 
it resemble? What was a serf? .What were the chief services that 
a serf owed to his master? What effect did the increased use of 
money have upon serfdom? 

Section zi. Define "lord," "vassal," "fief," "homage," "feudal- 
ism.'' What services did a vassal owe to his lord? What effects did 
feudalism have upon the power of the kings? 

Section 22. What is meant by neighborhood warfare? Why was 
it very common in the Middle Ages? Wliat was the Truce of God? 

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england ik xhz middle ages 

The Norman Conquest 

33. The country of western Europe, whose history is of imponance 
greatest interest to English-speaking peoples, is, of course, Eng- "„ the\iatoij 
land. From England the United States and the vast English 2f "e""™ 
colonies have inherited their language and habits of thought, 
much of their literature, and many of their laws and institutions. 
In this volume it will not, however, be possible to study Eng- 
land except in so far as it has played a part in the generel 
development of Europe. This it has greatly influenced by its 
commerce and industry and colonies, as well as by the example 
it was the first to set in modern times of permitting the people 
to share with the king in the government. 

The conquest of the island of Britain by the German Angles Overlorfship 
and Saxons has already been spoken of, as well as the con- " ""* 
version of these pagans to Christianity by Augustine and his 
monks.^ The several kingdoms founded by the German invaders 
were brought under the overlordship of the southern kingdom 
of Wessex by Egbert, a contemporary of Charlemagne. 

But no sooner had the long-continued invasions of the Ger- invasion of 
mans come to an end and the country been partially unified Theit defeat 
than the Northmen (or Danes, as the English called them), who ^^^^^ 
were ravaging France (see above, p. 92), began to make incur- 871-901 
sions into England. Before long they had conquered a large 
district north of the Thames and were making permanent set- 
tlements. They were defeated, however, in a great battle by 
Alfred the Great, the first English king of whom we have any 
1 See above, pp. 61 sq. 

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112 The Middle Period of European History 

satisfactory knowledge. He forced the Danes to accept Christi- 
anity, and established, as the boundary between their settlements 
and his own kingdom of Wessex, a line running from London 
across the island to Chester. 

But more Danes kept coming, and the Danish invasions con- 
tinued for more than a century after Alfred's death (901). 
Sometimes they were bought oft by a money payment called the 
the Norman Danegeld, which was levied on the people of Engbnd like any 
other tax. But finally a Danish king (Cnut) succeeded in making 
himself king of England in 1017, This Danish dynasty main- 
tained itself, however, for only a few years. Then a last weak 
Saxon king, Edward the Confessor, reigned for twenty years. 

Upon his death one of the greatest events in all English 
history occurred. The most powerful of the vassals of the king 
of France crossed the English Channel, conquered England, and 
iTiade himself king. This was William, Duke of Normandy. 
! We have seen how Charlemagne's empire broke up, and how 
the feudal lords became so powerful that it was difficult for the 
king to control them. The West Frankish kingdom, which we 
shall hereafter call France, was divided up among a great many 
dukes and counts, who built strong castles, gathered armies and 
fought against one another, and were the terror alike of priest, 
merchant, and laborer. (See above, sections 18 and 22.) 

In the tenth century certam great fiefs, like Normandy, Brit- 
tany, Flanders, and Burgundy, developed into little nations, each 
under its line of able rulers Each had its own particular cus- 
toms and culture, some traces of which may still be noted by 
the traveler in France These little feudal states were created 
by certain families of nobles who possessed exceptional energy 
or statesmanship By conquest, purchase, or marriage they in- 
creased the number of their fiefs, and they insured their control 
over their vassah by prompdy destroying the castles of those 
who refused to meet their obligations 

Of these subnations none was more important or interesting 
than Normandy. The Northmen had been the scourge of those 

England in the Middle Ages llj 

who lived near the North Sea for many years before one of 
their leaders, Rollo (or Hrolf), agreed in gii to accept from 
the West Prankish king a district on the coast, north of Brit- 
tany, where he and his followers might peacefully settle. Rollo 
assumed the tide of Duke of the Normans, and introduced the 
Christian religion amoi^ his people. For a considerable time 
the newcomers kept up their Scandinavian habits and language. 
Gradually, however, they appropriated such culture as their 
neighbors possessed, and by the twelfth century their capital, 
Rouen, was one of the most enlightened cities of Europe. Nor- 
mandy became a source of infinite perplexity to the French 
kings when, in 1066, lluke William added England to his pos- 
sessions and the tide of "the Conqueror" to his name; for 
he thereby became so powerful that his overlord, the king 
of France, could hardly hope to control the Norman dukes 
.any longer. 

William of Normandy claimed that. he was entitled to the Thestniggle 
English crown, hut we are somewhat in the dark as to the basis ij^ ciown^" 
of his claim. There is a story that he had visited the court of ^"^^i^" ^"' 
Edward the Confessor and had become his vassal on condition and puke 
that, should Edward die childless, he was to declare William his Nonnandy 
successor. However this may be, Harold of Wessex assumed 
the crown upon Edward's death and paid no attention to William's 
demand that he should surrender it. 

William thereupon appealed to the pope, promising that if he The pope 
came into possession of England, he would see that the English wimLn'a 
clergy submitted to the authority of the Roman bishop. Conse- ''*''" 
quentiy the pope, Alexander II, condemned Harold and blessed 
in advance any expedition that William might undertake to 
secure his rights. The conquest of England therefore took on 
the character of a sort of holy war, and as the expedition had 
been well advertised, many adventurers flocked to William's 
standard.. During the spring and summer of 1066 ships were 
building in the various Norman harbors for the purpose of 
canyii^ William's army across the Channd. 

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1 14 , The Middle Period of European History 

Unfavorable Harold, the English king, was in a very unfavorable position 
l^arohT to defend his crown. In the first place, while he was expecting 

William's coming, he- was called to the north of England to repel 
a last invasion of 
the fierce Norse- 
men, who had 
again landed in 
England and were 
devastating the 
coast towns. He 
was able to put 
them to flight, but 
as he was cele- 
brating his victory 
bya banquet news 
reached him that 
William had actu- 
ally landed with 
his Normans in 
southern England. 

now and the peas- 
ants, who formed 
a large part of 
Fig. 36. Abbave aux Dames, Caen Harold's forces, 

'William the Conqueror married a lady, Matilda, had gone home 
who was remotely related to him. This was ^g harvest their 
against the rules of the Church, and he took , , , 

ptins to get the pope's sanction to his n.arriage, "opS, SO he had 
But he and his queen were afraid that Ihey might to hurry south 
have committed a sin in marrying, so William with an insuffi- 
builta monastery for men and Matilda a nunnery 
forwomenasapenaoce. The churches of these '^'^nt army, 
monasteries still stand in the Norman city of The English 

Caen. William was buried in his church. The occupied the hill 
picture represents the interior of Matilda's c c 1 

church and !s a good example of what the «' benlac, west 
English called the Norman style of architecture of Hastings, and 

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England in the Middle Ages 115 

awaited the coming of the enemy. They had few horses and Battle of 
fought on foot with their battle-axes. The Normans had horses, ocf^M"!* 
wliich they had brought across in their ships, and were supplied "** 
with bows and arrows. The English fought bravely and re- 
pulsed the Normans as they tried to press up the hillside. But 
at last they were thrown into confusion, and King Harold was 
killed by a Nonnan arrow which pierced his eye. 

William thus destroyed the English aimy in this famous battle WilKam 
of Hastings, and the rightful English king was dead. But the atLwidon 
Nonnan duke was not satisfied to take possession of England 
as a conqueror merely. In a few weeks he managed to induce 
a number of influential nobles and several bishops to agree to 
accept him as king, and London opened its gates to him. On 
Christmas Day, 1066, he was chosen king by an assembly in 
Westminster Abbey (where Harold ha(t been elected a year 
before) and was duly crowned. 

In the Norman tovm of Bayeux a strip of embroidery is pre- The Baymx 
served some two hundred and thirty feet long and dghteen 'P"'^ 
inches wide. If it was not made by Queen Matilda, William's 
wife, and her ladies, as some have supposed, it belongs at any 
rate to the time of the Norman conquest of England, which it 
pictures with much detail The accompanying colored repro- 
duction of two scenes shows the Normans landing with their 
horses from their ships on the English coast and starting for 
the battlefield of Hastings, and, in the second scene, the battle 
in actual progress ; the English are on their hill, trying to drive 
back the invaders. While the ladies could not draw very well, 
historians are able to get some ideas of the time from their 

We carmot trace the history of the oppoation and the revolts 
of the great nobles which William had to meet within the next 
few years. His position was rendered doubly difficult by troubles 
which he encountered on the Continent as Duke of Normandy. 
Suffice it to say, that he succeeded in maintaining himself against 
all his enemies. 

DD.:eab, Google 

Ii6 The Middle Period of European History 

William's William's policy in England exhibited profound statesman- 

^gEm™ ^P- ^^ introduced the Norman feudalism to which he was 

accustomed, but took good care that it should not weaken his 

power. The English, who had refused to join him before the 

battle of Hastings, were declared to have forfeited their lands, 

but were permitted to keep them upon condition of receiving 

them back from the king as his vassals. The lands of those 

who actually fought against him at Hastings, or in later rebel- 

bons, including the great estates of Harold's family, were seized 

and distributed among his faithful followers, both Norman 

and English, though naturally the Normans among them far 

outnumbered the English. 

He insures William declared that he did not propose to change the Eng- 

acy wKhout ''sH customs but to govern as Edward the Confessor, the last 

'"■rti'F"'"r'h S^'^'' king, had done. He maintained the Witenagemot, a 

customs - council made up of bishops and nobles, whose advice the Saxon 

kings had sought in all important matters. But he was a man 

of too much force to submit to the control of his people. He 

avoided giving to any one person a great many estates in a 

single region, so tiiat no one should become inconveniently 

powerful. Finally, in order to secure the support of the smaller 

landholders and to prevent combinations agamst him among 

the greater ones, he required every landowner in England to 

take an oath of fidelity directly to him, instead of having only a 

few great landowners as vassals who bad their own subvassals 

under their own control, as in France. 

William re. We read in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle {lo&d): "He came, 

fidelity from on the first day of August, to Salisbury, and there came to 

^a^subvas- ^^^ jjj^ ^-^^ ^^^ ^jj^^j j^^ counselors), and all the land-owning 

men of property there were over all England, whosoever men 

they were; and all bowed down to him and became his men, 

and swore oaths of fealty to him that they would be faithful to 

him against all other men." 

It is clear that the Norman Conquest was not a simple change 
of kings, but that a new element was added to the English 

England in the Middle Ages 1 17 

people. We cannot tell how many Normans actually emigrated General re- 
across the Channel, but they evidently came in considerable Nonmii Con. 
numbers, and their influence upon the English habits and gov- l"""* 
emment was very great. A century after William's conquest 
the whole body of the nobility, the bishops, abbots, and govern- 
ment officials, had become practically all Norman. Besides these, 
the architects who built the castles and fortresses, the cathe- 
drals and abbeyi, came from Normandy. Merchants from the 
Norman cities of Rouen and Caen settled in London and other 
English cities, and weavers from Flanders in various towns 
and even in the country. For a short time these newcomers 
remained a separate people, but by the year laoo th?y had 
beccmie for the most part indistinguishable from the great mass 
of English people amongst whom they had come. They had 
nevertheless made the people of England more energetic, active- 
minded, and varied in their occupations and interests than they 
had been before the conquest. 

Henry II and the Plantagenets 

34. William the Conqueror was followed by his sons, William wiUhm 
Rufus and Henry I. Upon the death of the latter the country ^"^'^f^~ 
went through a terrible period of civil war, for some of the Hmiy i, 
nobility supported the Conqueror's grandson Stephen, and some . 
his granddaughter Matilda. After the death of Stephen, when ing in ihe »c- 
Henry II, Matilda's son,' was finally recognized in 1 154. by all H™™n, 
as king, he found the kingdom in a melancholy state. The "54-"89 
nobles had taken advantage of the prevalent disorder to erect 
castles without royal permission and to establish themselves 
as independent rulers, and many disorderly hired soldiers had 
been brought over from the Continent to support the rivals for 
the throne. 

Henry II at once adopted vigorous measures. He destroyed 
the illt^Uy erected fortresses, sent off the foreign soldiers, and 

1 Se« genealogical table below, p. m. 

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The Middle Period of European History 



■ deprived many earls who had been created by Stephen and 

Matilda of their titles. Henry's task was a difficult one. He 
had need of all his tireless energy and quickness of mind to 
restore order in England and at the same time rule the wide 
realms on the Continait which he had either inherited or gained 
through his marriage 
withaFrench heiress. 
In order to avoid 
all excuse for the pri- 
vate warfare which 
was such a persistent 
evil on the Continent, 
he undertook to im- 
prove and reform the 
law courts. He ar- 
ranged that his j udges 
should make regular 
circuits throughout 
the country, so that 
they might try cases 
on the spot at least 
once a year. We 
find, too, the begin- 
ning of our grand 
jury in a body of men 
n each neighborhood 
who were to be duly 
sworn in, from time to time, and should then bring accusations 
against such malefactors as had come to their knowledge. 

As for the " petty " or smaller jury of twelve, which actually 
tried the accused, its origin and history are obscure. Henry IPs 
juries left the verdict for Heaven to pronounce in the ordeal ; 
but a century later we find the jury of twelve itself rendering 
verdicts.' The plan of delegating to twelve men the duty of decid- 
ing on the guilt or innoc«ice of a suspected person was very 

Fig. 37. NoRMAK Gateway j 

Bristol, England 

This beautiful gateway was originally the 

entrance to a monastery, begun in 1 142. It 

is one of the finest examples of the Norman 

style of building to l>e seen in Englan 

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England in the Middle Ages 

different from the earlier 
systems. It resembled 
neither the Roman trial, 
where the judges made 
the decision, nor the 
medieval compurgation 
and ordeals (see above, 
p. 37). The decisions of 
Henry's judges were 
mainly drawn from old 
English custom, instead 
of from Roman law as 
in France, and they be- ' 
came the basis of the 
common law which is 
still used in all English- 
speaking countries. 

Henry's reign was em- 
bittered by the famous 
struggle with Thomas 
Becket, which illustrates 
admirably the peculiar 
dependence of the 
monarchs of his day 
upon the churchmen. 
Becket was bom in 
London and became a 
churchman, but he grew 
up in the service of the 
king and was able to aid 
Henry in gaining the 
throne. Thereupon the 
new king made him 
his chancellor. Becket 
proved an excellent . 

The choir of Canterbury Cathedral wa« 
destroyed by fire four years after Thomas 
Becket was murdered there. The picture 
shows how it was rebuilt under Henry II 
during the years 1175-1 '84- The two lower 
rows of arches are Che round kind that 
had been used up to that time, while the 
upper row showa how the pointed arch 
was coming in. (See bekiw, section 44) 

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120 The Middle Period of European History 

minister and defended the king's interest even against tiic 
Church. He was fond of hunting and of war and maintained 
a brilliant court from the revenues of the numerous church 
positions which he held. It appeared to Henry that there could 
be no better head for the English clergy than his sagacious 
and worldly chancellor. He therefore detennined to make him 
Archbishop of Canterbury, 

In securing the election of Becket as Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, Henry intended to insure his own complete control of the 
Church. He proposed to punish churchmen who committed 
crimes, like other offenders, to make the bishops meet all the 
feudal obligations, and to prevent appeals to the pope. Becket, 
however, immediatdy gave up his gay life and opposed every 
effort of the king to reduce the independence of the Church. 
After a haughty assertion of the supremacy of the Church 
over the king's government,^ Thomas fled from the wrathful 
and disappointed monarch to France and the protection of 
the pope. 

In spite of a patched-up reconciliation with the king, Becket 
proceeded to excommunicate some of the great English prelates 
and, as Henry believed, was conspiring to rob his son of the 
crown. In a fit of anger, Henry exclaimed among his followers, 
" Is there no one to avenge me of this miserable churchman f " 
Unfortunately certain knights took the rash expression literally, 
and Becket was murdered in his own cathedral of Canterbury, 
whither he had returned. The king really had no wish to resort 
to violence, and his sorrow and remorse when he heard of the 
dreadful deed, and his terror at the consequences, were most 
genuine. The pope proposed to excommunicate him. Henry, 
however, made peace with the papa! legates by the solemn as- 
sertion that he had never wi.shed the death of Thomas and by 
promising to return to Canterbury all the property whidi he had 
confiscated, to send money to aid in the capture of the Holy 
Sepulcher at Jerusalem, and to undertake a crusade himself. 

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The Plantagenet Possessions in England and Framce 

122 The Middle Period of European History 

Although Henry II was one of the most important kings in 
English history, he spent a great part of his time across the 
Channel in his French possessions. . A glance at the accompany- 
ing map will show that rather more than half of his realms lay to 
the south of the English Channel. He controlled more territory 
in France than the French king himself. As great-grandson of 
William the Conqueror, he inherited 'the duchy of Normandy 
and the suzerainty over Brittany. His mother, Matilda, had mar- 
ried the count of Anjou and Maine, so that Henry H inherited 
these fiefs along with those which had belonged to William the 
Conqueror. Lastly, he had himself married Eleanor, heiress of the 
dukes of Guienne, and in this way doubled the extent of his French 
lands.' Henry II and his successors are known as the Plantag- 
enets, owing to the habit that his father, the count of Anjou, 
had of wearing a bit of broom (l^zim^planta genista) in his helmet 

So it came about that the French kings beheld a new State, 
under an able and energetic nilcr, developing within their bor- 
ders and including more than half the territory over which they 
were supposed to rule. A few years before Henry II died, an 
ambitious monarch, Philip Augustus, ascended the French 
throne, and made it the chief business of his life to get control 
of his feudal vassals, above all, the Plantagenets. 

1 Willbi 

m the Conqueror, king of England i 



Henry t(ii«-,.]5), 

m. Matilda, daughter 

of Malcolm, king 

of Scotland 

Matilda (d. 1167), 

count of Anjou 

the first PlanUgenet king, 
m. Eleanor of Aquitaine 

Adela. n 



Geoffrey (d. 1 1«6) 


Henry III 

D.D.t.zeab, Google 

England in the Middle Ages \1% 

Henry divided his French possessions among his three sons, Quarrel* in 
Geoffrey, Richard, and John ; but father and sons were engaged family ' 
in constant disputes with one another, as none of them were 
easy people to get along with. Philip Augustus took advantage 
of these constant quarrels of the brothers among themselves 
and with their father. These quarrels were most fortunate for 
the French king, for had the Plantagenets held t<^ther they 
m^ht have annihilated the royal house of France, whose narrow 
dominions their own possessions closed in on the west and south. 

So long as Henry 1 1 lived there was little chance of expelling Kichard ihc 
the Plantagenets from France ; but with the accession of his 
reckless son, Richard the Lion-Hearted, the prospects of the 
French king brightened wonderfully. Richard is one of the 
most famous of medieval knights, but he was a very poor ruler. 
He left his kingdom to take care of itself while he went upon 
a crusade to the Holy Land (see below, p. 177). He persuaded 
Philip Augustus to join him ; but Richard was too overbearing 
and masterful, and Philip too ambitious, to make it possible for 
them to agree for long. The king of France, who was physi- 
cally delfcate, was taken ill on the way and was glad of the 
excuse to return home and brew trouble for his powerful vassaL 
When Richard himself returned, after several years of romantic 
but fruitless adventure, he found himself involved in a war with 
Philip Augustus, in the midst of which he died. .' - 

Richard's younger brother, John, who enjoys the reputation John loses 
of being the most despicable of English kings, speedily gave p,^cs5ions 
Philip a good excuse for seizing a great part of the Plantagenet "^ ""^ *"""' 
lands. John was suspected of conniving at the brutal murder of 
his nephew Arthur (the son of Geoffrey'). He was also guilty 
of the less serious offense of carrying off and marrying a lady 
betrothed to one of his own vassals. Philip Augustus, as John's 
suzerain, summoned him to appear at the French court to answer 
the latter charge. Upon John's refusal to appear or to do 

1 Geoffrey, John's next older brother, who would naturall/ have 

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124 ^^ Middle Period of European History 

homage' for his continental possessions, Philip caused his court 
to issue a decree confiscating almost al! of the Plantagcnet 
lands, leaving to the English king only the southwest comer 
of France. 

Philip found little difficulty in possessing himself of Normandy 
itself, which showed no disinclination to accept him in place of 
the Plantagenets. Sis years after Richard's death the English 
kings had lost all their continental fiefs except Guienne. It 
should be observed that Philip, unlike his ancestors, was no 
k>nger merely suzerain of the new conquests, but made himself 
duke of Normandy, and count, of Anjou, of Maine, etc. The 
boundaries of his domain — that is, the lands which he himself 
controUed directly as feudal lord — now extended to the sea. 

SL Louis, Philip's successor, arranged with John's successor 
in 1258 that the English king should do him homage for Guienne, 
Gascony, and Poitou and should surrender every claim on all the 
rest of the former possessions of the Plantagenets. So it came 
about that the English kings continued to hold a portion of France 
for several hundred years. 

John not only lost Normandy and other territories which had 
belonged to the earlier Norman kings but he actually consented 
to become the pope's vassal, receive England as a fief from 
the papacy, and pay tribute to Rome. This strange proceeding 
came about in this wise: The monks of Canterbury had (1205) 
ventured to choose an archbishop — who was at the same time 
their abbot ' — without consulting King John. Their appointee 
hastened off to Rome to gain the pope's confirmation, while the 
irritated John forced the monks to hold another election and 
make his treasurer archbishop. The pope at that time was no 
less a person than Innocent III, one of the greatest of medieval 
rulers,' Innocent rejected both the men who had been elected, 
sent for a new deputation of monks from Canterbury, and bade 
them choose Stephen Langton, a man of great ability. John 
then angrily drove the monks of Canterbury out of the kingdom, 

1 S*e above, p. 63. * See below, p. 163. 

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England in the Middle Ages 125 

Innocent replied by placing England under the interdict; that England ui 
is to say, he ordered the clergy to close all the churches and ^ 
suspend all public services — a very terrible thing to the people 
of the time. John was excommunicated, and the pope threatened 
that unless the king submitted to his wishes he would depose 
him and give his crown to Philip Augustus of France. As Philip 
made haste to collect an army for the conquest of England, 
John humbly submitted to the pope in 1213. He went so far 
as to hand England over to Innocent HI and receive it back as 
a fief, thus becoming the vassal of the pope. He agreed also 
to send a yearly tribute to Rome, 

The Great Charter and the Beginnings of 

35. We must now turn to the most important event in John's 
rdgn — the drawing up of the Great Charter of English 

When, in 1213, John proposed to lead his English vassals Thegnnt- 
across the water in order to attempt to reconquer his lost pos- G«ai Cluu 
sessions in France, they refused to accompany him on the ground **'■ "'* 
that their feudal obligations did not bind them to fight outside 
of their country. Moreover, they showed a lively discontent with 
John's tyranny and his neglect of those limits of the kingly 
power which several of the earlier Norman kings had solemnly 
recognized. In 12143 number of the barons met and took a 
solemn oath that they would compel the king, by arms if neces- 
sary, to sign a charter containing the things which, according 
to English traditions, a king might not do. As John would not 
agree to do this, it proved necessary to get together an army 
and march against him. The insurgent nobles met him at 
Runnymede, not far from London, Here on the isth of June, 
1215, they forced him to swear to observe what they believed 
to be the rights of his subjects, which they had careful^ 
written out. 

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1 26 The Middle Period of European History 

The Great Charter is perhaps the most famous document in 
the history of government ; ■ its provisions furnish a brief and 
comprehensive statement of the burning governmental questions 
of that period. The nobles, who concluded this great treaty with 
a tyrannous ruler, saw that it was to their interest to have the 
rights of the common freeman saf^^arded as well as their 
own. The king promises to observe the rights of his vassals, 
and the vassals in turn agree to observe the rights of their men. 
The towns are not to be oppressed. The merchant is not to be 
deprived of his goods for small offenses, nor the farmer of his 
wagon and implements. The king is to impose no tax, besides 
the three stated feudal aids,* except with the consent of the 
great council of the nation. This is to include the prelates and 
greater barons and all who hold directly of the king. 

There is no more notable clause in the Charter than that which 
provides that no freeman is to be arrested, or imprisoned, or 
deprived of his property. Unless he be immediately sent before 
a court of his peers for trial. To realize the importance of this, 
we must recollect that in France, down to 1789, — nearly six 
hundred years later, — the king exercised such unlimited powers 
that he could order the arrest of any one he pleased, and could 
imprison him for any length of time without bringing him to 
trial, or even informing him. of the nature of his offense. The 
Great Charter provided further that the king should permit 
merchants to move about freely and should observe the privileges 
of the various towns ; nor were his officers longer to be allowed 
to exercise despotic powers over those under them. 

In spite of his solemn confirmation of the Charter, John, 
with his accustomed treachery, made an unsuccessful attempt to 
break his promises in the Charter ; but neither he nor his suc- 
cessors ever succeeded in getting rid of the document. Later 
there were times when the En^sh kings evaded its provisions 

S These were payme „ 

eldcBt daughter in marriage, or had hi 


England in the Middle Ages 127 

and tried to rule as absolute monarchs. But the people always 
sooner or later bethought them of the Charter, which thus con- 
tinued to form a barrier against permanent despotism in England. 

During the long reign of John's son, Henry III, England Henry 111, 
b^an to construct her Parliament, an institution which has not "" "''' 
only played a most important role in English history, but has 
also served as the model for similar bodies in almost eveiy 
civilized state in the world. 

The Great Council of the Norman kings, like the older Wite- 
nagemoC of Saxon times, was a meeting of nobles, bishops, and 
abbots, which the king summoned from time to time to give 
him advice and aid, and to sanction important governmental 
undertakings. During Henry's reign its meetings became more 
frequent and its discussions more vigorous than before, and the 
name Parliament began to be applied to it. 

In 1265 a famous Parliament was held, where a most impor- TheCom- 
tant new class of members — the commons — were present, who monedto^ 
- were destined to give it its future greatness. In addition to the ffi:'™*^"'' 
nobles and prelates, two simple kn^ts were summoned from 
each county and two citizens from each of the more flourishing 
towns to attend and take part in the discussions. 

Edward I, the next king, definitely adopted this innovation. The Model 
He doubtless called in the representatives of the towns because e"*™"" ° 
the townspeople were becoming rich and he wished to have an '^5 
opportunity to ask them to make grants of money to meet the 
expenses of the government He also wished to obtain the 
approval of all classes when he determined upon important 
measures affecting the whole realm. Ever since the scxalled 
"Model Parliament" of 1295, the commons, or representatives 
of the people, have always been included along with the clergy 
and nobility when the national assembly of England has been 

The Parliament early took the stand that the king must agree Redrcu of 
to "redress of grievances" before they woukl grant him any ^""'"'^ 
money. This meant that the king had to promise to remedy any 

Ck")0<^ Ic 

128 The Middle Period of European History 

acts of himself or his ofRdals of which Parliament complained 
before it would agree to let him raise the taxes. Instead of fol- 
lowing the king about and meeting wherever he might happen 
to be, the parliament from the time of Edward I began to hold 
its sessions in the city of Westminster, now a part of London, 
where it sdll continues to meet. 
Growth of Under Edward's successor, Edward I], Parliament solemnly 

FBil^ent declared in 1322 that important matters relating to the king and 
his heirs, the state of the realm and of the people should be con- 
sidered and determined upon by the king " with the assent of the 
prelates, earls and barons, and the commonalty (that is, com- 
mons) of the realm." Five years later Parliament showed its 
power by deposing the inefficient king, Eklward II, and declared 
his son, Edward III, the rightful ruler of England. 

The new king, who was carrying on an expensive war with 
France, needed much money and consequently summoned Par- 
liament every year, and, in order to encourage its members to 
grant him money, he gratified Parliament by asking their advice 
and listening to their petitions. He passed no new law without 
adding " by and with the advice and consent of the lords spiritual 
and temporal and of the commons." 
House of At this time the separation of the two houses of Parliament 

Hou^'of took place, and ever since the " lords spiritual and temporal " — 
Commona (j^g^ jg^ j^e bishops and higher nobles,— have sat by themselves 
in the House of Lords, and a House of Commons, including the 
country gentiemen (knights) and the representatives elected by 
the more important towns, have met by themselves. Parliament 
thus made up is really a modem, not a medieval, institution, 
and we shall hear much of it later. 

Wales and Scotland 
Extent of the a6. The English kings who preceded Edward I had ruled 
E^iand's ""er only a portion of the island of Great Britain. To the west 
^war^/""* of their kingdom lay the mountainous district of Wales, in- 
{1J72-1307) habited by that remnant of the original Britons which the 


D.D.t.zea by Google 

——, . ^ 1 







• 11 







Si 1 

3 by Google 

England in the Middle Ages 1 29 

German invaders had been unable to conquer. To the north of 
England was the kingdom of Scotland, which was quite inde- 
pendent except for an occasional recognition by the Scotch 
kings of the English kings as their feudal superiors. Edward I, - .' .' ' 
however, succeeded in conquering Wales pennanently and 
Scotland temporarily. 

For centuries a border warfare had been carried on between The Welsh 
the English and the Webh. William the Conqueror had found b^"' 
it necessary to establish a chain of fortresses on the Welsh fron- , 
tier, and Chester, Shrewsbury, and Monmouth became the out- 
posts of the Normans. While the raids of the Welsh constantly 
provoked the English kings to invade Wales, no permanent con- 
quest was possible, for the enemy retreated into the mountains 
about Snowden, and the English soldiers were left to starve 
in the wild regions into which they had ventured. The Welsh 
were encouraged in their long and successful resistance against 
the English by the songs of their bards, who promised that 
their people would sometime reconquer the whole of England, 
which they had possessed before the coming of the Angles 
atvi Saxons. 

When Edward I came to the throne he demanded that Edward i 
Llewellyn, prince of Wales, as the head of the Welsh clans was w^J^" 
called, should do him homage. Llewellyn, who was a man of 
ability and energy, refused the king's summons, and Edward 
marched into Wales. Two campaigns were necessary before the 
Welsh finally succumbed. Llewellyn was killed (1282), and with 
him expired the independence of the Welsh people. Edward 
divided the country into shires and introduced English laws and 
customs, and his policy of conciliation was so successful that 
there was but a single rising in the country for a whole century. 
He later presented his son to the Welsh as their prince, and from 
that time down to the present the title of " Prince of Wales " The tide o( 
has usually been conferred upon the heir to the English throne, waies " 

The conquest of Scotland proved a far more difficult matter 
than that of Wales. 

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1 30 The Middle Period of European History 

Lowlands and When the German peoples — the Angles and Saxons — con- 
of Scotland quercd Britain, some of them wandered north as far as the Firth 
of Forth and occupied the so-called Lowlands of Scotland. The 
mountainous region to the north, known as the Highlands, con- 
tinued to be held by wild tribes related to the Welsh and Irish 
and talking a language similar to theirs, namely Gaelic. There 
was constant warfare between the older inhabitants themselves 
and between them and the newcomers from Germany, but both 
Highlands and Lowlands were finally united under a line of 

Fig, 39. Conway Castle 
Edward built this fine castle in 1284 on the north coast of Wales, to 
keep the Welsh in check. ItswalUare is to isfeet in thickness. There 
were buildings inside, including a great banqueting hall 130 feet long 

Scottish kings, who moved their residence down to Edinburgh, 
which, with its fortress, became their chief town. 

It was natural that the language of the Scotch Lowlands 
should be English, but in the mountains the Highlanders to this 
day continue to talk die ancient (Jaelic of their forefathers. 
Edward inter- It was not Until the time of Edward I that the long series of 
ScoKh'affairs troubles between England and Scotland began. The death of 
the last representative old line of Scotch kings in 1290 was fol- 
lowed by the appearance of a number of claimants to the crown. 

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England in the Middle Ages 131 

In order to avoid civil war, Edward was asked to decide who 
should be king. He agreed to make the decision on condition 
that the one whoni he selected should hold Scotland as 2.Jief 
from the English king. This arrangement was adopted, and 
the crown was given to John Baliol. £ut Edward unwisely 
made demands upon the Scots which aroused their anger, and 
their king renounced his homage to the king of England. The 
Scotch, moreover, formed an alliance with Edward's enemy, t 
Philip the Fair of France ; thenceforth, in all the difficulties \^ai and 
between England and France, the English kings had always F"™* 
to reckon with the disaffected Scotch, who were glad to aid 
England's enemies. 

Edward marched in person against the Scotch (1269) and Ednsrdu- 
speedily put down what he regarded as a rebellion. He declared conK^te"' 

that Baliol had forfeited his fief through treason, and that con- ^*'?f"' , . 
o ' with JSngUikd 

sequently the English king had become the real ruler of Scot- 
land. He emphasized his claim by carrying ofF the famous 
Stone of Scone (now in Westminster Abbey), upon which the 
kings of Scotland had been crowned for ages. Continued resist- 
ance led Edward to attempt to incorporate Scotland with Eng- 
land in the same way that he had treated Wales. This was the 
beginning of three hundred years of intermittent war between 
England and Scotland, which ended only when a Scotch king, 
James VI, succeeded to the English throne in 1603 as James I. 
That Scotland was able to maintain her independence was 
mainly due to Robert Bruce, a national hero who succeeded in 
bringing both the nobility and the people under his leadership. 
Edward I died, old and worn out, in 1307, when on his way 
north to put down a rising under Bruce, and left the task of 
dealing with the Scotch to his incompetent son, Edward II. 
TTie Scotch acknowledged Bruce as their king and decisively 
defeated Edward II in the great battle of Bannockbum, the Battle of 
most famous conflict in Scottish history. Nevertheless, the ^"J'^"™'™™' 
English refused to acknowledge the independence of Scotland 
until forced to do so in 1338. 

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132 The Middle Period of European History 

The Scottish In the course of their struggles with England the Scotch 
fro^'ihe "* people of the Lowlands had become more closely welded to- 
Engliih gether, and the independence of Scotland, although it caused 

much bloodshed, first and last, served to develop certain per- 
manent difEerences between the little Scotch nation and the rest 
of the Ekiglish race. No Scotchman to the present day likes to 
be mistaken for an Englishman. The peculiarities of the lan- 
guage and habits of the people north of the Tweed have been 
made familiar to all readers of good literature by the novels of 
Sir Walter Scott and Robert L. Stevenson and by the poems 
of Robert BumSj/^ 

^\\ The Hundred Years' War 

The Hun- vj- England and France were both becoming strong states in 

W«r "" ^^ e^'y fourteenth century. The king in both of these countries 
had got the better of the feudal lonis, and a parliament had been 
established in France as well as in England, in which the towns- 
people as well as the clergy and nobility were represented. But 
both countries were set back by a long series of conflicts known 
as the Hundred Years' War, which was especially disastrous to 
France. The trouble arose as follows ; 
Edwani III It wiU be remembered that King John of England had lost 

French ''U the French possessions of the Plantagenets except the duchy 

crown of Guienne(seeabove, pp. r23-i24). For this he had to do hom- 

age to the king of France and become his vassal. This arrange- 
ment lasted for many years, but in the times of Edward III 
the old French line of kings died out, and Edward declared 
that he himself was the rightful ruter of all France because his 
mother, Isabella, was a sister of the last king of the old line (see 
table on the next page). 
Edward III The French lawyers, however, decided that Edward had no 
F^te claim to the French throne and that a very distant relative of 

the last king was the rightful heir to the crown (Philip VI). 
Edward, nevertheless, maintained that he was rightfully king of 

England in the Middle Ages 


France/ He added the French emblem of the lilies (fleur-de- 
lis) to the lions on the English coat of aims (Fig. 40). In 
1346 he landed in Normandy with an English army, devas- 
tated the country and marched up the Seine toward Paris. He 
met the troops of Philip at Cre^y, where a celebrated battle was Bmttie of 
fought, in which the English with their long bows and well- "*''' '^ 
directed arrows put to rout the French knights. Ten years 
later the Ejiglish made another incursion into France and again 
defeated the French cavalry. The French king (Johp II) was 
himself captured and carried off to London. 

The French Parliament, commonly called the Estates Gen- The French 
eral, came together to consider the unhappy state of affairs. (E»ute» * 
The members from the towns were more numerous than the Q'"'"') 
representatives of the deigy and nobility. A great list of 

1 The French kinga during the foutteenth and fifteenth centuiiei : 
Louii IX (St \joaa) <i2i6-ii7a) 
PhlUp III |ii7o-i38;) 


(1364-1380) founder of 
I the power- 
Chubs VI ■ 

of Bur- 

Charles VII (1411-1461) 

Louis XI {1461-14S3) 
Chulei VIII <I4S]-I4gg) 

3 by Google 

between thi 

General ani 
the English 

1 34 The Middle Period of European History 

reforms was drawn up. These provided among other things that 
the Estates General should meet regularly even when the kif^ 
failed to summon them, and that the collection and expenditure 
of the public revenue should be no longer entirely under the 
control of the king but should be supervised by the representa- 
tives of the people. The city of Paris rose in support of the 
revolutionary Estates, but the violence of its allies discredited 
rather than helped the move- 
ment, and France was soon 
glad to accept the unrestricted 
rule of its king once more. 

The history of the Estates 
General forms a curious con- 
trast to that of the English 
Parliament, which was laying 
the foundation of its later power 
during this very period. While 
the French king occasionally 
summoned the Estates when he 
needed money, he did so only in 
order that their approbation of 
new taxes might make it easier 
to collect them. He never 
admitted that he had not the 
right to levy taxes if he wished 
without consulting his subjects. 
In England, on the other hand, the kings ever since the time 
of Edward I had repeatedly agreed that no new taxes should 
be imposed without the consent of Parliament. Edward II, as 
we have seen, had gone farther and accepted the representatives 
of the people as his advisers in ail important matters touching the 
welfare of the realm. While the French Estates gradually sank 
into insignificance, the English Parliament soon learned to grant 
no money until the king had redressed the grievances which it 
pointed out, and thus it insured its influence over the kmg*s policy. 

On the upper Defc-hand quarter 
and the lower right-hand are the 
lilies as represented in heraldry 

D.D.t.zeab, Google 

England in the Middle Ages 135 

Edward III found it impossible, however, to conquer France, Edward m 
and the successor of the French King, John II, managed before possible to 
Edwaid died in 1377 to get back almost all the lands that p^J^' 
the English had occupied. 

For a generation after the death of Edward III the war with Miserable 
France was almost discontinued. France had suffered a great France 
deal more than England. In the first place, all the fighting had 
been done on her side of the Channel, and in the second place, 
the soldiers, who found themselves without occupation, wandered 
about in bands maltreating and plundering the people. The 
famous Italian scholar, Petrarch, who visited France at this 
period, tells us that he couid not believe that this was the 
same kingdom which he had once seen so rich and flourishing. 
" Nothing presented itself to ray eyes but fearful solitude and 
extreme poverty, uncultivated land and houses in ruins. Even 
about Paris there were everywhere signs of fire and destruction. 
The streets were deserted ; the roads overgrown with weeds." ^ 

The horrors of war had been increased by the deadly bubonic Th, bubonic 
plague which appeared in Europe early in 1348. In April it 13^8-1349, 
had reached Florence; by August it was devastating France ^j^^^ 
and Germany; it then spread over England from the south- bbdt death 
west northward, attacking every part of the country during the 
year 1349. This disease, like other terrible epidemics, such as 
smallpox and cholera, came from Asia. Those who were stricken 
with it usually died in two or three days. It is impossible to 
tell what proportion of the popubtion perished. Reports of the 
time say that in one part of France but one tenth of the people 
survived, in another but one sixteenth ; and that for a loi^ time 
five hundred bodies were carried from the great hospital of 
Paris every day. A careful estimate shows that in England 
toward one half of the population died. At the Abbey of New^ 
enham only the abbot and two monks were left alive out of 
twenty-six. There were .constant complaints that certain lands 
were no longer of any value to their lords because the tenants 
were all dead. 

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1 36 The Middle Period of European History 

Condidonsol In England the growing discontent among the farming 
"^ " classes may be ascribed partly to the results of the great pesti- 

lence and partly to the new taxes which were levied in order to 
prolong the disastrous war with France. Up to this time the 
majority of those who cultivated the land belonged to some 
particular manor, paid stated dues to their lord, and performed 
definite services for him. Hitherto there had been relatively 
few farm hands who might be hired and who sought employ- 
ment anywhere that they could get it. The black death, by 
greatly decreasing the number of laborers, raised wages and 
served to increase the importance of the unattached laborer. 
Consequently he not only demanded higher wages than ever 
before but readily' deserted one employer when another offered 
him more money. 
The Stacuces This appeared very shocking to those who were accustomed 
issued id"" to the traditional rates of payment ; and the government under- 
lowbie'p-'iH *'^'' '** V.'^^ down wages by prohibiting laborers from asking 
more than had been customary during the years that preceded 
the pestilence. Every laborer, when offered work at the estab- 
lished wages, was ordered to accept it on pain of imprisonment. 
The first "Statute of Laborers" was issued in i3Sr.; but 
apparently it was not obeyed and similar laws were enacted 
from time to time for a century. 
Breaking up The old manor system was breaking up. Many of the labor- 
eval manors iig ^lass in the Country no longer held land as serfs but moved 
in England ij^ycn placc to place and made a living by working for wages. 
The villain, as the serf was called in England, began to regard 
the dues which he had been accustomed to pay to his lord as 
unjust. A petition to Parliament in 1377 asserts that the vil- 
lains are refusing to pay their customary services to their lords 
or to acknowledge the obligations which they owe as serfs. 
The peasant In 1381 the peasants rose in revolt against the taxes levied 
""" '■*^' on them to carry on the hopeless war with France, They burned 
some of the houses of the nobles and of the rich ecclesiastics, and 
took particular pains to see that the registers were destroyed 

England in the Middle Ages 137 

which were kept by the various lords enumerating the obligations 
of thdr serfs. 

Although the peasants met with little su<xess, serfdom de- Final diup- 
cayed rapidly. It became more and more common for the serf S^JaSm jn 
to pay his dues to the lord in money instead of working for him, Engbnd 
and in this way he lost one of the chief characteristics of a serf. 
The landlord then either hired men to cultivate the fields which 
he reserved for his own use, or rented the land to tenants. 
These tenants were not in a posidon to force their fellow 
tenants on the manor to pay the full dues which had formerly 
been exacted, by the lord. Sixty or seventy years after the 
Peasants' War the English rural population had in one way or 
another become free men, and serfs had practically disappear^ 

The war between England and France almost ceased for Rencml af 
nearly forty years after the death of Edward III. It was re- YKHs'wtr 
newed in 1415, and the English king won another great victory '" '<'5 
at Agincourt, similar to that won at Cre^y, Once more the 
English bowmen slaughtered great numbers of French knights. 
Fifteen years later the Ejiglish had succeeded in conquering all 
of France north of the Loire River ; but a considerable region 
to the south still continued to be held by King Charles VII of 
France, He was weak and indolent and was doing nothii^ to 
check the English victories. The English were engaged in be- 
sieging the great town of Orleans when help and encoun^e- 
ment came to the French from a most unexpected quarter. A 
peasant girl put on a soldier's armor, mounted a horse, and led 
the faint-hearted French troops to victory. 

To her family and her companions Joan of Arc seemed only Joan ot Arc 
" a good girl, simple and pleasant In her ways," but she 
brooded much over the disasters that had overtaken her coui)- 
try, and a " great pity on the fair realm of France " filled her 
heart She saw visions and heard voices that bade her go forth 
to the help of the king and lead him to Rheims to be crowned. 

It was with the greatest difficulty that she got anybody to 
believe in her mission or to help her to get an audience with 


1 38 The Middle Period of European History 

her sovereign. But her own fimi faith in her divine guidance 
triumphed over all doubts and obstacles. She was at last ac- 
cepted as a God-sent champion and placed at the head of some 
troops dispatched to the relief of Orleans. This dty, which was 
the key to southern France, had been besieged by the English 
for some months and was on the point of surrender. Joan, vi:ho 
rode at the head of her troops, clothed in armor like a man, 
had now become the idol of the soldiers and of the people. 
Under the guidance and inspiration of her courage, sound sense, 
and burning enthusiasm, Orleans was relieved and the Ejiglish 
completely routed The Maid of Orleans, as she was hence- 
forth called, was now free to conduct the king to Rheims, 
where he was crowned in the cathedral (July 17, 1429). 

The Maid now felt that her mission was accomplished and 
begged permission to return to her home and her brothers and 
sisters. To this the king would not consent, and she continued 
to fight his battles with success. But the other leaders were ■ 
jealous of her, and even her friend%, the soldiers, were sensitive 
to the taunt of being led by a woman. During the defense of 
Compi^ne in May, 1 430, she was allowed to fall into the hands 
of the Duke of Burgundy, who sold her to the English. They 
were not satisfied with simply holding as prisoner that strange 
maiden who had so discomfited them ; they wished to discredit 
everything that she had done, and so declared, and undoubtedly 
believed, that she was a witch who had been helped by the 
' devil She was tried by a court of clergymen, found guilty, 
and burned at Rouen in 1431. Her bravery and noble con- 
stancy affected even her executioners, and an E^lish soldier 
who had come to triumph over her death was heard to ex- 
claim: "We are lost — we have burned a saint" The English 
cause in France was indeed bst, for her spirit and example had 
given new courage and vigor to the French armies. 

The English Parliament became more and more reluctant to 
grant funds when there were no more victories gained. From 
this time on the English lost ground steadily. They were 


England in the Middle Ages 139 

expelled from Normandy in 1450. Three years later, the last 
vestige of their possessions in southern France passed into the 
hands of the French king. The Hundred Years' War was End of the 
over, and although England still retained Calais, the great ques- y"™' War 
tion whether she should extend her sway upon the Continent '*S3" 
was finally settled. 

The close of the Hundred Years' War was followed in Eng- The Wan ot 
land by the Wars of the Roses, between the rival houses which tween the 
were struggling for the crown. The badge of the house of J^"^"* 
Lancaster was a red rose, and that of York was a white one.' »nd Vork, 
E^h party was supported by a group of the wealthy and pow- 
erful nobles whose conspiracies, treasons, murders, and execu- . ( \[. 
tions fill the annals of England during the period which we have -UJJ-^ 
been discussing. 

The nobles no longer owed their power as they had in pre- Reudnen 
vious centuries to vassals who were bound to follow them to 
war. Like the king, they relied upon hired soldiers. It was easy 
to find plenty of restless fellows who were willing to become 
the retainers of a nobleman if be would agree to clothe them 
and keep open house, where they might eat and drink their fill. 
Their master was to help them when they got into trouble, and 

< Descent of the rival houses of Lancaster and York : 
EcwARr. Ill (1317-1377) 

Edwani, John of Gaunt, Edmund, 

the Black Piince duke of Lancaster duke of York 

(d- '|376) I \ I r 

Richard II Henry IV (1399-1413) John Beaufort Ricliard 

Hbnrv V (T413-1412) John Beaufort Richard 
Henry VI (1423-1461) 

Henbv VII, m. Elizabeth of York Edward V, 

(i4S5-i;o9) murdered in 

first of the the Tower, 

Tudor king* 1483 

3 by Google 

I40 Tke Middle Period of European History 

they on their part were expected to intimidate, misuse, and 
even murder at need those who opposed the interests of their 
AceesBimof It is needless to speak of the several battles and the many 
1^%^ ' skirmishes of the miserable Wars of the Roses. These lasted 
from I4SS, when the 
Duke of York set seri- 
ously to work to dis- 
place the weak-minded ■ 
fl rJ t"''-^ ^' ' Lancastrian king (Henry 

, (^ VI), until the accession 

pCl ■ ■-■'- ■ *■ of Henry VII, of the 

house of Tudor, thirty 
years later. (See table 
on page 139.) 

The Wars of the 

Roses had important 

results. Nearly all the 

Fig. 41. Portrait of Henrv VII powerful families of 

England had been drawn 

The deipot- into the war, and a great part of the nobility, whom the kings 

Tudors had formerly feared, had perished on the battlefield or lost 

their heads in the ruthless executions carried out by each 

party after it gained a victory, ITiis left the king far more 

powerful than ever before. He could now control Parliament, 

even if he could not do away with it. For a century and more 

after the accession of Henry VII the Tudor kings enjoyed 

almost despotic power. England ceased for a time to enjoy 

the free government for which the foundations had been 

laid under the Edwards, whose embarrassments at home and 

abroad had made them constandy dependent upon the aid of 

the nadon. 

France estab- In France the closing years of the Hundred Years' War 

ing army, l*^ witnessed a great increase of the king's power through the 

M3» establishment of a wellnirganized standing army. The feudal 


England in the Middle Ages 141 

ttrn^ had long ^nce disappeared. Even before the opening 
of the war the nobles had begun to be paid for their military 
services and no longer furnished troops as a condition of hold- 
ing fiefs. But the companies of soldiers found their pay very 
uncertain, and plundered their counOymen as well as the 

As the war drew to a close, the lawless troopers became a 
terrible scourge to the country and were known a.% flayers, on 
account of the horrible way in which they tortured the peasants 
in the hope of extracting money from them. In 1439 the Estates 
General approved a plan devised by the king, for putting an 
end to this evil. Thereafter no one was to raise a company 
without the permission of the king, who was to name the 
captains and fix the number of the soldiers. 

The Estates agreed that the king should use a certain tax, The ptrma- 
called the iaille, to support the troops necessary for the pro- (aiai lo the 
tection of the frontier. This was a fata] concession, for the ^^^g^ 
king now had an army and the right lo collect what he chose to '"^ 
consider a permanent tax, the amount of which he later greatly 
increased ; he was not dependent, as was the Ejiglish king, 
upon the grants made for brief periods by the representatives 
of the nation. 

Before the king of France could hope to establish a compact. The new 
well-organized state it was necessary for him to reduce the power 
of his vassals, some of whom were almost his equals in strength. 
The older feudal families had many of them succumbed to the 
attacks and the diplomacy of the kings of the thirteenth century, 
especially of St Louis. But he and his successors had raised 
up fresh rivals by granting whole provinces to their younger 
sons. In this way new and powerful -lines of feudal nobles were 
established, such, for example, as the houses of Orleans, Anjou, 
Bourbon, and, above all. Burgundy. The process of reducing 
the power of the nobles had, it is true, been begun. They had 
been forbidden to coin money, to maintain armies, and to tax 
th^ subjects, and the powers of the king's judges had been 


142 The Middle Period of European History 

extended over all the realm. But the task of consolidating 
France was reserved for the son of Charles VII, the shrewd 
and treacherous Louis XI {1461-1483), 

The most powerful and dangerous of Louis XL's vassals 
were the dukes of Burgundy, and they gave him a great deal of 
trouble. Of Burgundy something will be said in a later chapter. 
Louis XI had himself made 
heir to a number of provinces in 
central and southern France, — 
Anjou, Maine, Provence, etc, 
— which by the death of 
their possessors came under the 
king's immediate con trol(i4Si). 
He humiliated in various ways 
the vassals who in his early 
days had combined against him. 
The Duke of Alen9on he im- 
prisoned; the rebellious Duke 
of Nemours he caused to be 
Fig. 42. Louis XI of France executed in the most cruel 
manner. Louis's aims were 
worthy, but his means were generally despicable. It some- 
times seemed as if he gloried in being the most rascally among 
rascals, the most treacherous among the traitors. 

Both England and France emerged from the troubles and 
desolations of the Hundred Years' War stronger than ever 
1^J^^"°"' before. In both countries the kings had overcome the menace 
of feudalism by destroying the power of the great families. 
The royal government was becoming constantly more powerful. 
Commerce and industry increased the people's wealth and sup 
plied the monarchs with the revenue necessary to maintain gov- 
ernment officials and a sufficient army to keep order throughout 
their realms. They were no longei* forced to rely upon the 
uncertain fidelity of their vassals. In short, England and 
France were both becoming modem states. Google 

England in the Middle Ages 143 


Section 23. Tell what you can about England before the Nor- 
man Conquest How did Normandy come into existence? How 
did William of Normandy get possession of England? What was 
William's policy after he conquered England? 

Section 24. Mention some of the reforms of Henry !l. Describe 
Henry's troubles with Thomas i Becket What was the extent of 
the possessions of the Plantagenets in France? In what way did the 
French king succeed in getting a considerable part of the Plantagenet 
possessions into his own hands? Describe the chief events in the 
reign of King John of England. 

Section 25. How was the Great Charter granted, and what were 
some of its main provisions ? What is the English Parliament ? When 
was it formed ? What were its powers ? 

Section 26. When was Wales conquered by the English kings? 
What are the Highlands and the Lowlands of Scotland? Tell of the 
attempts of Edward 1 to get pKtssession of Scotland. 

Section 27. Give the origin and general course of the Hundred 
Years' War under Edward III. Why did not the Estates General 
become as powerful as the English Parliament? Tell about the black 
death. What led to the disappearance of serfdom in England ? Give 
an account of Joan of Arc What were the great causes of disorder 
in England during the generation before the accession of Henry VII ? 
Why did feudalism revive in France? What was accomplished by 
Louis XI? 

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popes add emperors 

Origin of the Holy Roman Empire 

a8. Charlemagne's successors in the German part of his 
empire found it quite as hard as did the kings of the western, 
or French, kingdom to keep control of their vassals. Germany, 
like France, was divided up into big and little fiefs, and the 
dukes and counts were continually waging war upon each other 
and upon their king. The general causes of this chronic disorder 
in the Middle Ages have been described in a previous chapter. 

The first German ruler whom we need to notice here was 
Otto the Great, who came to the throne in the year 936. He 
got as many of the great fiefs as possible into the hands of his 
relatives in the hope that they would be faithful to him. He 
put an end forever to the invasions of the Hungarians who had 
been ravaging Germany. He defeated them in a great battle 
near Augsburg and drove them out of his realms. As has 
already been said (see above, p. 92), they finally settled in 
eastern Europe and laid the foundations of what is now the 
important State of Hungary, 

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P^es and Emperors 145 

But the most noteworthy of Otto's acts was his interference 
in Italian affairs, which led to his winning for the Gennan kings 
the imperial crown that Charlemagne had worn. We have seen 1 
how Charlemagne's successors divided up his realms into three 
parts by the Treaty of Mersen in 870 (see above, p. 88). One 
of these parts was the kingdom of Italy. We know but little 
of what went on in Italy for some time after the Treaty of 
Mersen. There was incessant warfare, and the disorder was 
increased by the attacks of the Mohammedans. Various power- 
ful nobles were able to win the crown for short periods. Three 
at least of .these Italian kings were crowned emperor by the 
pop& Then for a generation there was no emperor in the west, 
until Otto the Great again secured the title. 

It would seem as if Otto had quite enough trouble at home, otto the 
but he thought that it would make him and his reign more cmM«kingof 
glorious if he added northern Italy to his realms. So in 951 \^^^ 
he crossed the Alps, married the widow of one of the Italian cinwned 
kings, and, without being formally crowned, was generally ac- ' 

knowledged as king of Italy. He had to hasten back to Ger- 
many to put down a revolt organized by his own son, but ten 
years later he was called to Rome by the pope to protect him 
from the attacks of his enemies. Otto accepted the invitation, 
and the grateful pope in return crowned him emperor, as 
Charlemagne's successor (962). 

The coronation of Otto was a very important event in Ger- 
man history ; for, from this time on, the German kings, instead 
of confining their attention to keeping their own kingdom in 
order, were constantly distracted by the necessity of keeping 
hold on their Italian kingdom, which lay on the other side of a 
great range of mountains. Worse than that, they felt that they 
must see to it that a pope friendly to them was elected, and 
this greatly added to their troubles. 

The succeeding German emperors had usually to make sev- 
eral costly and troublesome journeys to Rome, — a first one to 
be crowned, and then others either to depose a hostile pope Of 

C k")0<^ Ic 

146 The Middle Period of European History 

to protect a friendly one from the oppression of ndghboring 
lords. These excursions were very distracting, especially to a 
ruler who left behind him in Germany a rebellious nobility that 
always took advantage of his absence to revolt. 

Otto's successors dropped their old title of king of the East 
Franks as soon as they had been duly crowned by the pope at 
Rome, and assumed the magnificent and all-embracing designa- 
tion, " Emperor Ever August of the Romans."' Their " Holy 
Roman Empire," as it came to be called later, which was to 
endure, in name at least, for more than eight centuries, was 
obviously even less like that of the ancient Romans than was 
Charlemagne's. As kings in Germany and Italy they had prac- 
tically all the powers that they enjoyed as emperors. The title 
of emperor was of course a proud one, but it gave the German 
kings no additional power except tbe fatal right that they claimed 
of taking part in the election of the pope. We shall find that, 
instead of making themselves feared at home and building up 
a great state, the German emperors wasted their strength in 
a long struggle with the popes, who proved themselves in the 
end far stronger, and eventually reduced the Empire to a mere 

The Church akd its Propertv 

39. In order to understand the long struggle between the 
emperors and the popes, we must stop a moment to consider 
the condition of the Church in the early Middle Ages. It 
seemed to be losing all its strength and dignity and to be 
falling apart, just as Charlemagne's empire had dissolved into 
feudal bits. This was chiefly due to the vast .estates of the 
clergy. Kings, princes, and rich landowners had long con- 
sidered it meritorious to make donations to bishoprics and 

I Henry II (1002-1024) ^"^ ^*^ tuccesson, not venturing to aBsume the title 
of empetor till crcmned at Rome, but anxious to cUioi Rome as attached to the 
German crown, began to call themselves, belore their coronatiOD, King of the 


Popes and Emperors 147 

monasteries, so that a very considerable portion of the land 
in western Europe had come into the hands of churchmen. 

A king, or other landed proprietor, might grant fiefs to The Church 
churchmen as well as to laymen. The bishops became the inio the 
vassals of the king or of other feudal lords by doing jjpmagc ™i'l 
for a fief and swearing fidelity, just as any other vassal wouk^ 
do. An abbot would sometimes secure for his monastery the' 
protection of a neighboring lord by giving up his land and 
receiving it back again as a fief. 

One great difference, however, existed between the Church Fiet« held 
lands and the ordinary fiefs. According to the law of the ^n not 
Qiurch, the bishops and abbots could not marry and so could "="<"t=^ 
have no children to whom they m^t transmit their property. 
Consequently, when a landholding churchman died, some one 
had to be chosen in his place who should enjoy his property 
and perform his duties. The rule of the Church had been, 
from time immemorial, that the clei^ of the diocese should 
choose the bishop, their choice being ratified by the people. As 
for the abbots, they were, according to the Rule of St. Benedict, 
to be chosen by the members of the monastery. 

In spite of these rules, the bishops and abbots had come, Bishops 
in the tenth and eleventh centuries, to be selected, to all intents pracdcaiiy 
and purposes, by the various kings and feudal lords. It is true 2e1^u^ 
that the outward forms of a regular election were usually per- 'om* 
mitted ; but the feudal lord made it clear whom he wished 
chosen, and if the wrong person was elected, he simply refused 
to hand over to him the lands attached to the bishopric or 
abbey. The lord could in this way control the choice of the 
prelates, for in order to become a real bishop or abbot, one 
had not only to be elected, he had also to be solemnly "in- 
vested" with the appropriate powers of a bishop or abbot 
and with his lands. 

When a bishop or abbot had been duly chosen, the feudal invMiiture 
lord proceeded to the investiture. The new bishop or abbot first 
became the " man " of the lord by doing him homage, and then 


148 The Middle Period of European History 

the lord transferred to him the lands and rights attached to 
the office. No careful distinction appears to have been made 
between the property and the religious powers. The lord often 
conferred both by bestowing upon a bishop the ring and the 
crosier (see headpiece to Chapter X, p. 181), the emblems of 
religious authority. It seemed shocking enough that the lord, 
who was often a rough soldier, should dictate the selection of 
the bishops ; but it was still more shocking that he should assume 
to confer religious powers with religious emblems. Yet even 
worse things might happen, since sometimes the lord, for his 
greater convenience, had himself made bishop. 

The Church itself naturally looked at the property attached 
to a church office as a mere incident and considered the religious 
prerogatives the main thing. And since the clergy alone could 
rightly confer these, it was natural that they should claim the 
right to bestow the lands ("temporalities") attached to them, 
upon whomsoever they pleased without consulting any layman 

Against this claim the king might urge that a simple minister 
of the Gospel, or a holy monk, was by no means necessarily 
fitted to manage the interests of a feudal state, such as the 
great archbishoprics and bishoprics, and even the abbeys, had 
become in Germany and elsewhere in the eleventh century. 

In short, the situation in which the bishops found themselves 
was a very complicated one. (1) As an officer of the Church, 
the bishop saw to it that parish priests were properly selected 
and ordained, he tried certain cases in his court, and performed 
the Church ceremonies, (z) He managed the lands which be- 
longed to the bishopric, which might, or might not, be fiefs. 
(3) As a vassal of those who had granted lands to the bishopric 
upon feudal terms, he owed the usual feudal dues, including the 
duty of furnishing troops to his lord. (4,) Lastiy, in Germany, the 
king had found it convenient, from about the beginrung of 
the eleventh century, to confer upon the bishops in many cases 
the authority of a count in the districts about them. In this 

Popes and Emperors 149 ■ 

way they might have the right to collect tolls, coin money, and 
perform other important governmental duties. When a prelate 
took office he was invested with atl these various functions at 
once, both spiritual and governmental. 

To forbid the king to take part in the investiture was, ojn- 
sequently, to rob him not only of his feudal rights but also 
of his authority over many of his government officials, since 
bishops, and sometimes even abbots, were often counts in all 
but name. He therefore found it necessary to take care who 
got possession of the important church offices. 

Still another danger threatened the wealth and resources of The marriage 
the Church. During the tenth and eleventh centuries the rule threatais'Sfe 
of the Church prohibiting the clergy from marrying appears to' ^i^i"' '^*' 
have been widely neglected in Italy, Germany, France, and 
England. To the stricter people of the time this appeared a 
terrible degradation of the clergy, who, they felt, should be 
unencumbered by family cares and should devote themselves 
wholly to the service of God. The question, too, had another 
side, it was obvious that the property of the Church would 
soon be dispersed if the clergy were allowed to marry, ^ce 
they would wish to provide for their children. Just as the 
feudal lands had become hereditary, so the church lands would 
become hereditary unless the clergy were forced to remain 

Besides the feudalizing of its property and the marriage of Buring and 
tiie clergy, there was a third great and constant source of chiuI:^officer 
weakness and corruption in tiie Church, at this period, namely, 
the temptation to buy and sell Church offices. Had the duties 
and responsibilities of the bishops, abbots, and priests always 
been heavy, and their income slight, there would have been 
little tendency to bribe those who could bestow the offices. But 
the incomes of bishoprics and abbeys were usually considerable, 
and sometimes very great, while the duties attached to the 
office of bishop or abbot, however serious in the eyes of the 
right-minded, might easily be neglected by the unscrupulous. 

C k")0<^ Ic 

• ISO The Middle Period of European History 

The revenue from a great landed estate and the high rank 
that went with the office were enough to induce the members 
of the noblest families to vie with each other in securing Church 
positions. The king or prince who possessed the right of inves- 
titure was sure of finding some one willing to pay something 
for important benefices. 
Origin of the The sin of buying or selling Church offices was recognized 
"""'' as a most serious one. It was called " simony," ' a name derived 
from Simon the Magician, who, according to the account in the 
Acts of the Apostles, offered money to the Apostle Peter if he 
would give him the power of conferring the Holy Spirit upon 
those upon whom he should lay his hands. As the apostle 
denounced this first simonist, — " Thy silver perish with thee, 
because thou hast thought to obtain the gift of God with money " 
(Acts ix, 20), — so the Church has continued ever since to 
denounce those who propose to purchase its sacred powers. 
Simony not Doubtless very few bought positions in the Church with the 

of cKureh ^ view of obtaining the " gift of God," that is to say, the religious 
offices office. It was the revenue and the honor that were chiefly 

coveted. Moreover, when a king or lord accepted a' gift from 
one for whom he procured a benefice, he did not r^ard him- 
self as selling the office ; he merely shared its advant^es. No 
transaction took place in the Middle Ages without accompany- 
ing gifts and fees of various kinds. 
SimooT coc- The evil of simony was, nevertheless, very demoralizing, for 

lower clergy it spread downward and infected the whole body of the dei^gy. 
A bishop who had made a large outlay in obtaining his office 
naturally expected something from the priests, whom it was his 
duty to appoint. Then the priest, in turn, was tempted to exact 
too much for baptizing and marrying his parishioners, and for 
burying the dead. 

So it seemed, at the opening of the eleventh century, as if 
the Church was to be draped down by its property into the 
anarchy of feudalism described in a preceding chapter. 

1 Pronounced sim'^^tjr. 

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P^es and Emperors 151 

The popes had therefore many difficulties to overcome in 
the gigantic task which they undertook of making the Church 
a great international monarchy, like the Roman Empire, with 
its capital at Rome : The control exercised by kings and feudal 
lords in the selecdon of Church officials had to be done away , 
with. Simony with its degrading effects had to be abolished. 
The marriage of the clergy had to be checked, for fear that the 
property and wealth of the Church would go to their families 
and so be lost to the Church. ^\j jLO-'jj-i'"U\ \. -•>~-. ' 

The first great step toward the freeing of the Church from Pope Nicho- 
the control of the kings and feudal lords was taken by Pope the election' 
Nicholas II. In 1059 he issued a remarkable decree which ?'5jff*^ 
took the election of the head of the Church once for all out of of ihe cardi- 
the bands of both the emperor and the people of Rome, and 
placed it definitely and forever in the hands of the cardinals, 
who represented the Roman clergy.' Obviously the object of 
this decree was to prevent all interference, whether of the dis- 
tant emperor, of the local nobility, or of the Roman mob. The 
college of cardinals still exists and still elects the pope. 

The reform party which directed the policy of the popes Opposition 10 
had, it hoped, freed the head of the Church from the control of nionat 
worldly men by putting his election in the hands of the Roman 
clergy. It now proposed to emancipate the Church as a whole 
from the base entanglements of earth: first, by strictly for- 
bidding the married clergy to perform religious functions and by 
exhorting their flocks to refuse to attend their ministrations; 
and secondly, by depriving the kings and feudal lords of their 
influence over the choice of the bishops and abbots, since this 

1 The word "cardinal" (Latin, cardam/h," principal ") was applied to the priests 
ot the wirious parishes in Rome, to the several deacons connected with the 
Latenn,>- which WB3 thecathedralchurchof the Roman, bishopric, — and, lastly, 
to ail or leven suburban bishops who officiated in turn in the Lateran. The title 
became a very distinguished one and was sought by ambitious foreign prelatea 
and ecclesiastical statesmen, like Wolsey, Richelieu, and Maiarin. If theic 
official titles were examined, it would be found tbat each was nominally a cardinal 
bishop, priest, or deacon of some Roman Church. The number of cardinals 
varied until fixed, in IJS6, at «ix bidiops, fif^ prieala, and fourteen deacons. 

CJoogIc • 

152 Tke Middle Period of European History 

inHuence was deemed the chief cause of worldliness among the 
prelates. Naturally these last measures met with far more 
general opposition than the new way of electing the pope. 
The magnitude of the task which the popes had undertaken 
first became fully apparent when the celebrated Gregoiy VII 
ascended the papal throne, in 1073. 

Powers claimed by the Popes 

The Dictatm 30. Among the writings of Gregory VII there is a very brief 
VII statement, called the Didatus, of the powers which he believed 

the popes to possess. Its chief claims are the following: The 
pope enjoys a unique title ; he is the only universal bishop and 
may depose and reinstate other bishops or transfer them from 
place to place. No council of the Church may be regarded as 
speaking for Christendom without his consent. The Roman 
Church has never erred, nor will it err to all eternity. No one 
may be considered a Catholic Christian who does not agree with 
the Roman Church. No book is authoritative unless it has 
received the papal sanction. 

Gregory does not stop with asserting the pope's complete 

supremacy over the Church. He says that " the Pope is the 

only person whose feet are kissed by all princes " ; that he may 

depose emperors and " absolve subjects from all^iance to an 

unjust ruler." No one shall dare to condemn one who appeals 

to the pope. No one may annul a decree of the pope, though 

the pope may declare null and void the decrees of all other 

earthly powers ; and no one may pass judgment upon his acts. 

Gregory VII Immediately upon his election as pope, Gregory began to 

ncsof'the*"" pu^ '"'o practice his high conception of the rfile that the rell- 

fnuTp^S™ gious head of Christendom should play. He dispatched legates 

throughout Europe, and from this time on these legates became 

a powerful instrument of the Church's government. He warned 

the kings of France and England and the youthful German 

ruler, Hemy IV, to forsake their evU ways, to be upright and 

Pc^es and Emperors 153 

just, and to obey his admonitions. He explained, kindly but 
firmly, to William the Conquensr that the papal and kingly pow- 
ers are both established by God as the greatest among the 
authorities of the world, just as the sun and moon are the 
greatest of the heavenly bodies. But the papal power is obvi- 
ously superior to the kingly, for it is responsible for it ; at the 
Last Day Gregory would have, he urged, to render an account 
of the king as one of the flock intrusted to his care. The 
king of France was warned to give up his practice of simony, 
lest he be excommunicated and his subjects freed from their 
oath of allegiance. All these acts of Gregory appear to have 
been dictated not by worldly ambition but by a fervent con- 
viction of their righteousness and of his heavy responsibility 
toward all men. 

Gregory VII and Emperor Henry IV 

31. Obviously Gr^ory's plan of reform included all the 
states of western Europe, but conditions were such that the 
most striking conflict took place between him and the emperor. 
The trouble came about in this way. Henry IV's father had 
died in 1056, leaving only his good wife Agnes and their litde 
son of six years to maintain the hard-fought prerogatives of 
the German king in the midst of ambitious vassals whom even 
the strong Otto the Great had found it difficult to control. 

In 1065 the fifteen-year-old lad, Henry IV, was declared of ; 
age, and his lifelong difficulties began with a great rebellion of , 
the Saxons. They accused the young king of having buih castles ' 
in their land and of filling them with rough soldiers who preyed 
upon the people. Pope Gregory felt it his duty to interfere. 
To him the Saxons appeared a people oppressed by a heedless 
youth guided by evil counselors. But Henry continued to asso- 
ciate with counselors whom the pope had excommunicated and 
went on filling important bishoprics in Germany and Italy, 
regardless of the pope's prohibitioiis. 

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Gregory VI' 
deposed by 

154 ^^ Middle Period of European History 

The popes who immediately preceded Gregory had more than 
once forbidden the churchmai to receive investiture fn«n laymen. 
Gregory reissued this prohibition in 1075, just as the trouble 
with Henry had begun. Investiture was, as we have seen (see 
above, p, 1 47), the legal transfer by the king, or other lord, to 
a newly chosen Church official, of the lands and rights attached 
to the oiBce. In forbidding lay investiture Gregory attempted 
nothing less than a revolution. The bishops and abbots were 
often officers of government, exerdsmg in Germany and Italy 
powers similar in all respects to those of the counts. The king 
not only relied upon them for advice and assistance in carrying 
on his government, but they were among his chief allies in his 
constant struggles with his vassals. 

Gregory dispatched three envoys to Henry (end of 1075) 
with a fatherly letter ' in which he reproached the king for his 
wicked conduct. But he evidently had litde expectation that 
mere expostulation would have any effect upon Henry, for he 
gave his legates instructions to use threats, if necessary. The 
legates were to tell the king that his crimes were so numer- 
ous, so horrible, and so well known, that he merited not only 
excommunication but the permanent loss of all his royal honors. 

The violence of the legates' language not only kindled the 
wrath of the king but also gained for him friends amoi^ the 
bishops. A council which Henry summoned at Worms (in 
1076) was attended by more than two thirds of all the Ger- 
man bishops. Here Gregory was declared deposed, and many 
terrible chaises of immorality brought against him. The bishops 
publicly proclaimed that he had ceased to be their pope. It ap- 
pears very surprising, at first sight, that the king should have 
received the prompt support of the German churchmen against 
the head of the Church. But it must be remembered that the 
prelates really owed their offices to the king and not to the pope. 

Gregory's reply to Henry and the German bishops who had 

deposed him was speedy and decisive, " Incline thine ear to 

L To be found in the StaiStv, clup- ^■ 


Popes and Emperors 155 

us, O Peter, chief of the Apostles. As thy representative and Henry iv 
by thy favor has the power been granted especially to me exJ^Snuni- 
by God of binding -and loosing in heaven and earth. On the ™^ '*'"''" 
strength of this, for the honor and giory of thy Church, in the 
name of Almighty God, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, I with- 
draw, through thy power and, authority, from Henry the King, 
son of Henry the Emperor, who has risen against thy Church 
with unheard-of insolence, the rule over the whole kingdom of 
the Germans and over Italy. I absolve all Christians from the 
bonds of the oath which they have sworn, or may swear, to 
him; and I forbid anyone to serve him as king.'" 

For a time after the pope had deposed him everything went Attitude of 
against Henry. Instead of resenting the pope's interference, pi[nce» 
tiie discontented Saxons, and many other of Henry's vassals, 
believed that there was now an excellent opportunity to get rid 
of Henry and choose a more agreeable ruler. The pope was 
even invited to come to Augsburg to consult with the princes 
as to whether Henry, should continue to be king or Miother 
ruler should be chosen in his stead. It looked as if the pope 
was, in truth, to control the civil government. 

Henry decided to anticipate the arrival of the pope. He Hemy sub- 
hastened across the Alps in midwinter and appeared as an pope at Ci- 
humble suppliant before the castle of Canossa,* whither the "°"*' '"" 
pope had come on his way to Augsburg. For three days the 
German king presented himself before the dosed door, barefoot 
and in the coarse garments of a pilgrim and a penitent, and even 
then Gregory was induced only by the expostulations of his influ- 
ential companions to admit the humiliated ruler. The spectacle 
of this mighty prince of distinguished appearance, humiliated 
and in tears before tiie litde man who humbly styled himself the 

1 Gregoiy't depoMtion and eimmmun [cation of Henry may be found in Ihe 

SThe castle of Canoasa belonged to Gregory VI Ta ally and admirer, the 
Counteaa of Tuacany. li was destroyed by Che neighboring town of Reggio about 
two centuries after Gregory's time, and only tha ivy-cbd luius, represented in the 
headpiece of this chapter, lemain. 

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1 56 The Middle Period of European History 

"servant of the servants of God," has-always been regarded 
as most completely typifying the power of the Church and the 
potency of her curses, against which even the most exalted of 
the earth found no weapon of defense except abject penitence.^ 

The pardon which Henry received at Canossa did not satisfy 
the German princes. Iliey therefore proceeded to elect another 
ruler, and the next three or four years was a period of bloody 
struggles between the adherents of the rival kings. Gregory 
remained neutral until 1080, when he again "bound with the 
chain of anathema " Henry, " the so-called king," and all his 
followers. He declared him deprived of his royal power and 
dignity and forbade all Christians to obey him. 

The new excommunication had precisely the opposite effect 
from the first one ; it seemed to increase rather than decrease 
Henry's friends. The German clergy again deposed Gregory 
VII. Henry's rival for the throne fell in batde, and Henry be- 
took himself to Italy with the double purpose of installing a pope 
of his own choice and winning the imperial crown, Gregory 
held out for no less than two years ; but at last Rome fell into 
Henry's hands, and Gregory withdrew and soon after died. His 
last words were, " I have loved justice and hated iniquity, there- 
fore I die an exile," and the fair-minded historical student will 
not question their truth. 

The death of Gregory did not, however, put an end to Henry's 
difficulties. He spent the remaining twenty years of his life in 
trying to maintain his rights as king of Germany and Italy 
against his rebellious subjects on both sides of the Alps. In 
Germany his chief enemies were the Saxons and his discon- 
tented vassals. In Italy the pope was now actively engaged 
as a temporal ruler, in building up a little state of his own, and 
he was always ready to encourage the Lombard cities in tbdr 
opposition to the German emperors. 

All his life long Henry was turning from one enemy to 
another. Finally, his discontented German vassals induced his 

1 For Gregory's own account of the affait at Canossa, see Riadb^s, diap. nil. 


Popes and Emperors 157 

son, whom he had had crowned as his successor, to revolt Death of 
against his father. Thereupon followed more civil war, more ^i^ ' 
treason, and a miserable abdication. In 1 106 death put an end 
to perhaps the saddest reign that history records. 

The achievement of the reign of Henry IV's son, Henry V, Henry V, 
which chiefly interests us was the adjustment of the question of " '"'^ 
investitures. Pope Paschal II, while willing to recognize those 
bishops already chosen by the king, provided they were good 

Fig. 43. Medieval Pictures of Gregory VII 

These pictures are taken from an illustrated manuscript written some 
decades after Gregory's death. In the one on the left Gregory is rep- 
resented blowing out a candle and saying to his cardinals, "As 1 blow out 
this light, 3o will Henry IV be extinguished." In the one on the tight 
is shown the death of Gregory (10S5). He did not wear his crown in bed, 
but the artist wanted us to be sure to recognize that he was pope 

men, proposed that thereafter Gregory's decrees against inves- 
titure by laymen should be carried out. The clergy should no 
longer do homage by laying their hands, consecrated to the 
service of the altar, in the bloodstained hands of the nobles. 
Henry V, on the other hand, declared that unless the clergy 
took the oath of fealty the bishops would not be given the lands, 
towns, casdes, tolls, and privileges attached to the bishoprics. 

After a succession of troubles a compromise was at last 
reached in the Concordat of Worms (1122), which put an end 


IS8 The Middle Period of European History 

to the controversy over investitures in Germany.' The emperor 
promised to permit the Church freely to elect the bishops and 
abbots and renounced his old claim to invest with the religious 
emblems of the ring and the crosier. But the elections were to 
be held in the presence of the king, and he was permitted, in a 
separate ceremony, to invest the new bishop or abbot with his 
fiefs and his governmental powers by a touch of the scepter. 
In this way the religious powers of the bishops were obviously 
conferred by the churchmen who elected him ; and although the 
king might still practically invalidate an election by refusing to 
hand over the lands, nevertheless the direct appointment of the 
bishops and abbots was taken out of his hands. As for the em- 
peror's control over the papacy, too many popes, since the advent 
of Henry IV, had been generally recognized as properly elected 
without the sanction of the emperor, for any one to believe any 
bnger that his sanction was necessary. 

The Hohenstaufen Emperors and the Popes 

32. A generation after the matter of investitures had been 
arranged by the Concordat of Worms the most famous of Ger- 
man emperors, next to Charlemagne, came to the dirone This 
was Frederick I, commonly called Barbarossa, from his red 
beard. He belonged to the family of Hohenstaufen, so called 
from their castle in southern Germany. Frederick's ambition 
was to restore the Roman Empire to its old glory and influence. 
He regarded himself as the successor of the CEcsars, as well as 
of Charlemagne and Otto the Great He believed his office to 
be quite as truly established by God himself as the papacy. 
When he informed the pope that he had been recognized as 
emperor by the German nobles, he too took occasion to state 
quite clearly that the headship of the Empire had been "be- 
stowed upon him by God " and he did not ask the pope's 
sanction as his predecessors had done. 

I See Siadin£s, chap. liil. 

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Popes and Emperors 1 59 

In his lifelong attempt to maintain what he thought to be his Frederick's 
rights as emperor he met, quite naturally, with the three old ' "** 
difficulties. He had constantly to be fighting his rivab and 
rebellious vassals in Germany ; he had to face the opposition of 
the popes, who never forgot the claims that Gregory VII had 
made to control the emperor as well as other rulers. Lastly, 

Fig. 44. Ruins of Barbarossa's Palace at Gelnhausen 

Frederick Barbarossa erected a handsome palace* at Gelnhausen (not far 
east of Frankfort}. It was destroyed by the Swedes during the Thirty 
Years War (see section 6S below), but even what now remains is impos- 
ing, especially the arcade represented in the picture 

in trying to keep hold of northern Italy, which he believed to 
belong to his empire, he spent a great deal of time with but 
slight results. 

One of the greatest differences between the early Middle Ages Imw 
and Frederick's time was the development of town life. Up to jn hu 
this period we have heard only of popes, emperors, kings, bishops, P™'^ 
and feudal lords. From now on we shall have to take the towns 
and their citizens into account. No nation makes much progress 


l6o The Middle Period of European History 

without towns ; for only when people get together in considerable 
numbers do they begin to build fine buildings, establish univer- 
sities and libraries, make inventions and carry on trade, which 
brings them into contact with other people in their own country 
and in foreign lands. (See below, Chapter XI, for town life.) 

Italian Towns 

Twelfth Century 

TTie towns had never decayed altogether in Italy, and by the 
time of Frederick Barbarossa they had begun to flourish once 
more, especially in Lombardy. Each of such towns as Milan, 
Verona, and Cremona were practically independent states. TTieir 
government was in the hands of the richer citizens, and the 
poorer people were not given any voice in city affairs. Compared 

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1 62 The Middle Period of European History 

with a modem city they were very disorderly, for sometimes the 

poor revolted against the rich, and often the nobles, who had 

L, moved in from the country and built fortified palaces in the 

\ '^ towns, fought among themselves. And then the various towns 

/were always fighting one another. 
But in spite of all the warfare and disorder, the Italian cities 
became wealthy and, as we shall see later, were centers of 
learning and art similar to the ancient cities of Greece, such as 
Athens and Corinth. They were able to combine in a union 
known as the Lombard League to oppose Frederick, for they 
hated the idea of paying taxes to a German king from across 
the Alps, Frederick made several expeditions to Italy, but he 
only succeeded, after a vast amount of trouble, in getting them 
to recognize him as a sort of overlord. ■ He was forced to leave 
them to manage their own affairs and go their own way. They 
could, of course, always rely upon the pope, when it came to 
fighting the emperor, for he was quite as anxious as the towns 
to keep Frederick out of Italy. 
ihen- So Frederick failed in his great plans for restoring the Roman 
ieir Empire ; he only succeeded in adding a new difficulty for his 
° descendants. In spite of his lack of success in conquering the 
Lombard cities, Frederick tried to secure southern Italy for his 
descendants. He arranged that his son should marry Constance, 
the heiress of Naples and Sicily. This made fresh trouble for 
the Hohenstaufen rulers, because the pope, as feudal lord of 
Naples and Sicily, was horrified at the idea of the emperor's 
controlling the territory to the south of the papal possessions 
as well as that to the north. 
:k II After some forty years of fighting in Germany and Italy 
Frederick EarbaroSSa decided to undertake a crusade to the 
Holy Land and lost his life on the way thither. His son was 
carried off by Italian fever while trying to put down a rebellion 
in southern Italy, leaving the fate of the Hohenstaufen family 
in the hands of his infant son and heir, the famous Frederick II. 
It would take much too long to try to tell of all the attempts of 

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Popes and Emperors 163 

rival Gennan princes to get themselves made king of Germany 
and of the constant interference of the popes who sided now 
with this one and now with that. It happened that one of the 
greatest of all the popes, Innocent III, was ruling during Fred- 
ericlc II's early years. After trying to settle the terrible disorder 
in Germany he decided that Frederick should he made empieror, 
hoping to control him so that he would not become the dan- 
gerous enemy of the papacy that his father and grandfather had 
been. As a young man Frederick made all the promises that 
Innocent demanded, but he caused later popes infinite anxiety, 

Frederick II was nearsighted, bald, and wholly insignificant Characierof 
in person ; but he exhibited the most extraordinary energy and f^S^J^ n 
ability in the organization of his kingdom of Sicily, in which he ""-'*5o 
was far more interested than in Germany, He drew up an 
elaborate code of laws for his southern realms and may be said 
to have founded the first modem well-regulated state, in which 
the king was indisputably supreme. He had been brought up 
in Sicily and was much influenced by the Mohammedan culture 
which prevailed there. He appears to have rejected many of the 
opinions of the time. His enemies asserted that he was not 
even a Christian, and that he declared that Moses, Christ, and 
Mohammed were all alike impostors. 

We cannot stop to relate the romantic and absorbing story Hi» bitter 
of his long struggle with the popes. They speedily discovered the^acy 
that he was bent upon establishing a powerful state to the south 
of them, and upon extending his control over the Lombard 
cities in such a manner that the papa! possessions would be 
held as in a vise. This, they felt, must never be permitted. 
Consfequently almost every measure that Frederick adopted 
aroused their suspicion and opposition, and they made eveiy 
effort to destroy him and his house. 

His chance of success in the conflict with the head of the Frederick 
Church was gravely affected by the promise which he had J^k^of 
made before Innocent Ill's death to undertake a crusade. Je"w»l«'» 
He was so busily engaged with his endless enterprises that he 


l64 . The Middle Period of European History 

kept deferring the expedition, in spite of the papal admoni- 
tions, until at last the pope lost patience and excommunicated 
him. While excommunicated, he at last started for the East. 
He met with signal success and actually brought Jerusalem, the 
Holy City, once more into Christian hands, and was himself 
recognized as king of Jerusalem. 
Extinction ot Frederick's conduct continued, however, to give offense to 
Btautens' " the popes. He was denounced in solemn councils, and at last 
P***" deposed by one of the popes. After Frederick died (1250) 

his sons maintained themselves for a few years in the Sicilian 
kingdom ; but they finally gave way before a French army, led 
by the brother of St. Louis, Charles of Anjou, upon whom the 
pope bestowed the southern realms of the Hohenstaufens.'' 
Predericii'i With Frederick's death the medieval empire may be said 
the close of to have come to an end. It is true that after a period of " fist 
^medieval ^^,, ^ (he Germans call it, a new king, Rudolf of Hapsburg, 
was elected in Germany in 1273. The German kings continued 
to call themselves emperors. Few of them, however, took the 
trouble to go to Rome to be crowned by the pope. No serious 
effort was ever made to reconquer the Italian territory for 
which Otto the Great, Frederick Barbarossa, and his son and 
grandson had made such serious sacrifices. Germany was hope- 
lessly divided and its king was no real king. He had no capital 
and no well-organized government. 
Division of By the middle of ihe thirteenth century it becomes apparent 

Italy into t^^' neither Germany nor Italy was to be converted into a 
""mlBnt**" strong single kingdom like England and France. The map of 
Slates Germany shows a confused group of duchies, counties, arch- 

bishropics, bishropics, abbacies, and free towns, each one of 
which asserted its practical independence of the weak king 
and emperor. 

In northern Italy each town, including a certain district about 
its walls, had become an independent state, deahng with its 

ti b; Hendeison, Gtrmiav i" 

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Popes and Emperors 165 

neighbors as with independent powers. The Italian towns were 
destined to become the birthplace of our modem culture during 
the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. - Venice and Florence, in 
spite of their small size, came to be reckoned among the most 
important states of Europe (see section 45, below). In the cen- 
tral part of the peninsula the pope maintained more or less 
control over his possessions, but he often failed to subdue the 
towns within his realms. To the south Naples remained for some 
time under the French dynasty, which the pope had -called in, 
while the island of Sicily, drifted into Spanish hands. ^^ '' 


Section 28. Describe the way in which the German kings g^ned 
' the title of emperor. Why did they think that they ought to control 
the election of the pope? What do you understand by the Holy 
Roman Empire? 

Section 29. What were the sources of wealth pi the Church? 
What was the effect of the vast landholdings of the Church ? What 
was invesdture, and why did it raise difficulties between the popes 
and emperors? Why did the pope oppose the marriage of the 
clergy f How is the pope elected ? What is a cardinal ? 

Section 30, What was the iJ/rfii/Kj, and what claims did it make? 

Section 31. Describe the conflict between Henry IV and 
Gregory VII. What were the provisions of the Concordat of 

Section 32. What new enemies i^d Frederick Barbarossa find 
in northern Italy? How did the German kings establish a claim to 
southern Italy? Give some facts about Innocent III. Narrate the 
struggle between Frederick II and the popes and its outcome. How 
many years elapsed between the death of Otto the Great and the 
accession of Henry IV P between the death of Henry IV and that 
of Frederick Barbarossa ? between the death of Barbarossa and that 
of Frederick H ? 

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the crusades 

Origin of the Crusades 

33. Of all the events of the Middle Ages, the most romantic 
and fascinating are the Crusades, the adventurous expeditions 
to Syria and Palestine, undertaken by devout and adventurous , 
kings and knights with the hope of permanently reclaiming the 
Holy Land from the infidel Turks. All through the twelfth and 
thirteenth centuries each generation beheld at least one great 
anny of crusaders gathering from all parts of the West and 
starting toward the Orient. Each year witnessed the departure 
of small bands of pilgrims or of solitary soldiers of the cross. 

For two hundred years there was a continuous stream of 
Europeans of every rank and station — kings and princes, 
powerful nobles, simple knights, common soldiers, ecclesias- 
tics, monks, townspeople, and even peasants — from England, 
France, Germany, Spain, and Italy, making their way into 
western Asia. If they escaped the countless dangers which 
beset them on the journey, they either settled in this distant land 
and devoted themselves to war or commerce, or returned home, 
bringing with them tales of great cities and new peoples of skill, 
knowledge and luxury unknown in the West. 

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The Crusades 1 67 

Our sources of infonnation in regard to the Crusades are Natural 
so abundant and so rich in picturesque incidents that writers 1030^ 
have often yielded to the temptation to give more space to ^^j^^^^ 
these expeditions than their consequences really justify. They Cmsade* 
were, after all, only one of the great foreign enterprises which 
have been undertaken from time to time by the European 
peoples. While their influence upon the European countries was 
doubtless very important, — like that of the later conquest 
of India by the English and the colonization of America, — the 
details of the campaigns in the East scarcely belong to the 
history of western Europe. 

Syria had been overrun by the Arabs in the seventh century, The Holy 
shortly after the death of Mohammed, and the Holy City of ^,ed°fi""st 
Jerusalem had fallen into the hands of the infidels. The Arab, '')'."'* Arabs 

■* ' »nd Ihen by 

however, shared the veneration of the Christian for the places the Turki 
associated- with the life of Christ and, in general, permitted the 
Christian pilgrims who found their way thither to worship un- 
molested. But with the coming of a new and ruder people, the 
Seljuk Turks, in the eleventh century, the pilgrims began to 
bring home news of great hardships. Moreover, the eastern 
emperor was defeated by the Turks in 1071 and lost Am 
Minor. The presence of the Turks, who had taken possesion 
of the fortress of Nicsea, just across from Constantinople, was 
of course a standing menace to the Eastern Empire. When the 
enei^etic Emperor Alexius (ro8i-iii8) ascended the throne 
he endeavored to expel the infidel. Findmg himself unequal to Eastern 
the task, he appealed for assistance to the head of Christendom, apj^g'to 
Pope Urban II, The first great impetus to the Crusades was '9! l"P* '™ 

■^ 6 K^ aid against 

the call issued by Urban at the celebrated church council which the infidel 
met in 1095 at Clermont in France. 

In an address, which produced more remarkable immediate 
results than any other which history records, the pope exhorted 
knights and soldiers of all ranks to give up their usual widced 
business of destroying their Christian brethren in private 
warfare (see sectk>n 22, above) and turn, instead, to the succor 


1 68 The Middle Period of European History 

Uiban II of their fellow Christians in the East. He warned them that llie 
call to the insolent Turks would, if unchecked, extend their sway still more 
atcheCo^a widely over the faithful servants of the Lord. Urban urged, be- 
ef Clermont, sides, that France was too poor to support all its people, while 
the Holy Land flowed with milk and honey. " Enter upon the 
road to the Holy Sepulcher ; wrest the land from the wicked 
race and subject it to yourselves." When the pope had finished, 
all who were present exclaimed, with one accord, " It is the will 
of God." This, the ^pe declared, should be the rallying cry of 
the crusaders, who were to wear a cross upon their bosoms as 
they went forth, and upon their backs as they returned, as a 
holy sign of their sacred mission.^ 
The motives The Crusades are ordinarily represented as the most striking 
crusade™ examples of the simple faith and religious enthusiasm of the 
Middle Ages. They appealed, however, to many different kinds 
of men. The devout, the romantic, and the adventurous were 
by no means the only classes that were attracted. Syria held 
out inducements to the discontented noble who might hope to 
gain a prindpality in the E^st, to the merchant who was look- 
ing for new enterprises, to the merely restless who wished to 
avoid his responsibilities at home, and even to the criminal who 
enlisted with a view of escaping the results of his past offenses. 
It is noteworthy that Urban appeals especially to those who 
had been " contending against their brethren and relatives," and 
urges those " who have hitherto been robbers now to become 
soldiers of Christ." And the conduct of many of the crusaders 
indicates that the pope found a ready hearing among this class. 
Yet higher motives than a love of adventure and the hope of 
(xinquest impelled many who took their way eastward. Great 
numbers, doubtless, went to Jerusalem " through devotion alone. 
and not for the sake of honor or gain," with the sole object of 
freeing the Holy Sepulcher from the hands of the infidel. 

To such as these the pope promised that the journey itself 
should take the place of all penance for sin. The faithful 

1 For the speech of Urban, see Riadings, chap. T». 

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The Crusades 169 

crusader, like the faithful Mohamiriedan, was assured of immedi- Privilege* 
ate entrance into heaven if he died repentant Later, the Church cruMden 
exhibited its extraordinary authority by what would seem. to us 
an unjust interference with business contracts. It freed those 
who " with a pure heart " entered upon the journey from the 
payment of interest upon their debts, and permitted them to 
mortgage property against the wishes of their feudal lords. 
The crusaders' wives and children and property were taken 
under the immediate protectron of the Church, arid he who 
troubled them incurred excommunication. These various con- 
siderations help to explain the great popularity of undertakings 
that, at first sight, would seem to have promised only hardships 
and disappointment. 

The Council of Clermont met in November. Before spring Peierthe 
(1096) those who set forth to preach the Crusade, — above all, hi»«my° 
the famous Peter the Hermit, who was formerly given credit 
for having begun the whole crusading movement, — had col- 
lected, in France and along the Khine, an extraordinary army 
of the common folk. Peasants, workmen, vagabonds, and even 
women and cliildren answered the summons, all blindly intent 
upon rescuing the Holy Sepulcher, two thousand miles away. 
They were confident that the Lord would sustain them during 
the weary leagues of the journey, and that, when they reached 
the Holy Land, he would grant them a prompt victory over 
the infidel. 

This great host was got under way in several divisions under 
the leadership of Peter the Hermit, and of Walter the Penni- 
less and other humble knights. Many of the crusaders were 
slaughtered by the Hungarians, who rose to protect them- 
selves from the depredations of this motley horde in its passage 
through their country. Part of them got as far as Nicsea, only 
to be slaughtered by the Turks. This is but an example, on 
a large scale, of what was gdng on continually for a century 
or so after this first great catastrophe. Individual pilgrims and 
adventurers, and sometimes (xmsiderable bodies of crusaders, 

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I/O The Middle Period of European History 

were constantly falling a prey to every form of disaster — 
starvation, slavery, disease, and death — in their persistent 
endeavors to reach the far away Holy Land. 

The First Crusade 

34- The most conspicuous figures of the long period of the 
Crusades are not, however, to be found among the lowly fol- 
lowers of Peter the Hermit, but aie the knights, in their long 
coats of flexible armor. A year after the summons issued at 
Clermont great armies of fighting men had been collected in 
the West under distinguished leaders — the pope speaks of 
three hundred thousand soldiers. Of the various divisions which 
were to meet in Constantinople, the following were the most 
important: the volunteers from Provence under the papal 
legate and Count Raymond of Toulouse ; inhabitants of Ger- 
many, particularly of Lorraine, under Godfrey of Bouillon and 
his brother Baldwin, both destined to be rulers of Jerusalem ; 
and lastly, an army of French and of the Normans of southern 
Italy under Bohemond and Tancred.' 

The distinguished noblemen who have been mentioned were 
not actually in command of real armies. Each crusader under- 
took the expedition on his own account and was only obedient 
to any one's orders so long as he pleased. The knights and 
men naturally grouped themselves around the more noted lead- 
ers, but considered themselves free to change chiefs when they 
pleased. The leaders themselves reserved the right to look out 
for their own special interests rather than sacrifice themselves 
to the good of the expedition. 

Upon the arrival of the crusaders at Constantinople it quickly 

became clear that they had not much more in common with the 

■ " Greeks " " than with the Turks. Emperor Alexius ordered 

' For the routes taken bythedifferenlcrasading armies, «ee the accompanying 

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The Crusadts 


his soldiers to attack Godfrey's anny, encamped in the suburbs 
of his capital, because their chief at first refused to take the 
oath of feudal homage to him. The emperor's daughter Anna, 
in her history of the times, gives a sad picture of the outrageous 
conduct of the crusaders. They, on 
the other hand, denounced the 
Greeks as traitors, cowards, and liars. 

The eastern emperor had hoped 
to use his western allies to reconquer 
Asia Minor and force back the 
Turks. The leading knights, on the 
ocmtrary, dreamed of carving out 
priilcipalities for themselves in the 
former dominions of the emperor, 
and propjosed to control them by 
right of conquest. Later we find 
both Greeks and western Christians 
shamelessly allying themselves with 
the Mohammedans against each 
other. The relations of the eastern 
and western enemies of the Turks 
were well illustrated when the cru- 
saders besieged their first town, 
Nicsea. When It was just ready to 
surrender, the Greeks arranged with 
the enemy to have their troops ad- 
mitted first. They then closed the 
gates against their western confeder- 
ates and invited them to move on. 

The first real allies that the crusaders met with were the Dissension 
Christian Armenians, who gave them aid after their terrible j'^S^raoAhe 
march through Asia Minor. With their help Baldwin got cruMdera 
possession of Edessa, of which he made himself prince. The 
chiefs induced the great body of the crusaders to postpone 
the march on Jerusalem, and a year was spent in takii^ the 

In the time of the Crusades 
knights wore a coat of inter- 
woven iron rings, called a 
hauberk, to protect them- 
selves. Thehabitof usingthe 
rigid iron plates, of which 
later armor was constructed, 
d not come in undl the 
Crusades were over 


172 The Middle Period of European History 

rich and important city of Antioch. A bitter strife then broke 
out, especially between the Norman Bohemond and the count 
of Toulouse, as to who should have the conquered town. After 
the most unworthy conduct on both sides, Bohemond won, 
and Raymond 

Map t 


sary for the cap- 
ture of the town 
were tobefound. 
However, the opportune arrival at Jaffa of galleys from Genoa 
furnished the besiegers with supplies, and, in spite of all the 
difficulties, the place was taken in a couple of months. The 
crusaders, with shocking barbarity, massacred the inhabitants. 
Godfrey of Bouillon was chosen ruler of Jerusalem and took 
the modest title of " Defender of the Holy Sepulcher." He soon 

C k")0<^ Ic 

died and was succeeded by his brother Baldwin, who left Edessa 
in iioo to take up the task of extending the bounds of the 
kingdom of Jerusalem. 

It will be observed that the " Franks," as the Mohammedans Founi 
called all the western folk, had established the centers of four dt 
principalities. These were Edessa, Antioch, the region about 
Tripoli conquered by Raymond, and the kingdom of Jerusalem. 
The last was speedily increased by Baldwin ; with the help of 
the mariners from Venice and Genoa, he succeeded b getting 
possession of Acre, Sidon, and a number of other less impor- 
tant coast towns. 

The news of these Christian victories quickly reached the 
West, and in itoi tens of thousands of new crusaders started 
eastward. Most of them were lost or dispersed in passing 
through Asia Minor, and few reached their destination. The 
original conquerors were consequendy left to hold the land 
against the Saracens and to organize their conquests as best 
they could. This was a very difficult task — too difficult to 
accomplish under the circumstances. 

The permanent hold of the Franks upon the eastern bor- 
ders of the Mediterranean depended upon the strength of the 
colonies which their various princes were able to establish. It 
is impossible to learn how many pilgrims from the West made 
their permanent homes in the new Latin principalities. Cer- 
tainly tfie greater part of those who visited Palestine returned 
home after fulfilling the vow they had made — to kneel at the 
Holy Sepulcher. 

Still the princes could rely upon a certain number of soldiers 
who would be willing to stay and fight the Mohammedans. 
The Turks, moreover, were so busy fighting one another that 
th^ showed less energy than might have been expected in 
attempting to drive the Franks from the narrow strip of terri- 
tory — some five hundred miles long and fifty wide — which 
they had conquered. The map on the opposite page shows 
the extent of situation of the crusaders' states. 

of Ladnkin^- 

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1 74 The Middle Period of European History 

The Religious Orders of the Hospitalers 
AND Templars 

35. A noteworthy outcome of the crusading movement was 
the foundation of several curious orders, of which the Hospi- 
talers and the Templars were the most important. These orders 
combined the two dominant inter- 
ests of the time, those of the monk 
and of the soldier. They permitted 
a man to be both at once; the 
knight might wear a monkish 
cowl over his coat of armor. 

The Hospitalers grew out of 
a monastic association that was 
formed before the First Crusade 
for the succor of the poor and sick 
among the pilgrims. Later the 
society admitted noble knights to 
its membership and became a mili- 
■ tary order, at the same time con- 
tinuing its care for the sick. This 
charitable association, like the 
earlier monasteries, received gen- 
erous gifts of land in western 
Europe and built and controlled 
many fortified monasteries in the 
Holy Land itself . After the evacu- 
ation of Syria in the thirteenth 

The Hospitaler here repre- 
sented bears the peculiar 
Maltese cross on his bosom. 
His crucifix indicates his reli- 
gious character, but his sword 
and the armor which he wears 

beneath his long gown enabled 1 .. . , 

him to fight as well as pray century, the Hospital* 

and succor the wounded their headquarters to the island of 
Rhodes, and later to Malta. The 
order still exists, and it is considered a distinction to this day to 
have the privilege of wearing its emblem, the cross of Malta. 

Before the Hospitalers were transformed into a militaiy 
order, a little group of French knights banded together in 11 19 

C k")0<^ Ic 

The Crusades 175 

to defend pilgrims on their way to Jerusalem from the attacks The 
of the infidel. They were assigned quarters in the king's palace "°^ *" 
at Jerusalem, on the site of the former Temple of Solomon; 
hence the name " Templars," which they were destined to render 
famous. The " poor soldiers of the Temple " were enthusiasd- 
cally approved by the Church. They wore a white cloak adorned 
with a red cross, and were under a very strict monastic rule 
which bound them by the vows of obedience, poverty, and 
celibacy. The fame of the order spread throughout Europe, 
and the most exalted, even dukes and princes, were ready to 
renounce the world and serve Christ under its black and white 
banner, with the legend Non nobis, Domine. 

The order was aristocratic from the first, and it soon became 
incredibly rich and independent. It had its collectors in all parts 
of Europe, who dispatched the " alms " they received to the 
Grand Master at Jerusalem. Towns, churches, and estates were 
given to the order, as well as vast sums of money. The king 
of Aragon proposed to bestow upon it a third of his kingdom. 
The pope showered privileges upon the Templars. They were 
exempted from tithes and taxes and were brought under his 
immediate jurisdiction ; they were released from feudal obliga- 
tions, and bishops were forbidden to excommunicate them for 

No wonder they grew insolent and aroused the jealousy and Abolition of 
hate of princes and prelates alike. Even Innocent III violently Xemplara 
upbraided them for admitting to their order wicked men who 
then enjoyed all the privileges of churchmen. Early in the four- 
teenth century, through the combined efforts of the pope and 
Philip the Fair of France, the order was brought to a terrible 
end. Its members were accused of the most abominable prac- 
tices, — such as heresy, the worship of idols, and the systematic 
insulting of Christ and his religion. Many distinguished Tem- 
plars were burned for heresy ; others perished miserably in dun- 
geons. The once powerful order was abolished and its property 

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176 The Middle Period of European History 

The Second and Later Crusades 

36. Fifty years after the preaching of the First Crusade, the 
fall of Edessa (1144), an important outpost of the Christians in 
the East, led to a second great expedition. This was forwarded 
by no less a person than St. Bernard, who went about using 
his unrivaled eloquence to induce volunteers to take the cross. 

Fig. 4S. Kbak des Chevaliers, restored 

This is an example of the strong castles that the crusaders built io 
Syria. It was completed in the fonn here represented about the year 
1200 and lies halfway between Antioch and Damascus. It will be 
noticed that there was a fortress within a fortress. The castle is now 
in niins (see headpiece of this chapter) 

In a fierce hymn of battle he cried to the Knights Templars; 
" The Christian who slays the unbeliever in the Holy War is 
sure of his reward, the more sure if he himself be slain. The 
Christian glories in the death of the infidel, because Christ is 
glorified." The king of France readily consented to take the 
cross, but the emperor, Conrad III, appears to have yielded 
only after St. Bernard had preached before him and given a 
vivid picture of the terrors of the Judgment Day. 

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The Crusades 


In regard to the less distinguished recruits, a historian of the 
time tells us that so many thieves and robbers hastened to 
take the cross that every one felt that such enthusiasm could 
only be the work of God himself. St. Bernard himself, the chief 
promoter of the expedition, gives a most unflattering description 
of the " soldiers of Christ" " In that countless multitude you 
will find few except the utterly wicked and impious, the sacri- 
legious, homicides, and perjurers, whose departure is a double 
gain. Europe rejoices to lose them and Palestine to gain them ; 
they are useful in both ways, in their absence from here and their 
presence there." 
It is unnecessary 
to describe the 
movements and 
fate of these cru- 
saders; suffice it 
to say that, from 
a military stand- 
point, the so-called 
Second Crusade 
was a miserable 

Fig. 49. Tomb of a Crusader 

In the 

The churches of England, France, and Gennany 

contain numerous figures in slone and brass of 

crusading knights, reposing in full armor with 

shield and sword on their tombs 

1187, forty years 
later, Jerusalem 
was recaptu red by 

Saladin, the most heroic and distinguished of all the Moham- 
medan rulers of that period. The loss of the Holy City led to 
the most famous of all the military expeditions to the Holy 
Land, in which Frederick Barbarossa, Richard the Lion-Hearted 
of England, and his political rival, Philip Augustus of France, 
aU took part (see above, p. 123). The accounts of the enterprise 
show that while the several Christian leaders hated one another 
heartily enough, the Christians and Mohammedans were coming 
to respect one another. We find examples of the most oourtly 

C k")0<^ Ic 

178 The Middle Period of European History 

relatjons between the representatives of the oppo^g regions. 
In 1192 Richard concluded a tiuce with Saladin, by the terms 
of which the Christian pilgrims were allowed to visit the holy 
places in safety and comfort. 
The Poonh In the thirteenth centuiy the crusaders began to direct their 

quent expeditions toward Egypt as the center of the Mohammedan 

Ciuudei power. The first of these was diverted in an extraordinary 
manner by the Venetians, who inducsd the crusaders to con- 
quer Constantinople for their benefit. The further expeditions 
of Frederick II (see above, p. 163) and St Louis need not be 
described. Jerusalem was irrevocably lost in 1244, and although 
the possibility of recovering the city was long considered, the 
Crusades may be said to have come to a close before the end 
of the thirteenth century. 

Chief Results of the Crusades 

Settlementi 37. For one class at least, the Holy Land had great and per- 
meidunis oianent charms, naniely, the Italian merchants, espedaUy those 
from Genoa, Venice, and Pisa. It was through their early inter- 
est and by means of supplies from their ships, that the conquest 
of the Holy Land had been rendered possible. The merchants 
always made sure that they were well paid for their services. 
When they aided in the successful siege of a town they arranged 
that a definite quarter should be assigned to them in the cap- 
tured place, where they might have their market, docks, churdi, 
and all that was necessary for a permanent center for their com- 
merce. This district belonged to the town from which the mer- 
diants came. Venice even sent governors to live in the quarters 
as^gned to its citizens in the kingdom of Jerusalem. Marseilles 
also had independent quarters in Jerusalem, and Genoa had its 
share in the county of Tripoli. 
Oriental This new commerce had a most important influence in bring- 

duced into ing t^e West into permanent relations with the Orient. Eastern 
Europe products from India and elsewhere — alks, spices, camphor, 

The Crusades 179 

musk, pearls, and ivory — were brought by the Mohammedans' 
from the East to the commercial towns of Palestine and Syria ; 
then, through the Italian merchants, they found their way into 
France and Germany, suggesting ideas of luxury hitherto 
scarcely dreamed of by the still half-barbarous Franks, 

Moreover, the Crusades had a great effect upon the methods EfTectt of 
of warfare, for the soldiers from the West learned from the ^^^ ™ 
Greeks about the old Roman methods of constructing machines 
' for attacking castles and walled towns. This led, as has been 
pointed out in a previous chapter, to the construction in west- 
.em Europe of stone castles, first with square towers and later 
with round ones, the remains of which are so a>mmon in Ger- 
many, France, and England. Tlie Crusades also produced 
heraldry, or the science of coats of arms. These were the 
badges that single knights or groups of knights adopted in 
order to distinguish themselves from other people. Some of 
the terms used in heraldry, such as gules for red, and azur for 
blue, are of Arabic origin. 

Some of the results of the Crusades upon western Europe Rewhs of 
must already be obvious, even from this very brief account 
Thousands and thousands of Frenchmen, Germans, and Ei^- 
lishmen had traveled to the Orient by land and by sea. Most 
of them came from hamlets or castles where they could never 
have learned much of the great world beyond the confines of 
their native village or province. They suddenly found them- 
selves in great dties and in the midst of unfamiliar people." and 
customs. This could not fail to make them think and give them 
new kieas to cany home. The Crusade took the place of a 
liberal education. The crusaders came into contact with those 
who knew more than thfey did, above all the Arabs, and brought 
back with them new notions of comfort and luxury. 

Yet in attempting to estimate the debt of the West to the 
Crusades it should be remembered that many of the new things 
may well have come from Constantinople, or through the 
Mohammedans of Sicily and Spain, quite independently of the 


l8o The Middle Period of European History 

aimed incursions into Syria. Moreover, during the twelfth and 
thirteenth centuries towns were rapidly growing up in Europe, 
trade and manufactures were extending, and the universities 
were being founded. It would be absurd to suppose that with- 
out the Crusades this progress would not have taken place. 
So we may conclude that the distant expeditions and the con- 
tact with strange and more highly civilized peoples did no more 
than hasten the improvement which was already perceptible 
before Urban made his ever-memorable address at Clermont. ' 


Section 33. What led to the Crusades? Describe Urban's speech. 
What was the character of Peter the Hermit's expedition ? 

Secfion 34. Who were the leaders of the First Crusade? 
Describe the capture of Jerusalem by the Crusaders. 

Section 35, Who were the Hospitalers? What was the order 
of the Temple and what became of the Templars ? 

Section 36. What was the Second Crusade? Give some par- 
ticulars iu r^ard to the Third Crusade and its leaders. 

Section 37. Give as complete an account as you can of the chief 
results of the Crusades. 

I '! 



the medieval church at its height 

Organization and Powers of the Church 

38. In the preceding pages it has been necessary to refer 
a)nstantiy to the Church and the clei^. Indeed, without them 
medieval history would become almost a. blank, for the Church 
was incomparably the most important institution of the time, 
and its officers were the soul of nearly every great enterprise. 
We have already learned something of the rise of the Church 
and of its head, the pope, as well as the mode of life and the 
work of the monks as they spread over Europe. We have 
also watched the long struggle between the emperors and 
the popes in which the emperors were finally worsted. We 
must now consider the Medieval Church as a completed insti- 
tution at the height of its power in the twelfth and thirteenth 


D.D.t.zea by Google 

whicb the 
Church dif- 
fered from 


The wealth 

of the Church 

182 The Middle Period of European History 

We have already had abundant proofs that the Medieval 
Church was very different from our modem churches, whether 
Catholic or Protestant. 

I. In the first place, every one was required to belong to it, 
just as we all must belong to some country to-day. One was 
not born into the Church, it is true, but he was ordinarily bap- 
tized into it when he was a mere infant. All western Europe 
formed a single religious association, from which it was a crime 
to revolt To refuse allegiance to the Church, or to question 
its authority or teachings, was regarded as treason against God 
and was punishable with death. 

a. The Medieval Church did not rely for its support, as 
churches usually must to^lay, upon the voluntary contributions 
of its members. It enjoyed, in addition to the revenue from its 
vast tracts of lands and a great variety of fees, the income from 
a regular tax, the tithe. Those upon whom this fell were forced 
to pay it, just as we all must now pay taxes imposed by the 

It is clear, moreover, that the Medieval Church was not 
' merely a religious body, as churches are to-day. Of course it 
maintained places of worship, conducted devotional exercises, 
and cultivated the religious life ; but it did far more. It was, in 
a way, a State, for it had an elaborate system of law, and its 
own courts, in which it tried many cases which are now settled 
in our ordinary courts.' One may get some idea of the business 
of the Church courts from the fact that the Church claimed the 
right to try all cases in which a clergyman was involved, or any 
one connected with the Church or under its special protection, 
such as monks, students, crusaders, widows, orphans, and the 
helpless. Then all cases where the rites of the Church, or its 
prohibitions, were involved came ordinarily before the Church 
courts, as, for example, those concerning marriage, wills, sworn 

I The law of the Church was known aa the canon taw. H was (aught in most 
(rf the univetaitiea and practiced by a great number of lawyers, Itwaa based upon 
the " canons," or nilei, enacted by the various Church councils, from that of 
NicKa down, and, above all, upon the decrees and decisions of the popes. 


The Medieval Church at its Height 183 

contracts, usury, blasphemy, sorcery, heresy, and so forth. The 
Church even had its prisons, to which it might sentence offenders 
for life. 

, 4. The Church not only performed the functions of a State ; unity of 
it had the organization of a State. Unlike the Protestant min- °n^'™''°" 
isters of to-day, all churchmen and religious associations of Church 
medieval Europe were under one supreme head, the pope, who 
made laws for all and controlled every Church officer, wherever 
he might be, whether in Italy or Germany,. Spdn or Ireland. 
The whole Church had one official language, Latin, in which 
all communications were written and in which its services were 
everywhere conducted. 

The Medieval Church may therefore properly be called a The Medt 
monarchy in its government The pope was its all-powerful amonarehy 
and absolute head. He was the supreme lawgiver. He might " '" ''"™ "' 
set aside or repeal any law of the Church, no matter how 
ancient, so long as he did not believe it to be ordained by the 
Scriptures or by Nature. He might, for good reasons, make Dispens*- 
exceptions to all merely human laws ; as, -for instance, permit """* 
. cousins to marry, or free a monk from his vows. Such exceptions 
were known as dispensations. 

The pope was not merely the supreme lawgiver ; he was the The pope 
supreme judge. Any one, whether clergyman or layman, in any judg^of*"" 
part of Europe could appeal to hun at any stage in the trial of Chrutendom 
a brge class of cases. Obviously this system had serious draw- 
backs. Grave injustice might be done by carrying to Rome a 
■ case which ought to have been setded in Edinburgh or Cologne, 
where the facts were best known. The rich, moreover, always 
had the advantage, as they alone could afford to brir^ suits 
before so distant a court. 

The control of the pope over all parts of the Christian Church 
was exercised by his legates. These papal ambassadors were 
intrusted with great powers. Their haughty mien sometimes 
offended the prelates and rulers to whom they brought home 
the authority of the pope, — as, for instance, when the le^te 

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l84 The Middle Period of European History 

Pandulf grandly absolved all the subjects of King John of 
England, before his very face, from their oath of fealty to him 
(see p. 125, above). 
Roman The task assumed by the pope of governing the whole 
' western world naturally made it necessary to create a large body 

of officials at Rome in order to transact all the multiform business 
and prepare and transmit the innumerable legal documents,' 
The cardinals and the pope's officials constituted what was 
called the papal curia, or court. 
rees ot To cany on his government and meet the expenses of pal- 

^^' ace and retinue, the pope had need of a vast income. This he 
secured from various sources. Heavy fees were exacted from 
those who brought suits to his court for decision. The arch- 
bishops, bishops, and abbots were expected to make generous 
contributions when the pope confirmed their election. In the 
thirteenth century the pope himself began to fill many benefices 
throughout Europe, and customarily received half the first year's 
revenues from those whom he appointed. For several centuries 
before the Protestants finally threw off their allegiance to the 
popes, there was widespread complaint on the part of both 
clergy and laymen that the fees and taxes levied by the curia 
were excessive. 
■- arch- Next in order below the head of the Church were the arch- 

bishops and bishops. An archbishop was a bishop whose power 
extended beyond the boundaries of his own diocese and who 
exercised a certain control over all the bishops within his 
! impor- There is perhaps no class of persons in medieval times whose 

lopg position it is so necessary to understand as that of the bishops. 

They were regarded as the successors of the apostles, whose 
powers were held to be divinely transmitted to them. They 
represented the Church Universal in their respective dioceses, 
under the supreme headship of their " elder brother," the 

5, and ocders of [he popes were called buBs, 

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The Medieval Church at its Height 185 

bishop of Rome, the successor of the chief of the apostles. 
Their insignia of office, the miter and crosier, are familiar to 
every one.' Each bishop had his especial church, which was 
called a cathedral, and usually surpassed the other churches of 
the diocese in size and beauty. 

Fig, so. Canterburv Cathedral 

The bishop's church was called a cathedral, because in it stood the 
bishop's chair, or throne (Latin, cathedra). It was therefore much more 
imposing ordinarily than the parish churches, although sometimes the 
abbey churches belonging 10 rich monasteries vied with the bishop's 
church in beauty (see below, section 44) 

the oversight of his diocese, it was the bishop's The bishop's 

business to look after the lands and other possessions which ^u, 
belonged to the bishopric. Lasdy, the bishop was usually a 
feudal lord, with the obligations which that implied. He might 
have vassals and subvassals, and often was himself a vassal, not 
only of the king but also of some neighboring brd. 

1 The headpiece of this chapter represents an English bishop ordaining a 
priest and is taken from a manuscript of Heniy II's time. The bishop is 
wearing his miler and holds his pastoral suff, the crosier, in his left hand while 
he raises his right, in blessing, over the priest's head. 

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1 86 The Middle Period of European History 

The parish The lowest division of the Church was the parish. At the 

his duties head of the parish was the parish priest, who conducted services 
in the parish church and absolved, baptized, married, and buried 
his parishioners. The priests were supposed to be supported by 
the lands belonging to the parish church and by the tithes. But 
both of these sources of income were often in the hands of lay- 
men or of a neighboring monastery, while the poor priest re- 
ceived the merest pittance, scarcely suffident to keep soul and 
body together. 
The emHed The clergy were set apart from the laity in several ways. 
the clergy The higher orders — bishop, priest, deacon, and. subdeacon — 
were required to remain unmarried, and in this way were 
freed from the cares and interests of family life. The Church 
held, moreover, that the higher clergy, when they had been 
properly ordained, received through their ordination a mysterious 
imprint, the "indelible character," so that they could never 
become simple laymen again, even if they ceased to perform 
their duties altogether. Above all, the clergy alone coutd ad- 
minister the sacraments upon which the salvation of every 
individual soul depended. 
Nature of The punishment for sin imposed by the priest was caUed 

penance. This took a great variety of forms. It might consist 
in fasting, repeating prayers, visiting holy places, or abstaining 
from one's ordinary amusements. A journey to the Holy Land 
was regarded as taking the place of all other penance. Instead, 
however, of requiring the penitent actually to perform the fasts, 
pilgrimages, or other sacrifices imposed as penance by the priest, 
the Church early began to permit him to change his penance 
into a contribution, to be applied to some pious enterprise, like 
building a church or bridge, or caring for the poor and sick. 
Only clergy- The influence of the clergy was gready increased by the fact 
narily knew that they alone were educated. For six or seven centuries after 
and write ^^ overthrow of the Roman government in the west, very few 
outside of the clergy ever dreamed of studying, or even of learn- 
ing to read and write. Even in the thirteenth century an offender 


The Medieval Church at its Height 187 

who wished to prove that he belonged to the dci^, in order 
that he might be tried by a Church court, had only to show that 
he could read a single line ; for it was assumed by the judges 
that no one unconnected with the Church could read at all 

It was therefore inevitable that all the teachers were clergy- 
men, that almost all the books were written by priests and 
monks, and that the clergy was the ruling power in all intellectual, 
artistic, and literary matters — the chief guardians and promoters 
of civilization. Moreover, the civil government was forced to 
rely upon churchmen to write out the public documents and 
proclamations. The priests and monks held the pen for the 
king. Representatives of the clergy sat in the king's councils 
and acted as his ministers ; in fact, the conduct of the govern- 
ment largely devolved upon them. 

The ofhces in the Church were open to all ranks of men, and offices in the 
many of the popes themselves sprang from the humblest classes. (^ ^j ch^" 
The Church thus constantly recruited its ranks with fresh blood. 
No one held an office simply because his father had heU it 
before him, as was the case in the civil government 

No wonder that the churchmen were by far the most power- Eicoouiiu- 
ful class in the Middle Ages, They controlled great wealth ; they dterdict 
alone were educated ; they held the keys of the kingdom of 
heaven and without their aid no one could hope to enter in. 
By excommunication they could cast out the enemies of the 
Church and could forbid all men to associate with them, since 
they were accursed. By means of the inta-diet they could sus- 
pend all religious ceremonies in a whole city or country by 
dosing the church doors and prohibiting all public services. ^'^, - 

The Heretics and the Inquisition 

39. Nevertheless, in spite of the power and wonderful organi- Rebels 
zation of the Church, a few people iiegan to revolt against it as ^1^ 
early as the time of Gregory VII; and the number of these 
rebels continued to increase as time went on. Popular leaders 

DD.:eab, Google 

1 88 The Middle Period of European History 

arose who declared that no one ought any tonger to rely upon 
the Church for his salvation ; that all its elaborate ceremonies 
were worse than useless ; that its Masses, holy water, and relics 
were mere money-getting devices of a sinful priesthood and 

helped no one to heaven. 

Those who questioned the teachings of the Church and pro- 
posed to cast off its authority were, according to the accepted 
view of the time, guilty of the supreme crime of heresy. 
Heretics were of two sorts. One class merely rejected the 
practices and some of the doctrines of the Roman Catholic 
Church while they remained Christians and endeavored to 
imitate as nearly as possible the simple life of Christ and the 

Among those who continued to accept the Christian faith but 
refused to obey the clergy, the most important sect was that of 
the Waldensians, which took, its rise about 1175- These were 
followers of Peter Waldo of Lyons, who gave up all their 
property and lived a life of apostolic poverty. They went about 
preaching the Gospel and explaining the Scriptures, which they 
translated from Latin into the language of the people. They 
made many converts, and before the end of the twelfth cen- 
tury there were great numbers of them scattered throughout 
western Europe. 

On the other hand, there were popular leaders who taught 
that the Christian religion itself was false. They held that there 
were two principles in the universe, the good and the evil, 
which were forever fighting for the victory. They asserted 
that the Jehovah of the Old Testament was really the evil 
power, and that it was, therefore, the evil power whom the Cath- 
olic Church worshiped. These heretics were commonly caUed 
Albigenaians, a name derived from the town of Albi in southern 
France, where they were very numerous. 

It is very difficult for us who live in a tolerant age to under- 
stand the universal and deep-rooted horror of heresy which long 
prevailed in Europe. But we must reojllect that to the orthodox 

3 by Google 

The Medieval Ckurck at its Height 189 

believer in the Church nothing could exceed the guilt of one 
who committed treason against God by rejecting the religion 
which had been handed down in the Koman Church from the 
immediate followers of his Son. Moreover, doubt and unbelief 
were not merely sin ; they were revolt against the most power- 
ful social institution of the time, which, in spite of the sins of 
some of its officials, continued to be venerated by people at 
large throughout western Europe. The story of the Albigensians 
and Waldensians, and the efforts of the Church to suppress 
them by persuasion, by fire and sword, and by the stem court 
of the Inqui^tion, form a strange and terrible chapter in 
medieval history. 

In southern France there were many adherents of both the 
Albigensians and the Waldensians, espedally in the county of 
Toulouse, At the beginning of the thirteenth century there 
was in this region an open contempt "for the Church, and bold 
heretical teachings were heard even among the higher dasses. 

Against the people of this flourishing land Innocent III Aibigeniion 
preached a crusade in 1 zo8. An army marched from northern "^"^ 
France into the doomed region and, after one of the most 
atrocious and bloody wars upon record, suppressed the heresy 
by wholesale slaughter. At the same time, the war checked the 
civilization and destroyed the prosperity of the most enlightened 
portion of France. 

The most permanent defense of the Church against heresy was The Inqui- 
the establishment, under the headship of the pope, of a system " "^ 
of courts designed to ferret out secret cases of unbelief and bring 
the offenders to punishment. These courts which devoted their 
whole attention to the discovery and conviction of heretics were 
called the Holy Inquisition, which graduaDy took form after 
the Albigensian crusade. The unfairness of the trials and the 
cruel treatment to which those suspected of heresy were sub- 
jected, through long imprisonment or torture, — intUcted with 
the hope of forcing them to confess their crime or to implicate 
others, — have rendered the name of the Inquisition infamous. 

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igo The Middle Period of Eurt^ean History 

Without by any means attempting to defend the methods 
employed, it may be remarked that the inquisitors were often 
earnest and upright men, and the methods of procedure of the 
Inquisition were not more cruel than those used in the secular 
courts of the period. 

'nie assertion of the suspected person that he was not a 
heredc did not receive any attention, for it was assumed that 
he would naturally deny his guilt, as would any other criminal 
A person's belief had, therefore, to be judged by outward acts. 
Consequently one might fall into the hands of the Inquisition 
by mere accidental conversation with a heretic, by some unin- 
tentional neglect to show due respect toward the Church rites, 
or by the malicious testimony of one's neighbors. This is really 
the most terrible aspect of the Inquisition and its procedure. 

If the suspected person confessed his guilt and abjured his 
heresy, he was forgiven and received back into the Church; 
but a penance of life imprisonment was imp)osed upon him as 
a fitting means of wiping away the unspeakable sin of which he 
had been guil^. If he persisted in his heresy, he was " relaxed 
to the secular arm " ; that is to say, the Church, whose law for' 
bade it to shed blood, handed over the convicted person to the 
civil power, which burned him alive without further trial. 

The Franciscans and Dominicans 

40. We may now turn to that far more cheerful and effective 
method of meeting the opponents of the Church, which may 
be said to have been discovered by St. Francis of Assisi. His 
teachings and the example of his beautiful life probably did far 
more to secure continued allegiance to the Church than all the 
harsh devices of the Inquisition. 

We have seen how the Waldensians tried to better the world 
by living simple lives and preaching the Gospel. Owing to the 
disfavor of the Church authorities, who declared their teach- 
ii^ en'oneous and dangerous, they were prevented from 


The Medieval Church at its Height 191 

publicly carrying on their missionary work. Yet all conscientious 
men agreed with the Waklensians that the world was in a sad 
pl^ht, owing to the negligence and the misdeeds of the clergy. 
SL Fnmds and St. Dominic strove to meet the needs of their 
time by inventing a new kind of clergyman, the begging brother, 
or "mendicant friar "(from the "Latin f rater, "brother"). He was 
to do just what the bishops and parish priests often failed to do 
— namely, lead a holy life of self-sacrifice, defend the Church's 
beliefs against the' attacks of the heretics, and awaken the people 
to a new religious life. I'he founding of the mendicant orders 
is one of the most interesting events of the Middle Ages. 

There is no more lovely and fascinating figure in all history St. FrandB 
than St. Francis. He was bom (probably in 1182) at Assisi, a ugi-iai 
little town in central Italy. He was the son of a well-to-do 
merchant, and during his early youth he lived a very gay life, 
spending his father's money freely. He read the French 
romances of the time and dreamed of imitating the brave 
knights whose adventures they described. Although his com- 
panions were wild and reckless, there was a delicacy and chivalry 
in Francis's own make-up which made him hate all things coarse 
and heartless. When later he voluntarily became a beggar, his 
ragged cloak still covered a true poet and knight. 

The contrast between his own life of luxury and the sad state Francis for. 
of the poor early afflicted him. When he was about twenty, of lu'xuly ' 
after a long and serious illness which made a break in his gay *"uL''-'l 
life and gave him time to think, he suddenly lost his love for the ^^ becomes 
old pleasures and began to consort with the destitute, above all 
with lepers. His father does not appear to have had any.fond- 
ness whatever for beggars, and the relations between him and 
his son grew more and more strained. When finally he threatened 
to disinherit the young man, Frands cheerfully agreed to sur- 
render all right to his inheritance. Stripping off his clothes and 
giving them back to his father, he accepted the worn-out garment 
of a gardener and became a homeless hermit, busying himself 
in repairing the dilqJklated chapels near Assist 

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192 The Middle Period of European History 

He soon began to preach in a simple way, and before long a 
rich fellow townsman resolved to follow Francis's example — sell 
his ail and give to the poor. Others soon joined them, and these 
joyous converts, free of worldly burdens, went barefoot and 
penniless about central Italy preaching the Gospel instead of 
shutting themselves up in a monastery. 

When, with a dozen followers, Francis appealed to the pope 
in I2IO for his approval. Innocent III hesitated. He did not 
believe that any one could lead a life of absolute poverty. Then 
might not these ragged, ill-kempt vagabonds appear to condemn 
the Church by adopting a life so different from that of the rich 
and comfortable clergy? Yet if he disapproved the friars, he 
would seem to disapprove at the same time Christ's directions 
to his apostles. He finally decided to authorize the brethren to 
continue their missions. 

Seven years later, when Francis's followers had greatly in- 
creased in numbers, missionary work was begun on a large 
scale, and brethren were dispatched to Germany, Hungary, 
France, Spain, and even to Syria, It was not long before an 
English chronicler was telling with wonder of the arrival in his 
country of these barefoot men, in their patched gowns and with 
ropes about their waists, who, with Christian faith, took no 
thought for the morrow, believing that their Heavenly Father 
knew what things they had need of. 

As time went on, the success of their missionary work led 
the pope to bestow many privileges upon them. It grieved 
Francis, however, to. think of his litde band of companions 
beir^.converted into a great and powerful order. He foresaw 
that they would soon cease to lead their simple, holy life, and 
would become ambitious and perhaps rich. " I, litde Brother 
Francis," he writes, "desire to follow the life'and the poverty 
of Jesus Christ, persevering therein until the end; and I beg 
you all and exhort you to persevere always in this most holy 
life of poverty, and take good care never to depart from it 
upon the advice and teachings of anyone whomsoever," 

D.D.t.zeabyG00glc ■ 

The Medieval Church at its Height 193 

After the death of St. Francis (1226) many of the order, changehi 

which now numbered several thousand members, wished to ol'help^" 

maintain the simple rule of absolute poverty ; others, including ciacan order^ 

the new head of the order, believed that much good might be deach 
done with the wealth which people were anxious to give them. 

Fig. 51. Church of St, Francis at Assisi 

Assisi is situated on a high hill, and the monastery of the Franciscans 
is built out on 3 promontory. The monastery has two churches, one 
above the other. The lower church, in which are the remains o£ 
St. Francis, was begun in 1 228 and contains pictures of the life and mira- 
cles of the saint To reach the upper church (completed 1253) one can 
go up by the stairs, seen to Ihe right of the entrance to the lower church, 
to the higher level upon which the upper church faces 

They argued that the individual friars might still remain abso- 
lutely possessionless, even if the order had beautiful churches 
and comfortable monasteries. So a stately church was imme- 
diately constructed at Assisi (Fig. 51) to receive the remains of 
their humble founder, who in his lifetime had chosen a deserted 

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j;g4 T^ Middle Period of European History 

hovel for his home ; and a great chest was set up in the church 
to receive the offerings of those who desired to give. 

SL Dominic (b, 1170), the Spanish founder of the other great 
mendicant order, was not a simple layman like Francis, He 
was a churchman and took a r^ular course of instruction in 
theology for ten years in a Spanish university. He then (1208) 
accompanied his bbhop to southern France on the eve of the 
Albigensian crusade and was deeply shocked to see the preva- 
lence of heresy. His host at Toulouse happened to be an Albi- 
gensian, and Dominic spent the night in converting him. He then 
and there determined to devote his life to fighting heresy. 

By 12 14 a few sympathetic spirits from various parts of 
Europe had joined Dominic, and they asked Innocent III to 
sanction their new order. The pope again hesitated, but is 
said to have dreamed a dream in which he saw the great Roman 
Church of the Lateran tottering and ready to fall had not 
Dominic supported it on his shoulders. He interpreted this as 
meaning that the new ot^anization might sometime become a 
great aid to the papacy, and gave it his approval. As soon as 
possible Dominic sent forth his followers, of whom there were 
but sixteen, to evangelize the world, just as the Franciscans 
were undertaking their first missionary journeys. By 1221 
the Dominican order was thoroughly organized and had sixty 
monasteries scattered over western Europe. 

" Wandering on foot over the face of Europe, under burning 
SUDS or chilling blasts, rejecting alms in money but receiving 
thankfully whatever coarse food might be set before the way- 
farer, enduring hunger in silent resignation, taking no thought for 
the morrow, but busied eternally in the work of snatching souls 
from Satan and lifting men up from the sordid cares of daily 
life" — in this way did the early Franciscans and Dominicans 
win the love and veneration of the people. 

The Dominicans were called the " Preaching Friars " and 
were carefully trained in theology in order the better to refute 
the arguments of the heretics. The pope delegated to them 


The Medieval Ckurck at its Height 195 

especially the task of conducting the Inquisition. 1'hey early Contrast 
b^an to extend their influence over the universities, and the D^!J[^iIaii» 
two most distinguished theologians and teachers of the thirteenth ^^ *''.* 
century, Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas, were Domini- 
cans. Amoi^ the Franciscans, on the other hand, there was 
always a considerable party who were suspicious of learning 
and who showed a greater desire to remain absolutely poor than 
did the Dominicans. Yet as a whole the Franciscans, like the 
Dominicans, accepted the wealth that came to them, and they 
too contributed distinguished scholars to the universities. r i 

o ■■! ■■- 1 .■ r- ifil"!-^ 

Church AND Stat£ ' «- ■' „.^-''' v.!'-' ■' ■ 
41. We have seen that the Medieval Church was a single The stale 
great institution with its head, the pope, at Rome and its aidldihe 
officers in all the countries of western Europe. It had its laws, Sljl'Jvg' 
law courts, t3:ces, and even prisons, just like the various kings churehmm 

and other rulers. In general, the kings were ready to punish f 

every one who revolted against the Church. Indeed, the State de- 
pended upon the churchmen in many ways. It was the church- 
men who wrote out the documents which the king required; 
they took care of the schools, aided the poor, and protected the 
weak. They tried, by issuing the Truce of God, to discourage 
neighborhood warfare, which the kings were unable to stop. 

But as the period of disorder drew to an end and the Chief sources 
kings and other rulers got the better of the feudal lords and between"*^ 
established peace in their realms, they began to think that g^J'^'^''""' 
the Church had become too powerful and too rich. Cerlain 
difficulties arose of which the following were the most important : 

I. Should the king or the pope have the advantage of select- Filling 
ing the bishops and the abbots of rich monasteries. Naturally 
both were anxious to place their friends and supporters in these 
influential positions. Moreover, the pope could claim a con- 
siderable contribution from those whom he appointed, and the 
king naturally grudged him the money. 

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196 The Middle Period of European History 

Taiingof 2, How far might the king venture to tax the lands and Other 

proper^ property of the Church ? Was this vast amount of wealth to go 

on increasing and yet make no contribution to the support of 

the government ? The churchmen usually maintained that they 

needed all their money to carry on the Church services, keep 

up the churches and monasteries, take care of the schools and 

aid the poor, for the State left them to bear all these necessary 

burdens. The law of the Church permitted the churchmen to 

make voluntary gifts to the king when there was urgent necessity. 

Chuich 3. Then there was trouble over the cases to be tried in the 

Church courts and the claim of churchmen to be tried only by 

clergymen. Worst of all was the habit of appealing cases to 

Rome, for the pope would often dedde the matter in exacdy 

the opposite way from which the king's court had decided it. 

Right of 4, Lastly there was the question of how far the pope as head 

mierfere in of the Christian Church had a right to interfere with the govem- 

goverament me^f of ^ particular state, when he did not approve of the way 

in which a king was acting. The powers of the pope were very 

great, every one admitted, but even the most devout Catholics 

differed somewhat as to just how great they were. 

We have seen some illustrations of these troubles in the 
chapter on the Popes and Emperors. A famous conflict between 
the king of France, Philip the Fair, and Pope Boniface VIII, 
about the year 1 300, had important results. Philip and Edward I 
of England, who were reigning at the same time, had got into the 
habit of taxing the churchmen as they did their other subjects. 
Edward 1 and It was natural after a monarch had squeezed all that he could 
out of the Jews and the towns, and had exacted every possible 
feudal due, that he should turn to the rich estates of the clergy, 
in spite of their claim that their property was dedicated to God 
and owed the king nothing. The extensive enterprises of 
Edward I (see pp. 1 28 sqq., above) led him in 1296 to demand 
one fifth of the personal property of the clergy. Philip the Fair 
exacted one hundredth and then one fiftieth of the possessions 
of clergy and laity alike. 

Fait attempt 
to tax the 

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The Medieval Church at its Height 197 

Against this impartial system Boniface protested it 
bull, Clerids lakos (i 296). He claimed that the laity had always \ 
been exceedingly hostile to the clergy, and that the rulers were ^^"' '^ 
now exhibiting this hostility by imposing heavy burdens upon 
the Church, forgetting that they had no control over the clergy 
and their possessions. The pope, therefore, forbade all church- 
men, including the monks, to pay, without his consent, to a king 
or ruler any part of the Church's revenue or possessions upon 
any pretext whatsoever. He likewise forbade the kings and 
princes under pain of excommunication to presume to exact 
any such payments. 

It happened that just as the pope was prohibiting the cleigy Boniface 
from contributing to the taxes, Philip the Fair had forbidden ii^^''[g'ht 
the exportation of all gold and silver from the country. In that '^"^ 
way he cut off an important source of the pope's revenue, for 
the church of France could obviously no longer send anything 
to Rome. The pope was forced to give up his extreme claims. 
He explained the following year that he had not meant to inter- 
fere with the payment on the clergy's part of customary feudal 
dues nor with their loans of money to the king.'' 

In spite of this setback, the pope never seemed more com- The jubilee 
pletely the recognized head of the western world than during 
the'first great jubilee, in the year 1300, when Boniface called 
together all Christendom to celebrate the opening of the new 
century by a great religious festival at Rome. It is reported 
that two millions of people, coming from all parts of Europe, 
visited the churches of Rome, and that in spite of widening the 
streets, many were crushed in the crowd. So great was the 
influx of money into the papal treasury that two' assistants were 
kept busy with rakes collecting the offerings which were deposited 
at the tomb of St. Peter. 

Boniface was, however, very soon to realize that even if 
Christendom regarded Rome as its religious center, the na- 
tions would not accept him as their political head. When he 

> See Rtading', cl>3P' "■■ 

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198 The Middle Period of European History 

dispatched an obnoxious prelate to Philip the Fair, ordering him 

to free a certain nobleman whom he was holding prisoner, tbe 
king declared the harsh language of the papal envoy to be high 
treason and sent one of his lawyers to the pope to demand 
that the messenger be punished. 

Philip was surrounded by a body of lawyers, and it would 
seem that they, rather than the kii^, were the real rulers of . 
France. They had, through their study of Roman law, learned 
to admire the absolute power exercised by the Roman emperor. 
To them the civil goverrunent was supreme, and they urged 
the king to punish what they regarded as the insolent conduct 
of tbe pope. Before taking any action against the head of the 
Church, Philip called together the Estates-General, including- not 
only the clergy and the nobility but the people of the towns as 
well. The Estates-General, after hearing a statement of the case 
from one of Philip's lawyers, agreed to support their monarch. 

Nogaret, one of the diief l^al advisers of the king, undertook 
to face the pope. He collected a little troop of soldiers in Italy 
and marched against Boniface, who was sojourning at Anagni, 
where his predecessors had excommunicated two emperors, 
Frederick Barbarossa and Frederick II. As Boniface, in his 
turn, was preparing solemnly to proclaim the king of France 
an outcast from the Church, Nogaret penetrated into the papal 
palace with his soldiers and heaped insults upon the helpless 
but defiant old man. The townspeople forced Nogaret to leave 
the next day, but Boniface's spirit was broken and he soon died 
at Rome. 

King Philip now proposed to have no more trouble with 
popes. He arranged in 1305 to have the Archbishop of Bor- 
deaux chosen head of the Church, with the understanding 
that he should transfer the papacy to France. The new pope 
accordingly summoned the cardbals to meet him at Lyons, 
where he was crowned under the title of " Clement V," He 
remained in France during his whole pontificate, moving from 
one rich abbey to another. 

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The Medieval Church at its Height 199 

At Philip's command he reluctantly undertook a sort of trial 
of the deceased Boniface VIII, who was accused by the king's 
law)fers of all sorts of abominable crimes. Then, to please the 
king, Clement brought the Templars to trial ;^ the' order was 
abolished, and its possessions in France, for which the king 
had longed, were confiscated. Obviously it proved very advanta- 
geous to the king to have a pope within his realm. Clement V 
died in 13 14. 

His successors took up their residence in the town of The popes 
Avignon, just outside the French frontier of those days. There reaWence Vt 
they built a sumptuous palace in which successive popes lived A"b°™ 
in great splendor for sixty years. 

The prolonged exile of the popes from Rome, lasting from The Babylo- 
1305 to 1377, is commonly called the Babylonian Captivity* of ^rf^i?''' 
the Church, on account of the woes attributed to it. The popes church 
of this period were for the most part good and earnest men ; 
but they were all Frenchmen, and the proximity of their court to 
France led to the natural suspicion that they were controlled 
by the French kings. This, together with their luxurious court, 
brought them into discredit with the other nations.' 

At Avignon the popes were naturally deprived of some of the The pap»I 
revenue which they had enjoyed from their Italian possessions 
when they lived at Rome. This deficiency had to be made up 
by increased taxation, especially as the expenses of the splendid 
papal court were very heavy. The papacy was, consequently, 
rendered unpopular by the methods empkiyed to raise money. 

The papal exactions met with the greatest opposition in statute of 
England because the popes were thought to favor France, with P™^'""*' 
which'country the English were at war, A law was passed by 
Parliament in 1352, ordering that all who procured a Church 
ofiice from the pope should be outlawed, since they were ene- 
mies of the king and his realm. This and similar laws failed, 

1 See rfmve, p. 175. 

1 The name recalled, of coune, the long exile of the Jews from their land. 

' See Riadmgs, chap, xxt 

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200 The Middle Period of European History 

however, to prevent the pope from filling English benefices. 
The English king was unable to keep the money of his realm 

Fig. 52. Page from Wycliffe's Translation of the Bible 

This is tlie upper half of the first page of the Gospel according to Mark 
and contains verses 1-7 and 15-^3' The scribe of the time made i,y, 
and tk in something the same way. The page begins: "The bigyn- 
ninge of the gospel of ihusu crist, the sone of god. As it is writen in 
isaie, the prophete, Loo, I send myn aunget bifore thi face, that schal 
make thi weie redi bifore thee. The voice of one crying in descert, 
make thee redi the weie of the lord, make thee his pathis ryghtful 
Joon was in deseert baptizinge and prechinge the baptism of penaunce 
in to remissioun of sinnes." While the spelling is somewhat different 
from ours it is clear that the language used by Wycliffe closely resembled 
that used in the familiar authorized version of the New Testament, made 
:s and a half later 

from flowing to Avignon, and at the meeting of the English 
Parliament held in 1376 a report was made to the effect that 
the taxes levied by the pope in England were five times those 
raised by the king. 

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Tke Medieval Church at its Height 201 

The most famous and conspacuous critic of the pope at this John 
time was John Wycliffe, a. teacher at Oxford. He was bom J^""* 
about 1320, but we know little of him before 1366, when 
Urban V demanded that England should pay the tribute prom- 
ised by King John when he became the pope's vassal.' Parlia- 
ment declared that John had no right to bind the people 
without their consent, and WydifEe began his career of oppo- 
sition to the papacy by trying to prove that John's agreement 
was void. About ten years later we find the pope issuing bulls 
against the teachings of Wycliffe, who had begun to assert that 
the state might appropriate the property of the Church, if it 
was misused, and that the pope had no authority except as he 
acted according to the Gospels, Soon Wycliffe went further 
and boldly attacked the papacy itself, as well as many of the 
Church insdtutions. 

Wyciiffe's anxiety to teach the people led him to have the Wycliffe ft 
Bible translated into English. He also prepared a great num- English 
ber of sermons and tracts in English. He is the father of f'°^ 
English prose,* for we have little in English before his time, 
except poetry. 

Wycliffe and his " simple priests " were charged with encour- influence i 
aging the discontent and disorder which culminated in the teaSdn" 
Peasants' War.* Whether this charge was true or not, it caused 
many of his followers to fall away from him. But in spite of 
this and the denunciations of the Church, Wycliffe was not 
seriously interfered with and died peaceably in 1384, Wycliffe 
is remarkable as being the first distinguished scholar and re- 
former to repudiate the headship of the pope and those prac- 
tices of the Church qi Rome which a hundred and fifty years 
after his death were attacked by Luther in his successful re- 
volt against the Medieval Church. This will be discussed in a 
later chapter. , . 

' See ab<»e, p. 124. 

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202 Tfu Middle Period of Eun^ean History 

Section 3S. In what ways did the Medieval Church differ from 
the modem churches with which we arc familiar? In what w;^ did 
the Medieval Church resemble a State i What were the powers of the 
pope^ What were the duties of a bishop in the Middle Ages? Why 
was the dergy the most powerful class in the Middle Ages? 

Section 39. What were the views of the Waldensians? of the 
Albigenaans? What was the Inquiadon ? 

Section 40. Narrate briefly the life of Sl Francis. Did the 
Frandscan order continue to follow the wishes of its founder? 
Contrast the Dominicans with the Franciscans. 

Section 41. What were the chief subjects of disagreement 
hetween the Church and the State? Describe the conflict between 
Boniface VIII and Philip the Fair. How did the Babylonian 
Captivi^ come about? What were some of the results of the 
sojourn of the popes at Avignon? What were the views of John 

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^. 13 


medieval towns -theik business and buildihcs 

The Towns and Guilds 

43. In discussing the Middle Ages we have hitherto dealt 
mainly with kings and emperors, and with the popes and the 
Churchof which they were the chief rulers; we have also described 
the monks and monasteries, the warlike feudal lords and their 
castles, and the hard-working serfs who farmed the manors ; but 
nothing has been said about the people who lived in the towns. 

Towns have, however, always been the chief centers of Towns the 
progress and enlightenment, for the simple reason that people of'prt^re™ 
must Uve close together in large numbers before they can 
develop business on a large scale, carry on trade with foreign 
countries, establish good schools and universities, erect noble 
public buildings, support libraries and museums and art galleries. 
One does not find these in the country, for the people outside 
the towns are too scattered and usually too poor to have the 
thii^ that are common enough in large cities. 

One of the chief peculiarities of the early Middle Ages, from 
the break-up of the Roman Empire to the time of William the 
Conqueror, was the absence of large and flourishing towns in 
western Europe, and this fact alone would serve to explain why 
there was so little progress. 

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204 The Middle Period of European History 

The Roman towns were decreasing in population before the 
German inroads. The confusion which followed the invasions 
hastened their decline, and a great number of them disappeared 
altogether. Those which survived and such new towns as sprang 
up were, to judge from the chronicles, of very litde importance 
during the early Middle Ages. We may assume, therefore, that 
during the long period from Theodoric to Frederick Barbarossa 
by far the greater part of the population of England, Germany, 
and northern and central France were living in the tx>untry, 
on the great estates belonging to the feudal lords, abbots, 
and bishops.' 

It is hardly necessary to point out that the gradual reappear- 
ance of town life in western Europe is of the greatest interest to 
the student of history. The cides had been the centers of Greek 
and Roman civilization, and in our own time they dominate the 
life, culture, and business enterprise of the world. Were they 
to disappear, our whole life, even in the country, would neces- 
sarily undergo a profound change and tend to become primitive 
again, like that of the age of Charlemagne. 

A great part of the medieval towns, of which we begin to 
have some scanty records about the year looo, appear to have 
originated on the manors of feudal lords or about a monastery 
or castle. The French name for town, jnlle, is derived from 
" vill," the name of the manor, and we use this old Roman word 
when we call a town Jacksonwi'/if or Harris^?/*. The need of 
protection was probably the usual reason for establishing a town 
with walls about it, so that the townspeople and the neighbor- 
ing country people might find safety withb it when attacked by 
neighboring feudallords (Fig.. 53). 
1 The way in which a medieval town was built seems to justify 
this conclusiori. It was generally crowded and compact com- 
pared with its more luxurious Roman predecessors. Aside from 
the market place there were few or no open spaces. There 

1 In Italy and southern Fiance town life was doubtless more general ihaa in 

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Medieval Towns — their Business and Buildings 205 

were no amphitheaters or public batfis as in the Roman dties. 
The streets were often mere alleys over which the jutting stories 
of the high houses almost mcL The high, thick wall that sur- 
rounded it prevented its extending easily and rapidly as our 
cities do nowadays {see headpiece and Tigs. 54, 77). 

Fig. 53. A Castle with a Village below it 

All towns outside of Italy were small in the eleventh and Townsi 
twelfth centuries, and, like the manors on which they had g^ 
grown up, they had little commerce as yet with the outside 
world. They produced almost all that their inhabitants needed 
except the farm products which came from the neighboring 
country. There was likely to be litde expansion as long as the 


2o6 The Middle Period of European History 

town remained under the absolute control of the loni or monas- 
tery upon whose land it was situated. The townspeople were 
scarcely more than serfs, in spite of the fact that they lived 
within a wall and were traders and artisans instead of farmers. 
They had to pay irritating dues to their lord, just as if they still 
formed a farming community. 

With the increase of trade (see following section) came the 
longing for greater freedom. For when new and attractive com- 
modities began to be brought from the East and the South, the 
people of the towns were encouraged to make things which 
they could exchange at some neighboring fair for the products 
of distant lands. But no sooner did the townsmen begin to en- 
gage in manufacturing and to enter into relations with the out- 
side world than they became conscious that they were subject to 
exactions and restrictions which rendered progress impossible. 

Consequently, during the twelfth century there were many 
insurrections of the towns against their lords and a general 
demand that the lords should grant the townsmen charters 
in which the rights of both parties should be definitely stated. 
These charters were written contracts between the lord and the 
town government, which served at once as the certificate of birth 
of the town and as its constitution. The old dues and services 
which the townspeople owed as serfs (see above, section 20) 
were either abolished or changed into money payments. 

As a visible sign of their freedom, many of the towns Kad a 
belfry, a high building with a watchtower, where a guard was 
kept day and night in order that the bell might be rung in case 
of approaching danger.^ It contained an assembly hall, where 
those who governed the town held their meetings, and a prison. 
In the fourteenth century the wonderful town halls b^an to be 
erected, which, with the exception of the cathedrals and other 
churches, are usually the most remarkable buildings which the 
traveler sees to-day in the old commercial cities of Europe, 

D.D.t.zeabi. Google 

Fir,. 54. Street is Quimper, France 

None of the strecia in even the oldest European towns look just as 
they did in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, but here and there, 
as in this town of Brittany, one can sCill get some idea of the narrow, 
cramped streets and overhanging houses and the beautiful cathedral 
crowded in among them 

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2o8 The Middle Period of European History 

The tradesmen in the medieval towns were at once manu- 
facturers and merchants ; that is, they made, as well as offered 
for sale, the articles which they kept in their shops. Those who 
belonged to a particular trade — the bakers, the butchers, the 
sword makers, the armorers, etc. — formed unions or guilds to 
protect their special interests. The oldest statutes of a guild 
in Paris are those of the candle makers, which go back to 1061. 
The number of trades differed greatly in different towns, but 
the guilds all had the same object — to prevent any one 
from practicing a trade who had not been duly admitted to 
the union. 

A young man had to spend several years in learning his trade. 
During this time he lived in the house of a " master workman " as 
an "apprentice," but received no remuneration. He then became 
a "journeyman" and could earn wages, although he was still 
allowed to work only for master workmen and not directly for 
the public. A simple trade might be learned in three years, but 
to become a goldsmith one must be an apprentice for ten years. 
The number of apprentices that a master workman might em- 
ploy was strictly limited, in order that the journeymen might 
not become too numerous. 

The way in which each trade was to be practiced was care- 
fully regulated, as well as the dme that should be spent in work 
each day. The system of guilds discouraged enterprise but main- 
tained uniform standards everywhere. Had it, not been for 
these unions, the defenseless, isolated workmen, serfs as they 
had formerly been, would have found it impossible to secure 
freedom and municipal independence from the feudal lords 
who had formerly been their masters. 

Business in the Later Middle Ages 

43. The chief reason for the growth of the towns and their in- 
creasing prosperity was a great development of trade throi^hout 
western Europe. Commerce had pretQ' much disappeared with 


Medieval Towns — their Business and Buildings 209 

the decline of the Koman roads and the general disorganizadon Practical di>- 
produced by the barbarian invasions. In the early Middle Ages ^^^^^ 
there was no one to mend the ancient Roman roads. The great 'iSdlfi^''' 
network of highways from Persia to Britain fell apart when inde- 
pendent nobles or poor local communities took the place of a 
world empire. All trade languished, for there was litde demand 
for those articles of luxury which the Roman communities in the 
. North had been accustomed to obtain from the South, and there 
was but litde money to buy what we should consider the com- 
forts of life ; even the nobility lived uncomfortably enough in 
their dreary and rudely furnished castles. 

In Italy, however, trade does not seem to have altogether Italian cidet 
ceased. Venice, Genoa, Amalfi, and other towns appear to have Sre orient 
developed a considerable Mediterranean commerce even before 
the Crusades (see map above, p. 160). Their merchants, as we- 
have seen, supplied the destitute crusaders with the material 
necessary for the conquest of Jerusalem (see above, p. 172). 
The passion for pilgrimages offered inducements to the Italian 
merchants for expeditions to the Orient, whither they transported 
the pilgrims and returned with the products of the East. The 
Italian cities established trading stations in the East and carried 
on a direct traffic with the caravans which brought to the shores 
of the Mediterranean the products of Arabia, Persia, India, and 
the Spice Islands. The southern French towns and Barcebna 
entered also into commercial relations with the Mohammedans 
in northern Africa. 

This progress in the South could not but stir the lethargy of Commeree 
the rest of Europe. When commerce began to revive, it encour- ^dusuy" 
aged a revolution in industry. So long as the manor system 
prevailed and each man was occupied in producing only what 
he and the other people on the estate needed, there was nothing 
to send abroad and nothing to exchange for luxuries. But when 
merchants began to come with tempting articles, the members of 
a community were encouraged to produce a surplus of goods 
above what they themselves needed, and to sell or exchange this 


2IO The Middle Period of European History 

surplus for commodities coming from a distance. Merchants and 
artisans graduaUy directed their energies toward the production 
of what others wished as well as what was needed by the little 
group to which they belonged. 
The luiuries The romances of the twelfth century indicate that the West 
rmroducS* was astonished and delighted by the luxuries, of the East — the 
into Europe ^^ fabrics, Oriental carpets, precious stones, perfumes, drugs, 
silks, and porcelains from China, spices from India, and cotton 
from Egypt. Venice introduced the silk industry from the East 
and the manufacture of those glass articles which the traveler 
may still buy in the Venetian shops. The West learned how 
to make silk and velvet as well as light and gauzy cotton and 
linen fabrics. The Eastern dyes were introduced, and Paris was 
soon imita.ting the tapestries of the Saracens. In exchange for 
those luxuries which they were unable to produce, the Flemish 
towns sent their woolencloths to the East, and Italy its wines. 
Some of the The Northern merchaijfs dealt mainly with Venice and brought 
commercial their wares across :the' Brenner Pass and down the Rhine, or 
centeis ggj^j them by sea to be exchanged in Flanders (see map). By 

the_ thirteenth century important centers of trade had come 
into being, some of which are still among the great commercial 
towns of the world. Hamburg, Liibeck, and Bremen carried on 
active trade with the countries on the Baltic and with England, 
Augsburg and Nuremberg, in the south of Germany, became im- 
portant on account of their situation on the line of trade between 
Italy and the North. Bruges and Ghent sent their manufactures 
everywhere. EngUsh commerce was relatively unimportant as 
yet compared with that of the great ports of the Mediterranean. 
Obstacle! to It was very difficult indeed to carry on business on a large 
scale in the Middle Ages, for various reasons. In the first place, 
as has been said, there was little money, and money is essential 
to buying and selling, unless people confine themselves merely 
Lack of to exchanging one article for another. There were few gold and 

silver mines in western Europe and consequently the kings and 
feudal lords could not supply enough coin. Moreover, the coins 


DiDitizea by Google 

' Payment o 


2 1 2 The Middle Period of European History 

the price above the just one. These ideas made wholesale trade 
very difficult. 

Akin to these prejudices against wholesale business was that 
against interest Money was believed to be a dead and sterile 
thing, and no one had a right to demand any return for lendmg 
it Interest was considered wicked, since it was exacted by those 
who took advantage of the embarrassments of others. " Usury," 
as the taking of even the most moderate and reasonable rate 
of interest was then called, was strenuously forbidden by the 
laws of the Church. We find church councils ordering that im- 
penitent usurers should be refused Christian burial and have 
their wills annulled. So money lending, which is necessary to all 
great commercial and industrial undertakings, was. left to the 
Jews,- from whom Christian conduct was not expected. 

This ill-starred people played a most important part in the 
economic development of Europe, but they were terribly mal- 
treated by the Christians, who held them guilty of the supreme 
crime of putting Christ to death. The active persecution of the 
Jews did not, however, become common before the thirteenth 
century, when they first began to be required to wear a peculiar 
cap, or badge, which made them easily recognized and exposed 
them to constant insult Later they were sometimes shut up 
in a particular quarter of the dty, called the Jewry. As they 
were excluded from the guilds, they not unnaturally turned 
to the business of money lending, which no Christian might 
practice. Undoubtedly this occupation had much to do in 
causing their unpopularity. The kings permitted them to make 
loans, often at a most exorbitant rate ; Philip Augustus allowed 
them to exact forty-six per cent, but reserved the right to extort 
their gains from them when the royal treasury was empty. In 
England the usual rate was a penny a pound for each week. 

In the thirteenth century the Italians — Lombards, as the 
Eiiglish called them* — began to go into a sort of banking 

' There U a Lombard Stteet in the center of old Londoa tihere one still lind> 

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Medieval Towns — their Business and Buildings 213 

bimness and greatly extended the employment of bills of ex- 
change. They lent for nothing, but exacted damages for all de- 
lay in repayment This appeared reasonable and right even 
to those who condemned ordinary interest 

Another serious disadvantage which the medieval merchant TolU, dutie«i 
had to face was the payment of an infinite number of tolls and ^noyan™ 
duties which were demanded by the lords through whose domains ^ ^tji^h 
his road passed. Not only were duties exacted on the highways, were wb- 
bridges, and at the fords, but those barons who were so fortunate land 
as to have castles on a navigable river blocked the stream in such 
a way that the merchant could not bring his vessel through 
without a payment for the privilege. 

The charges were usually small, but the way in which thty 
were collected and the repeated delays must have been a serious 
source of irritation and loss to the merchants. For example, a 
certain monastery lying between Paris and the sea required that 
those hastening to town with fresh fish should stop and let the 
monks pick out what they thought worth three pence, with little 
r^ard to the condition in which they left the goods. When a 
boat laden with wine passed up the Seine to Paris, the agent 
of the lord of Poissy could have three casks broached, and, 
after trying them all, he could take a measure from the one 
he liked best. At the markets al! sorts of dues had to be paid, 
such, for example, as fees for using the lord's scales or his 
measuring rod. Besides this, the great variety of coinage 
which existed in feudal Europe caused infinite perplexity and 

Commerce by sea had its own particular trials, by no means Dansen 
coniined to the hazards of wind and wave, rock and shoaL '' "^ 
Pirates were numerous in the North Sea. They were often Pinto 
organized and sometimes led by men of high rank, who appear 
to have regarded the business as no disgrace. The coasts were 
dangerous and lighthouses and beacons were few. Moreover, 
natural dangers were increased by false signals which wreckers 
used to lure ships to shore in order to plunder them. 

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by Google 

Medieval Tmvns — their Bitsiness and Buildings 2 1 1 

were crude, with such rough, irregular edges (Fig. 55) that "Clipping" 
many people yielded to the temptation to pare off a little of the 
precious metal before they passed the money oa " Clipping," 
as this was called, was harshly punished, but that did not stop 
the practice, which continued for hundreds of years. Nowadays 
our coins are 
perfectly round 
and often have 

"milled" edges, 1 

so that no one 
would think of 
trying to appro- 
priate bits of * 
them as they 
pass through 
his hands. 

It was univer- 
sally believed 
that everything 
had a "just" 

price,whichvras Fig. 55. Medieval Coins 

merely enough ^^^ ,^^ ^^^^^ ^^.^^ reproduce the face and back of 
to cover the a silver penny of William the Conqueror's reign, and 
cost of the ma- helow is a silver groat of Edward 111. The same ir- 

. , _j ■ regularities in outline, it may be noted, are to be 

tenalS used m observed in Greek and Roman coins 

its manufacture 

and to remunerate the maker for the work he had put into it 
It was considered outrageous to ask more than the just- price, no 
matter how anxious the purchaser might be to obtain the article. 

Every manufacturer was required to keep a shop in which he Difficulties 
offered at retail all that he made. Those who lived near a town ^hoies^^ ° 
were permitted to sell their products in the market place within "^^ 
the walls on condition that they sold directly to the consumers. 
They, might not dispose of their whole stock to one dealer, for 
fear that if he had all there was of a commodity he might raise 

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2l6 The Middle Period of European History 

them. It has been estimated that the bishop's church at Paris 
(Notre Dame) would cost at least five millions of dollars to re- 
produce, and there are a number of other cathedrals in France, 
England, Italy, Spain, and Germany which must have been 
almost as costly. No modem buildings equal them in beauty 

Fig. 56, Romanesque Church op ChAtel-Montagne in the 
Department of Aluer, France 

This is a pure Romanesque building with no alterations in a later style, 
such as are common. Heavy as the walls are, they are reenforced by 
buttresses along the side. Alt the arches are round, none of them pointed 

and grandeur, and they are the most striking memorial of the 
religious spirit and the town pride of the Middle Ages. 

The construction of a cathedral sometimes extended over two 
or three centuries, and much of the money for it must have 
been gathered penny by penny. It should be remembered that 
every. one belonged in those days to the one great Catholic . 
Church, so that the building of a new church was a matter of 

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Medieval Towns — their Business and Buildings 217 

interest to the whole community — - to men of every rank, from 
the bishop himself to the workman and the peasant. 

Up to the twelfth century churches were built in what is The Roman- 
called the Romanesque, or Roman-like, style because they re- 
sembled the solid old basilicas referred to in an earlier chapter 
(see p. 43 above). These Romanesque churches usually had 
stone ceilings (see Figs. 
36, 38, 56), and it was 
necessary to make the 
walls very thick and solid 
to support them. There 
was a main aisle in the 
center, called the nave, 
and a narrower aisle on 
either side, separated 
from the nave by massive 
stone pillars, which helped 
hold up the heavy ceiling. 
These pillars were con- 
nected by round arches 

of stone above them. The Such grotesque figur 
tops of the windows were 
round, and the ceil in 
was constructed of round 
vaults, somewhat like a 
stone bridge, so the round 
arches form one of the 
striking features of the Romanesque style which distinguishes 
it from the Gothic style, that followed it. The windows had to 
be small in order that the walls should not be weakened, so the 
Romanesque churches are rather dark inside. 

The architects of France were not satisfied, however, with The Gothic 
this method of building, and in the twelfth century they invented *"'' * 
a new and wonderful way of constructing churches and other 
buildings which enabled them to do away with the heavy waUs 

Fig. 57. Figures on Notre 
Dame, Paris 

i as these are very 
of Gothic build- 
ings. They are often used for spouts to 
carry off the rain and are called gar- 
goyles, that is. " throats " (compare our 
words "gargle" and "gurgle"). The 
two here represented are perched on a 
parapet of one of the church's towers 


The Middle Period of European History 

It will be noticed that there is a row of 
rather low windows opening under the 
roof of the aisle. These constitute the 
so-called Iri/anum {£). Above them is 
the cleTestory {F), the windows of which 
open between the flying buttresses. So 
it came about that the walls of a Gothic 
church were in fact mainly windows. The 
Egyptians were the lirst to invent the 

and put high, wide, 
graceful windows in 
their place. This new 
style of architecture is 
known as the Gothic^ 
and its underlying prin-. 
ciples can readily be 
understood from a 
little study of the ac- 
companying diagram 
(Fig. 58), which shows 
how a Gothic cathedral 
is supported, not by 
heavy walls, but by 

The architects dis- 
covered in the first 
place that the concave 
stone ceiling, which is 
known as the vaulting 
(-^), could be supported 
by ribs (B). These 
could in turn be brought 
together and supported 
on top of pillars which 

1 The inappropriate name 
" Gothic" was given to the 
beautiful churches of the 
North by Italian architects 
of the sixteenth century, who 
did not like them and pre- 
• build in the style 

of thear 
Italians witli 

1. The 

, Google 

Facade of the Cathedral at Rheims (Thirteenth 

D.D.t.zea by Google 

E Window of Rheims Cathedral, nearly Forty 
FEET IN Diameter, from the Inside 

3 by Google 

Interior of Exetek Cathedral (Eaklv Fourteenth 

D.D.t.zea by Google 

North Porch of Chartres Cathedral (Fourteenth 


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Medieval Towns — their Business and Buildings 219 

rested on the floor of the church. So far so good I But the 
builders knew well enough that the pillars and ribs would be 
pushed over by the weight and outward " thrust " of the stone 
vaulting if they were not firmly supported from the outside. 
Instead of erecting 
heavy walls to insure 
liiis support they 
had recourse to but- 
tresses (D), which 
they built quite out- 
side the walls of the 
church, and con- 
nected them by 
means of " flying " 
buttresses (C) with 
the points where the 
pillars and ribs had 
the most tendency 
to push outward. In 
this ivafa vaulted 
stone ceiling could 
be supported without 
the use of a massive 
wall. This ingen- 
ious use of but- 
tresses instead of 
walls is the funda- 
mental principle of 
Gothic architecture, 

and it was discovered for the first time by the architects in 
the medieval towns. 

The wall, no longer essential for supporting the ceiling, was 
used only to inclose the building, and windows could be built as 
high and wide as pleased the architect. By the use of pointed 
instead of round arches it was possible to give great variety to 

F Notre 

The size of the buttresses and the height of 

Ihe clerestory windows of a great cathedral 

are well shown here 

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220 The Middle Period of European History 

the windows and vaulting. So pointed arches came into general 
use, and the Gothic is often called the " pointed " style on this 
account, although the use of the ribs and buttresses is the chief 
peculiarity of that form of architecture, not the pointed arch. 

The light from the huge windows (those at Beauvais are 
fifty to fifty-five feet high) would have been too intense had it 
not been softened by the stained glass, set in exquisite stone 

Fig. 6o. Grotesque Heads, Rheims Cathedral 

Here and there about a Gothic cathedral the stone carvers were accus- 
tomed to place grotesque and comical figures and faces. During the 
process of restoring the cathedral at Rheims a number of these heads 
were brought together, and the photograph was taken upon which the 
illustration is based 

tracery, with which they were filled. The stained glass of the 
medieval cathedral, especially in France, where the glass 
workers brought their art to the greatest perfection, was one 
of its chief glories. By far the greater part of this old glass 
has of course been destroyed, but it is still so highly prized that 
every bit of it is now carefully preserved, for it has never since 
been equaled. A window set with odd bits of it pieced together 
like crazy patchwork is more beautiful, in its rich and jewel-like 
coloring, than the finest modem work. 

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Medieval Tovms — their Business and Buildings 221 

As the skill of the architects increased they became bolder Gothic 
and bolder and erected churches that were marvels of lightness *™ ** 
and delicacy of ornament, without sacrificing dignity or beauty 
of proportion. The facade of Rhdms cathedral is one of 
the most fanious examples of the best 
work of the thirteenth century, with its 
multitudes of sculptured figures and its 
gigantic rose window, filled with ex- 
quisite stained glass of great brilliancy. 
The mterior of Exeter cathedral, although 
by no means so spacious as a number 
of the French churches, affords an excel- 
lent example of the beauty and impres- 
siveness of a Gothic interior. The porch 
before the north entrance of Chartres 
cathedral is a magnificent example of 
fourteenth-century work (see the accom- 
panying illustrations). 

One of the charms' of a Gothic build- 
ing is the profusion of carving — statues 
of saints and rulers and scenes from the 
Sible, cut in stone. The same kind of 
stone was used for both constructing the 
building and making the statues, so they 
harmonize perfecdy. A fine example of 
medieval carving is to be seen in Fig. 6 1 . 

Here and there the Gothic stone carvers ^'t^- ^i- Eve and 
would introduce amusing faces or comical ^"^ bEUPENT, 

. , / t- 2 \ Rkeihs 

animab (see Figs. 57, 60). 

In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries Gothic buildings Gothic used 
other than churches were builL The most striking and impor- ^^e* 
tant of these were the guild halls, erected by the rich corpora- 
tions of merchants, and the town halls of important cities. But 
the Gothic style has always seemed specially appropriate for 
churches. Its lofty aisles and open floor spaces, its soaring 


222 The Middle Period of European History 

arches leading the eye toward heaven, and its glowing windows 
suggesting the glories of paradise, may well have fostered the 
faith of the medieval Christian, f' 

..' - " The Italian Cities of the Renaissance 

45. We have been speaking so far of the town life in northern 
Europe in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. We must now 
see how the Italian towns in the following two centuries reached 
a degree of prosperity and refinement undreamed of north of 
the Alps. Within their walls learning and art made such ex- 
traordinary progress that a special name is often given to the 
period when they flourished — the Renaissance^ or new birth. 
The Italian towns, like those of ancient Greece, were each a 
little state with its own peculiar life and institudons. Some of 
them, like Rome, Milan, and Pisa, had been important in Roman 
times ; others, like Venice, Florence, and Genoa, did not become 
conspicuous until about the time of the Crusades. 

The map of Italy at the beginning of the fourteenth century 
was still divided into three zones, as it had been in the time of 
the Hohenstaufens.'' To the south lay the kin^om of Naples. 
Then came the states of the Church, extendir^ diagonally across 
the peninsula. To the north and west lay the group of city- 
states to which we now turn our attention. 

Of these none was more celebrated than Venice, which in the 
history of Europe ranks in importance with Paris and London. 
This singular town was built upon a group of sandy islets lying 
in the Adriatic Sea, about two miles from the mainland. It was 
protected from the waves by a long, narrow sand bar similar to 
those which fringe the Atlantic coast from New Jersey south- 
ward. Such a situation would not ordinarily have been delib- 
erately chosen as the site of a great city ; but it was a good 

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Medieval Towns — their Business and Buildings 233 

place for fishermen, and its very desolation and inaccessibility 
recommended it to those settlers who fled from their homes on the 
mainland during the barbarian invasions. As time went on, the 
location proved to have its advantages commercially, and even 
before the Crusades Venice had begun to engage in foreign 

Fig, 63. A Scene in Venice 

Boats, called gondolas, take the place of carriages in Venice; one can 
reach any point in the city by some one of the numerous canals, which 
take the place of stieets. There are also narrow lanes along the canals, 
crossing them here and there by bridges, so one can wander about 
the town on foot 

trade. Its enterprises carried it eastward, and it early acquired 
possessions across the Adriatic and in the Orient. The influ- 
ence of this intercourse with the East is plainly shown in the 
celebrated church of St. Mark, whose domes and decorations 
si^gest Constantinople rather than Italy (Fig. 63). 

It was not until early in the fifteenth century that Venice 
found it to her interest to extend her sway upon the Italian 


224 The Middle Period of European History 

Venice ei- mainland. She doubtless believed it dangerous to permit her 
awayoiTihe "val, Milan, to get possession of the Alpine passes through 
mainland which her goods found their way north. It may he, too, that she 

Fig. 63. St. Mark's and the Doge's Palace in Venice 

One sees the fa9ade of St. Mark's to (he left, and that of the doge's 
palace beyond. The church, modeled after one in Constantinople, 
was planned before the First Crusade and is adorned with numerous 
colored marble columns and slabs brought from the F^st. The interior 
is covered with mosaics, some of which go back to the twelfth and the 
thirteenth century. The fagade is also adorned with brilliant mosaics. 
St Mark's "is unique among the buildings of the world in respect 
to its unparalleled richness of material and decoration." The doge's 
palace contained the government offices and the magnilicent halls in 
which the senate and Council of Ten met. The palace was begun 

about 1300, and the fa5ade 

about a hundred years later. It shows the influence of the Gothic 
style, which penetrated ir 

in the picture v 
the in flue net 
northern Italy 

ies from the neighborhood ii 

preferred to draw her food s 
stead of transporting them across the Adriatic from her eastern 
possessions. Moreover, all the Italian cities except Venice at 
ready controlled a larger or smaller area of country about them. 

Medieval Towns — their Business and Buildings 225 

In the fifteenth century Venice reached the height of its pros- 
perity. It^ad a population of two hundred thousand, which was 
very large for those days. It had three hundred seagoing 
vessels which went to and fro in the Mediterranean, carrying 
wares from the East to the West It had a war fleet of forty- 
five galleys, manned by eleven thousand marines ready to 

Fig. 64. Senate Chamuek i.n the Doge's Palace 

This is an example of the magtiificenC decoration of the rooms used \sj 

the Venetian government. It was adorned by celebrated painters in 

the sixteenth century, when Venice became famous for its artists 

fight the battles of the republic, and had agents in every im- 
portant city of Europe. But when the route to India by sea 
was discovered (see next section), Venice could no longer 
keep control of the trade with the East, and while it remained 
an important city, it no longer enjoyed its former influence 
and power. 

Although Venice was called a republic, it was really gov- 
erned by a very small group of persons. In J311, after a 

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226 Tht Middle Period of E%tropean History 

rebellion, the famous Council of Ten was created as a sort ot 
committee of public safety. The whole government, domestic and 
foreign, was placed in its hands, in conjunction with the senate 
and the doge (that is, duke), the nominal head of the republic. 
The government, thus concentrated in the hands of a very few, 
was carried on with great secrecy, so that public discussion, 
such as prevailed in Plorence and led to innumerable revolu- 
tions there, was unheard of in Venice. The Venetian merchant 
was such a busy person that he was quite willing that the State 
should exercise its functions without his interference. 

Venice often came to blows with other rival cities, especially 
Gaioa, but its citizens lived quietly at home under the govern- 
ment of its senate, the Council of Ten, and the doge. The ; 
other Italian towns' were not only fighting one another much of 
the time, but their government was often in the hands of despots, 
somewhat like the old Greek tyrants, who got control of towns 
and managed them in their own interest. 

There are many stories of the incredible ferocity exhibited 
by the Italian 'despots. It must be remembered that they were 
very rarely legitimate rulers, but usurpers, who could only hope 
to retain their power so long as they could keep their subjects 
in check and defend themselves against equally illegitimate 
usurpers in the neighboring cities. This situation developed a 
high degree of sagacity, and many of the despots found it to 
their interest to govern well and even to give dignity to theu^ 
rule by patronizing artists (ind men of letters. But the despot 
usually made many bitter enemies and was almost necessarily 
suspicious of treason on the part of those about him. He was 
ever conscious that at any moment he might fall a victim to 
the dagger or the poison cup. 

The Italian towns carried on their wars among themselves 
largely by means of hired troops. When a military expedition 
was proposed, a bargain was made with one of the professional 
leaders {eondottieri), who provided the necessary force. As the 
soldiers had no more interest in the conflict than did those wh(Mn 


Medieval Towns — their Business and Buildings 227 

they opposed, who were likewise hired for the occasion, the 
fight was not usually very bloody ; for the object of each side 
was to capture the other without unnecessarily rough treatment. 

It sometimes 
happened that the 
leader who had 
conquered a town 
for his employer 
appropriated the 
fruits of the vic- 
tory for himself. 
This occurred in 
the case of Milan 
in 1450. The old 
line of despots 
(the Visconti) 
having died out, 
the citizens hired 
a certain captain, 
named Francesco 
Sforza, to assist 
them in a war 
against Venice, 
whose possessions 
now extended al- 
most ■ to those 
of Milan. When 
Sforza had repelled 
the Venetians, the 
Milanese found it 
impossible to get 
rid of him, and 
he and his succes- 
sors became rulers 
over the town. 

Fig. 65. To.MB of an Italian Despot 

The family of the Visconti maintained them- 
selves many years as despots of Milan. Gian 
GaleaiJO Visconii began in 1396 a magnificent 
Carthusian monastery not far from Milan, one of 
the most beautiful structures in Italy. Here, 
long after his death, a monument was erected to 
him as founder of the monastery. The monu- 
ment was begun about 1500 but not completed 
for several decades 

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228 The Middle Period of European History 

Machiaveiu's An excellent notion of the position and policy of the Italian 
despots may be derived from a little treatise called The Prince^ 
written by the distinguished Florentine historian, Machiavelli. 
The writer appears to have intended his book as a practical 
manual for the despots of his time. It io a cold-blooded discus- 
sion of the ways in which a usurper may best retain his control 
over a town after he has once got possession of it. The author 
even takes up the questions as to how far princes should con- 
sider their promises when it is inconvenient to keep them, and 
how many of the inhabitants the despot may wisely kilL 
Machiavelli concludes that the Italian princes who have not 
observed their engagements overscrupulously, and who have 
boldly put their political adversaries out of the way, have fared 
better than their more conscientious rivals. 

Florence The history of Florence, perhaps the most important of the 

Italian cities, differs in many ways from that of Venice and of 
the despotisms of which Milan was an example. Florence was a 
republic, and all classes claimed the right to interest themselves 
in the government. This led to constant changes in the constitu- 
■ tion and frequent struggles between the different political parties. 
When one party got the upper hand it generally expelled its 
chief opponents from the city. Exile was a terrible punishment 
to a Florentine, for Florence was not merely his native city — 
it was his country, and loved and honored as such. 

The Medici By the middle of the fifteenth century Florence had come 

under the control of the great family of the Medici, whose 
members played the role of very enlightened political bosses. 
By quietly watching the elections and secretly controlling the 
selection of city officials, they governed without letting it be 

LorenM. the suspected that the people had lost their power. The most dis- 
tinguished member of the House of Media was Lorenzo the 
Magnificent (d. 1492) ; under his rule Florence reached the 
height of its glory in art and literature. 

As one wanders about Florence to-day, he is impressed with 
the contradictions of the Renaissance period. The streets are 

Medieval Towns — their Business and Buildings 229 

lined with the palaces of the noble families to whose rivalries 
much of the continual disturbance was due. The lower stories 
of these build- 
ings are con- 
structed of great 
stones, like for- 
tresses, and 
their windows 
are barred like 
those of a prison 
(Fig, 66) ; yet 
within they were 
often furnished 
with the great- 
est taste and 
luxury. For in 
spite of the dis- 
order, against 
which the rich 
protected them- 
selves by mak- 
ing theirhouses 
the beautiful 
churches, noble 
public build- 
ings, and works 
of art which 
now fill the mu- 

FiG. 66. The Palace of the Medici tn 

This was erected about 143; by Cosimo dei Medici, 
Lorenzo the Magnificent conducted the 

governipent of Florence and entertained the men 
seums indicate of letters and artists with whom he liked best to as- 
that mankind "".te. It .ho.. h„. fortre.,like th. lo,„ p.r. 

lions of a > lorentme palace were, in order to protect 
has never, per- the owner from attack 

haps, reached a 

higher degree of perfection in the arts of peace than amidst 
the turmoil of this restless town (see below, section 52). 

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230 The Middle Period of European History 

Ehjringthe same period in which Venice and Florence became 
leaders in weaJth and refinement, Rome, the capital of the popes, 
likewise underwent a 
great change. After the 
popes returned from 
their seventy years' resi- 
dence in France and 
Avignon (see above, 
p. 199) they found the 
town in a dilapidated 
state. For years they 
were able to do litde to 
restore it, as there was 
a long period during 
which the papacy was 
weakened by the exist- 
ence of a rival line of 
popes who continued to 
live at Avignon, When 
the "great schism" was 
over and all the Euro- 
pean nations once more 
acknowledged the pope 
at Rome (1417), it be- 
came possible to improve 
the city and revive some 
of its ancient glory. 
Architects, painters, and 
men of letters were called 

Fig. 67. Cathedral and Bell 
Tower at Florence 

e built by 

The church was begun in 121 
pleted in 1436. The great d( 
the architect Brunelleschi h. 
name famous. It is 300 feet high. The in and handsomely paid 
facade is modern but after an old design. , .. , . _j 

r-u . „ . ., 1. by the popes to erect and 

The beli tower, or campanile, was begun ■* '^'^ 
by the celebrated painter Giotto about adorn magnificent build- 
1335 and completed about fifty years later, ings and to collect a 
It is richly adorned with sculpture and , ,., .l ir ij 

1 J _ UT J - -J J .V great library in the Vati- 

colored marbles and is considered the ° ■" 

finest structure of the kind in the world can palace. 


Medieval Towns — their Business and Buildings 231 

The ancient basilica of St, Peter's (Jig. 13) no longer satis- S 
fied the aspirations of the popes. It was gradually torn down, ' 
and after many changes of plan the present celebrated church 
with its vast dome and imposing approach (Fig, 68) took its 

Fig. 68. St. Peter's and the Vatican Palace 

This is the largest church in the world. It is about 700 feet long, includ- 
ing the portico, and 435 feet high, from the pavemenl to the cross on the 
dome. The reconstruction was begun as early as 1450 but it proceeded 
very slowly. Several great architecls, Bramante, Raphael, Michael 
Angelo, and others were intrusted with the work. After many changes 
of plan the new church was finally in condition to consecrate in 1626. 
It is estimated that it Cost Over it,o.OOO^x>a. The construction of the 
vast palace of the popes, which one sees to the right of the church, was 
carried on during the same period. It is said to have no less than eleven 
thousand rooms. Some of them are used for museums and others 
are celebrated for the frescoes which adorn their walls, by Raphael, 
Michael Angelo, and other of Italy's greatest artists 

place. The old palace of the Lateran (Fig. 12), where the The Vatican 
government of the popes had been carried on for a thousand 
years, had been deserted after the return from Avignon, and 
the new palace of the Vatican was gradually constructed to the 
light of St. Peter's, It has thousands of rooms great and small, 

3 by Google 

232 The Middle Pericd of European History 

•ome of them adorned by the most distinguished of the Italian 
painters, and others fiUed with ancient statuary. 

As one visits Venice, Florence, and Rome to-day he may still 
sec, almost perfectly preserved, many of the finest of the build- 
ings, paintings, and monuments which belong to the period we 
have been discussing. , 

Early Geographical Discoveries 

46. The business and commerce of the medieval towns was 
on what would seem to us a rather small scale. There were 
no great factories, such as have grown up in recent times with 
the use of steam and machinery, and the ships which sailed 
the Mediterranean and the North Sea were small and held only - 
a very light cargo compared with modem merchant vessels. 
The gradual growth of a world commerce began with the sea 
voyages of the fifteenth century, which led to the exploration by 
Kuropeans of the whole globe, most of which was entirely 
unknown to the Venetian merchants and those who carried on 
the trade of the Hanseatic League. The Greeks and Romans 
knew little about the world beyond southern Europe, northern 
Africa, and western Asia, and much that they knew was for-- ' 
gotten during the Middle Ages, The Crusades took many 
Europeans as far east as Egjpt and Syria. About 1260 two 
Venetian merchants, the Polo brothers, visited China and were 
kindly received at Pekin by the emperor of the Mongols. On 
a second journey they were accompanied by Marco Polo, the 
son of one of the brothers. When they got safely bade to 
Veniet in i ^05, after a journey of twenty years, Marco gave 
an account of his experiences which filled his readers with 
wonder. Nodiing stimulated the interest of the West more than 
his fabutotis description of the abundance of gokl in Spangu 
(Japan^* and of the spic« markets of the Moluccas and Ce)')QD. 

> Sec below, p^ xfi. 

by Google 

by Google 

234 l^he Middle Period of European History 

Thedis- About the year 1318 Venice and Genoa opened up direct 

tbe'portu- communication by sea with the towns of the Netherlands. 
f^'n* '" h" Their fleets, which touched at the port of Lisbon, aroused the 
andfifwenih commercial enterprise of the Portuguese, who soon began to ' 
undertake extended maritime expeditions. By the middle of the 
fourteenth century they had discovered the Canary Islands, 
Madeira, and the Azores. Before this time no one had ven- 
tured along the coast of Africa beyond the arid region of 
Sahara. The country was forbidding, there were no ports, 
and mariners were, moreover, discoursed by the general belief - 
that the torrid region was uninhabitable. In 1445, however, 
some adventurous sailors came within sight of a headland beyond 
the desert and, struck by its luxuriant growth of tropical trees, 
they called it Cape Verde (the green cape). Its discovery put 
an end once for all to the idea that there were only parched 
deserts to the south. 

For a generation longer the Portuguese continued to venture 
farther and farther along the coast, in the hope of finding it 
coming to an end, so that they might make their way by sea 
to India. At last, in i486, Diaz rounded the Cape of Good 
Hope. Twelve years later (1498) Vasco da Gama, spurred on 
by Columbus's great discovery, after sailing around the Cape 
of Good Hope and northward beyond Zanzibar, aided by an 
Arab pilot steered straight across the Indian Ocean and reached 
CaUcut, in Hindustan, by sea. 
The spice Vasco da Gama and his fellow adventurers were looked upon 

* with natural suspicion by the Mohammedan spice merchants, 

who knew .very well that their object was to establish direct trade 
between the Spice Islands (Moluccas) and western Europe. 
Hitherto the Mohammedans had had the monopoly of the spice 
trade between the Moluccas and the eastern ports of the Med- 
iterranean, where the products were handed over to Italian mer- 
chants. The Mohammedans were unable, however, to prevent 
the Portuguese from concluding treaties with the Indian princes 
and establishing trading stations at Goa and elsewhere. In 1 5 1 2 

3 by Google 

Medieval Towns — their Business and Buildings 235 

a successor of Vasco da Gama reached Java and the Moluccas, 
where the Portuguese speedily built a fortress. By 1515 Por- 
tugal had become the greatest among sea powers ; and spices 
reached Lisbon regularly without the intervention of the Moham- 
medan merchants or the Italian towns, which, especially Venice, 
were mortally afflicted by the change (see above, p. azs)- 

Malay Archipelago 

The outline of the United Slates has been drawn in to make clear the 
vast Client of the region explored by the Portuguese at the opening 
of the sixteenth century. It is not far from looo miles from Ceylon to 
Malacca Strait, and as fai from there on to the Spice Islands as from 
Denver to Richmond, Virginia 

There is no doubt that the desire to obtain spices was at inipottance 
this time the main reason for the exploration of the globe. encou^iM 
This motive led European navigators to try in succession eveiy na^isation 
possible way to reach the East — by going around Africa, by 
sailing west in the hope of reaching the Indies (before they 
knew of the existence of America), then, after America was 
discovered, by sailing around it to the north or south, and even 
sailing around Europe to the north. 

D.D.t.zea by Google 

I stands by 


236 The Middle Period of European History 

It is hard for us to understand this enthusiasm for spices, for 
which we care much less nowadays. One former use of spices 
was to preserve food, which could not then as now be carried 
rapidly, while still fresh, from place to place ; nor did our con- 
veniences then exist for keeping it by the use of ice. Moreover, 
spice served to make even spoiled food more palatable than it 
would otherwise have been. 

It inevitably occurred to thoughtful men that the East Indies 
couki be reached by sailing westward. All intelligent people 
knew, all through the Middle Ages, that the earth was a globe. 
The chief authority upon the form and size of the earth con- 
tinued to be the ancient astronomer Ptolemy, who had lived 
about 150 A.D. He had reckoned the earth to be about one sixth 
smaller than it is ; and as Marco Polo had given an exaggerated 
idea of the distance which he and his companions had traveled 
eastward, and as no one suspected the existence of the Amer- 
ican continents, it was supposed that it could not be a very long 
journey from Europe across the Atlantic to Japan.' 

In 1492, as we all know, a Geuoese navigator, Columbus 
(b. i45i),whohadhadmucheKperience on the sea, got together 
three little ships and undertook the journey westward to Zipangu, 
— the land of gold, — which he hoped to reach in five weeks. 
After thirty-two days from the time he left the Canary Islands 
he came upon land, the island of San Salvador, and beUeved 
himself to be in the East Indies. Going on from there he dis- 
covered the island of Cuba, which he believed to be the main- 
land of Asia, and then Haiti, which he mistook for the longed-for 
Zipangu (see p. 232). Although he made three later expedi- 
tions and sailed down the coast of South America as far as 
the Orinoco, he died without realizing that he had not been 
exploring the coast of Asia. 

After the bold enterprises of Vasco da Gama and Columbus, 
an expedition headed by the Portuguese Magellan succeeded 
in circumnavigating the globe. There was now no reason why 

I See accompanying reproduction of Behaim'B gkibe. 


A Map of the Globe in the Time of Columbus 

In 1492 a German mariner, Behaim, made a globe which is still preserved tn 
Nuremberg. He did not know of the existence of the American continents or of 
the vast Tacific Ocean. It will be noticed that he places Japan (Cipango) where 
Mexico lies. In the reproduction many names are omitted and the outlines of 
North and South America are sketched in so as to make clear the misconceptions 
of Columbus'g time 

D.D.t.zea by Google 

3 by Google 

Medieval Towns — their Business and Buildings 237 

the new lands should not become more and more familiar to 
the European nations. The coast of North America was ex- 
plored principally by English navigators, who for over a century 
pressed northward, still in ihe vain hope of finding a northwest 
passage to the Spice Islands. 

Cortes began the Spanish conquests in the western world by Tht Spanish 
undertaking the subjugation of the Aztec empire in Mexico Ameika'"' 
in 1519. A few years later Pizarro established the Spanish 
power in Peru. Spain now superseded Portugal as a mari- 
time power, and her importance in the sixteenth century is 
to be attributed largely to the wealth which came to her 
from her possessions in the New World — mainly gold and 

By the end of the century the Spanish main — that is, the The spaniih 
northern coast of South America — was much frequented by 
adventurous seamen, who combined in about equal parts the 
occupations of merchant, slaver, and pirate. Many of these 
hailed from English ports, and it is to them that England owes 
the beginning of her commercial greatness. 

It is hardly necessary to say that Europeans exhibited an 
utter disregard for the rights of the people with whom they 
came in contact and often treated them with contemptuous 
cruelty. The exploration of the globe and the conquest by 
European nations of peoples beyond the sea led finally to the 
vast colonization of modem times, which has caused many wars 
but has served to spread European ideas throughout the world. 


Section 4a. Why" are towns necessary to prt^ress.' How did the 
towns of the eleventh and twelfth centuries originate ? What was the 
nature of a town charter? Describe the guild organization. 

Section 43. Describe the revival and extending of commerce in 
the Middle Ages. What were some of the obstacles to business? 
Describe the Hanseatic League. 

D.D.t.zea by Google 

238 The Middle Period of European History 

Section 44. What are the chief characteristics of Romanesque 
churches? What were the principles of construction which made it 
possible to build a Gothic church ? Tell something about the decora- 
tion of a Gothic church. 

Section 45. Describe the map of Italy in the fourteenth century. 
What are the peculiarities of Venice? Who were the Italian despots? 
What is the interest of MachiavelK's Prince ? Contrast Florence with 

Section 46. What geographical discoveries were made before 
1500? How far is it by sea from lisbon to Calicut around the 
Cape of Good Hope? What was the importance of the spice trade? 
What led Columbus to try to teach the Indies by sailing westward? 

3 by Google 

How THE Modern Languages originated 

47. We should leave the Middle Ages with a very imperfect 
notion of them if we did not now stop to consider what people 
were thinking about during that period, what they had to read, 
and what they believed about the world in whidi they Lved. 

To begin with, the Middle Ages differed from our own time Geneni me 
in the veiy general use then made of Latin, in both writing and ^ ^,1 
speaking. The language of the Roman Empire continued to be *'''''*'' Ab** 
used in the thirteenth century, and long after; all books that 
made any claim to learning were written in Latin ;^ the jwo- 
fessors in the imiversities lectured in Latin, friends wrote to one 
another in Latin, and state papers, treaties, and legal documentss 
were drawn up In the same language. The ability of every edu- 
cated person to make use of Latin, as well as of his native tongue, 
was a great advantage at a time when there were many obstacles 
to intercourse among the various nations. It helps to explain, 
for example, the remarkable way in which the pope kept in 
touch with all the clergymen of western Christendom, and the 
ease with which students, friars, and merchants could wander 
from one country to another. There is no more interesting or 
important revolution than that by which the languages of the 
people in the various European countries gradually pushed askle 
the andent toi^e and took its place, so that even scholars 
scarcely ever think now of writing books in Latin. 

uaUy in the Gennan language did not 

3 by Google 

derived fron 

240 T/te Middle Period of European History 

In order to understand how it came about that two languages, 

the Latin and the native speech, were both commonly used in 
all the countries of western Europe all through the Middle Ages, 
we must glance at the origin of the modem languages. These 
all fall into two quite distinct groups, the Germanic and the 

Those Gennan peoples who had continued to live outside of 
the Roman Empire, or who, during the invasions, had not set- 
tled far enough within its bounds to be led, as were the Franks 

of the in Gaul, to adopt the tongue of those they had conquered, natu- 

bartiaiiani rally adhered to the language they had always used; namely, the 
particular Germanic dialect which their forefathers had spoken 
for untoU generations. From the various tallages used by the 
German barbarians, modem Gennan, English, Dutch, Swedish, 
Norwegian, Danish, and Icelandic are derived. 
The Romance The sccond group of languages developed within the terri- 
den^cd from tory which had formed a part of the Roman Empire, and 
LstuT''™' includes modem French, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese. It 
has now been clearly proved, by a very minute study of the old 
forms of words, that these Romance languages were one and 
all derived from the spoken Latin, employed by the soldiers, 
merchants, and people at large. This differed considerably 
from the elaborate and elegant written Latin which was used, 
for example, by Cicero and Ceesar. It was undoubtedly much 
simpler in ifis granunar and varied a good deal in different 
regions ; a Gaul, for instance, could not pronounce the words 
like a Roman. Moreover, in conversation people did not always 
use the same words as those employed in books. For example, 
a horse was commonly spoken of as caballus, whereas a writer 
would use the word eguus ; it is from caballus that the word 
fer " horse " in Spanish, Italian, and French is derived {caballo, 
Mvatto, chevai'). 

As time went on the spoken language diverged farther and 
farther from the written. Latin is a troublesome speech on 
account of its complicated inflections and grammatical rules, 


Books and Science in the Middle Ages 24 1 

which can be mastered only after a great deal of study. The 
people of the more remote Roman provinces and the incoming 
barbarians naturally paid very little attention to the niceties of 
syntax and found easy ways of saying what they wished.' 

Yet several centuries elapsed after the German invasions be- 
fore there was anything written in the language used in con- 
versation. So long as the imeducated couid understand the 
correct Ladn of the books when they heard it read or spoken, 
there was no necessity of writing anything in their familiar daily 
speed). But by the time Charlemagne came to the throne the 
gulf between the spoken and the written language had become 
so great that he advised that sermons should be given thereafter * 
in the language of the people, who, apparently, could no longer 
follow the Latin. 

Although little was written in any German laiiguage before 
Charlemagne's time, there is no doubt that the Germans pos- 
sessed an unwritten literature, which was passed down by word 
of mouth for several centuries before any of it was written out. 

The oldest form of English is commonly called Anglo-Saxon Ancient 
and is so different from the language which we use that, in order Anflo-^ 
to be read, it must be learned like a foreign language. We hear 
of an English poet, as early as Bede's time, a century before 
Charlemagne. A manuscript of an Anglo-Saxon epic, called 
Beowulf, has been preserved which belongs perhaps to the close 
of the eighth century. The interest which Kii^ Alfred displayed 
in the English language has already been mentioned. This old 
form of our language prevailed until after the Norman Con- 
quest ; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, which does not close until 
IIS4, is written in pure Anglo-Saxon. Here is an example: 

" Here on thissum geare Willehn cyng geaf Rodberde eorle 
thone eorldom on Northymbraland. Da komon tha landes menn 

Iroduced many new words to meet the nen conditions and the needs of the 
ne, such oi imprisimare, " to imprison " ; ullagare, " to outlaw " ; taflaart, 
o baptize"; farista, "forest"; /tiafaHi, " fief," etc 

:ectv Google 


242 Tke Middle Period of European History 

togeanes him & hine ofsl<^en, & ix hund manna mid him-"' 
In modern English this reads r "In this year King William 
gave the Earl Robert the earldom of Northumberland. Then 
came the men of the country against him and slew him, and 
nine hundred men with him." 

By the middle of the thirteenth century, two hundred years 
after the Normal Conquest, English begins to look somewhat 
An emmpie And Aaron held up his hond 

in the* To the water and the more lond ; 

Tho cam thor up schwilc froschkes here 
The dede al folc Egipte dere ; 
Summe worea wilde, and summe tame. 
And tho hem deden the moste schame ; 
In huse, in drinc, in metes, in bed. 
It cropen and maden hem for-dred, . . . 

And Aaron held up his hand 

To the water and the greater land ; 

Then came there up such host of frogs 

That did all Egypt's folk harm ; 

Some were wild, and some were tame. 

And those caused them the most shame ; 

In house, in drink, in meats, in bed, 

Tliey crept and made them in great dread. . . . 

Chaucer (about 1340-1400) was the first great English writer 
whose works are now read with pleasure, although one is some- 
times puzzled by his spelling and certain words which are no 
longer used. This is the way one of his tales opens : 

A poure wydow somdel stope in age, 
Was whilom dwellyng in a narwc cotage, 

1 Inwriting Anglo-Ssron two old letters are used for/*, one (W for the sound 
in " thin " and the other («) for Ihat in " father." The use of these old letten 
■ervei to imke che language look more different from that of Vt4x) than it is. 


Books and Science in the Middle Ages 243 

Bisyde a grove, stondyng in a dale. 
This wydwe of wichh I teUe yow my tale, 
Syn thilke day diat sclie was last a wif, 
In padence ladde a ful symple lyf. 

In the Middle Ages, however, French, not English, was the 
most important of the national languages of western Europe. 
In France a vast Uterature was produced in the language of 
the people during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries which 
profoundly affected the books written in Italy, Spain, Gennany, 
and England. 

Two quite different languages had gradually developed in French and 
France from the spoken Latin of the Roman Empire. To the "''™"»" 
north, French was spoken ; to the south, Proven5al.' 

Very little in the ancient French language written before the Medieval 
year iioo has been preserved. The West Franks undoubtedly , ""^ 
began much earlier to sing of their heroes, of the great deeds 
of Clovis and Charles Martel. These famous rulers were, how- 
ever, 'completely overshadowed later by Charlemagne, who be- 
came the unrivaled hero of medieval poetry and romance. It 
was believed that he had reigned for a hundred and twenty-five 
years, and the most marvelous exploits were attributed to him 
and his knights. He was supposed, for instance, to have led a 
crusade to Jerusalem. Such themes as these — more legend 
than history — were woven into long epics, which were the first 
written literature of the Frankish people. These poems, com- 
bined with the stories of adventure, developed a spirit of patriotic 
enthusiasm among the French which made them regard "fair 
France " as the especial care of Providence. 

The famous Song of Roland, the chief character of which 
was one of Charlemagne's captains, was written before the First 

1 Of course there was no sharp line of demarcation bereeen the peopk who 
nor was Ptovengal confined to southern 
:yond the Pyrenees, was essentially the 

same as that ot I'rovcnce. b'rench was called langut tPinl, and the aoulhein 

language langut iPoc, each after the word used for "yea." 

:ectv Google 

Knighu oE 
the Round 

244 The Middle Period of European History 

;s ot Crusade. In the latter part of the twelfth century the 

of King Arthur and his Knights of the Round Table begin to 
appear. These enjoyed great popularity in all western Europe 
for centuries, and they are by no means forgotten yet, Arthur, 
of whose historical existence no one can be quite sure, was 
supposed to have been king of Britain shortly after the Saxons 
gained a foothold in the island.' 

In other long poems of the time, Alexander the Great, Ctesar, 
and other ancient worthies appear as heroes, The absolute dis- 
regard of historical facts and the tendency to represent the 
warriors of Troy and Rome as medieval knights show the in- 
ability of the medieval mind to understand that the past could 
have been different from the present. All these romances are 
full of picturesque adventures and present a vivid picture of the 
valor and loyalty of the true knight, as well as of his ruthlessness 
and contempt for human life. 

Besides the long and elaborate epics, like Roland, and the 
romances in verse and prose, there were numberless short stories 
in verse (the fabliaux), which usually dealt with the incidents 
of everyday lifej especially with the comical ones. Then there 
were the fables, the most famous of which are the stories of 
Reynard the Fox, which were satires upon the customs of the 
time, particularly the weaknesses of the priests and monks. 

The Troubadours and Chivalry 

48. Turning now to southern France, the beautiful f 
the troubadours, which were the glory of the Proven9al 
reveal a gay and polished society at the courts of the 
feudal princes. The rulers not merely protected and enc 
the poets — they aspired to be poets themselves and to e 
ranks of the troubadours, as the composers of these 

1 Malor^s Aftrt if Arthur, a collection of the stories of the Roi 
made in the fifteenth centuiy for Engliih readers, is the beit place t 
these famous stories. 


3 by Google 

Books and Science in the Middle Ages 245 

verses were called. These songs were always sung K> an accomr 
paniment on some instrument, usually the lute. The troubadours 
traveled from court to court, not only in France, but north into 
Germany and south into Italy, carrying with them the southern 
French poetry and customs. We have few examples of Provencal 
before the year 1100, but from that time on, for two centuries, 
countless songs were written, nnd many of the troubadom's en- 
joyed an international reputation. The terrible Albigensian cru- 
sade brought misery and death into the sprightly circles which 
had gathered about the Count of Toulouse and other rulers who 
had treated the heretics too leniendy. 

For the student of history, the chief interest of the long poems Chivaliy 
of northern France and the songs of the South lies in the in- 
sight that they give into the life and aspirations of this feudal 
period. These are usually summed up in the term chivalry, or 
knighthood, of which a word may properly be said here, since 
we should know little of it were it not for the literature of which 
we have been speaking. The knights play the chief role in 
all the medieval romances ; and, since many of the troubadours 
belonged to the knightly class, they naturally have much to say 
of it in their songs. 

Chivalry was not a formal institution established at any par- 
ticular moment Like feudalism, with which it was closely con- 
nected, it had no founder, but appeared spontaneously throughout 
western Europe to meet the needs and desires of the period. 
When the youth of good family had been carefully trained to 
ride his horse, use his sword, and manage his hawk in the hunt, 
he was made a knight by a ceremony in which the Church 
took part, although the knighthood was actually conferred by 
an older knight. 

The knight was a Christian soldier, and he and his fellows Nature of 
were supposed to form, in a way, a separate order, with high o^er ^ ^ 
ideals of the conduct befitting their class. Knighthood was 
not, however, membership in an association with officers and a 
definite constitution. It was an ideal, half-imagin?.ry socie^ 


246 ^^' Middle Period of European History 

— a society to which even those who enjoyed the title of king 
or duke were proud to belong. One was not bom a knight as 
he might tie bom a duke or count, and coukl become one onfy 
through the ceremony mentioned above. Although most knights 
belonged to the nobility, one might be a noble and still jiot 
belong to the knightly order, and, on the other hand, one who 
was basebom might be raised to knighthood on account o( some 
valorous deed. 
The idcaia o( The knight must, in the first place, be a Christian and must 
* ^* obey and defend the Church on all occasions, . He must respect 
all forms of weakness and defend the helpless wherever he 
might find them. He must fight the infidel Mohammedans 
ceaselessly, pitilessly, and never give way before the enemy. 
He must perform all his feudal duties, be faithful in all things 
to his lord, never lie or violate his plighted word. He must be 
generous and give freely and ungrudgingly to the needy. He 
must be faithful to his lady and be ready to defend her and 
her honor at all costs. Everywhere he must be the champion 
of the right against injustice and oppression. In short, chivalry 
was the Christianized, profession of arms. 

In the stories of King Arthur and his Knights of the Round 
Table there is a beautiful picture of the ideal knight. The dead 
Lancelot is addressed by one of his sorrowing companions as 
follows ; " Thou wert the courtliest knight that ever bare shield, 
and thou wert the truest friend to thy lover that ever bestrode 
Iwrse, and thou wert the truest lover amoi^ sinful men that ever 
loved woman, and thou wert the kindest man that ever struck 
with sword, and thou wert the goodliest person that ever came 
among the crowd of knights, and thou wert the meekest man 
and the gendcst that ever ate in hall among ladies, and thou 
wert the stemest knight to thy mortal foe that ever put spear 
in breast" 
The German The Gemians also made their contribution to the literamre 
Bingen of chivalry. The German poets of the thirteenth century are 

called minnesingers. Like the troubadours, whom they gready 


Books and Science in the Middle Ages {^47/ 

admired, they usually sang of love, hence their name (Gennan, Walther 

Minne). The most famous of the minnesingers was Walther vogelweide 

von der Vogelweide (d. about 1228), whose songs are full of 

charm and of enthusiasm for his German fatherland. Wolfram 

von Eschenbach (d. about 1225) in his story of Parsifal gives 

the long and sad adventures of a knight in search of the Holy 

Grail — the sacred vessel which had held the blood of Christ, 

which only a person perfectly pure in thought, word, and deed 

could hope to behold. ^ 

Medieval Science 

49. So long as all books had to be copied by hand, there were, 
of course, but few of them compared with those of modern times. 
The hterature of which we have been speaking was not in general 
read, but was only listened to, as it was sung or recited by 
those who made it their profession. Wherever the wandering 
troubadour or minnesinger appeared he was sure of a de%hted 
audience for his songs and stories, both serious and light. 
People unfamiliar with Latin could, however, leam littie of the General 
past, for there were no translations of the great classics of ^^lepMt 
Grasce and Rome, of Homer, Plato, Cicero, or Livy. All that 
they could know of ancient history was daived from the fan- 
tastic romances referred to above, which had for their theme 
the quite preposterous deeds ascribed to Alexander the Great, 
^neas, and Cassar. As for their own history, the epics relatii^ 
to the easier course of events in France and the rest of Europe 
were hopelessly confused. For example, the writers attributed 
to Charlemagne a great part of the acts of the Frankish kings 
from Clovis to Pippin. 

Of what we shouki call scientific books there were practically Medieval 
none. It is true that there was a kind of encyclopedia in verse E5m^ 
which gave a great deal of misinformation about things in general. 
Every one continued to believe, as the Greeks and Romans had 
done, in strange animals like the uni(x>m, the dragon, and the 

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248 Tke Middle Period of European History 

phenix, and in still stranger habits of real animals. A sii^Ie 
example will suffice to show what passed for zoology in the 
thirteenth century. 

" There is a little beast made like a lizard and such is its 
nature that it will extinguish fire should it fall into it. The beast 
is so cold and of such a quality that fire is not able to bum it, 
nor will trouble happen in the place where it shall be." This 
beast signifies the holy man who lives by faith, who " will never 
have hurt from fire nor will hell bum him. . . . This beast we 
name also by another name, salamander. It is accustomed to 
mount into apple-trees, poisons the apples, and in a well where 
it falls it poisons the water." 

"The eagle [we are told by a learned writer of the time 
, of Henry II], on account of its great heat, mueth very cold 
stones with its eggs when it sitteth on them, so that the heat 
shall not destroy them. In the same way our words, when we 
speak with undue heat, should later be tempered with discretion, 
so that we may conciliate in the end those whom we offended 
by the beginning of our speech." 

It will be noticed that the habits of the animals were sup- 
, posed to have some moral or religious meaning and carry with 
them a lesson for mankind. It may be added that this -and 
Mmilar stories were centuries old and are found in the encyclo- ■ 
pedias of the Romans. The most improbable things were re- 
peated from generation to generation without its occurring to 
any one to inquire if there was any truth in them. Even the most 
learned men of the time believed in astrology and in the miracu- 
lous virtues of herbs and gems. For instance, Albertus Magnus, 
one of the most distinguished thinkers of the thirteenth century, 
says that a sapphire will drive away boils and that the diamond 
can be softened in the blood of a stag, which will work best if 
the stag has been fed on wine and parsley. 

From the Roman and early Christian writers the Middle Ages 
got the idea of strange races of men and manlike creatures of 
various kinds. We find the following in an encyclopedia of the 

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Books and Science in tke Middle Ages 249 

thirteenth century : " Satyrs be somewhat like men, and have SQanee 
crooked noses, and homs in the forehead, and are like to goats ^i^o^ 

in their feet St. Anthony saw such an one in the wilderness ^ '»°" 

These wonderful beasts be divers ; for some of them be called 
Cynocephali, for they have heads as hounds, and seem beasts 
rather than men ; and some be called Cyclops, and have that 
name because each of them hath but one eye, and that in the 
middle of the forehead ; and some be all headless and noseless 
and their eyes be in the shoulders ; and some have plain faces 
without nostrils, and the nether lips of them stretch so that they 
veil therewith their faces when they be in the heat of the sun- 
Also in Scythia be some with so great and large ears, that they 
spread their ears and cover all their bodies with them, and these 
be called Panchios. , . ," 

" And others there be in Ethiopia, and each of them have only 
one foot, so great and so lai^ that they beshadow themselves 
with the foot when they lie gasping on the ground in strong 
heat of the sun ; and yet they be so swift that they be likened 
to hounds in swiftness of running, and therefore amoi^ the 
Greeks they be called Cynopodes. Also some have the soles 
of t^eir feet turned backward behind the l^s, and in each 
foot e^ht toes, and such go about and stare in the desert 
of Lybia." 

Two old subjects of study were revived and received great 
attention in Europe from the thirteenth century onwards until 
recent times. These were astrology and alchemy. 

Astrology was based on the belief that the planets influence the Aatralog;- 
make-up of men and consequently their fate. Following an idea 
of the Greek philosophers, especially Aristofle, it was believed 
that all things were compounded of " the four elements " earth, 
^r, fire, and water. E^ch person was a particular mature of these 
four elements, and the position of the planets at the time of his 
birth was supposed to influence his mixture or "temperament" 

By knowing a person's temperament one could judge what he 
ought to do in order to be successful in life, and what he should 


250 Tke Middle Period of European History 

avoid. For example, if one were bom under the influence of 
Venus he should be on his guard against violent love and should 
choose for a trade something connected with dress or adornment ; ■ 
if he were bom under Mars he might make armor or horseshoes 
or become a successful soldier. Many common words are really 
astrological terms, such as " ill-starred," " disastrous," " jovial," 
"saturnine," "mercurial" (derived from the names of the 
planets). Astrology was taught in the universities because it 
was supposed to be necessary for physicians to choose times 
when the stars we-e favorable for particular kinds of medical 

Alchemy was chemistry directed toward the discovery of a 
method of tuming the baser metals, like lead and copper, into 
gold and silver. The alchemists, even if they did not succeed 
in their chief aim, learned a great deal incidentally in their 
laboratories, and finally our modem chemistry emerged from 
alchemy. Like astrology, alchemy goes back to ancient times, 
and the people of the thirteenth century got most of their ideas 
through the Mohammedans, who had in tum got theirs from 
the Greek books on the subjects. 

Medieval Universities and Studies 

50. All European countries now have excellent schools, col- 
leges, and universities. These had their beginning in the later 
Middle Ages. With the incoming of the barbarian Germans and 
the break-up of the Roman Empire, education largely disappeared 
and for hundreds of years there was nothing in westem Europe, 
outside of Italy and Spain, corresponding to our universities and 
colleges. Some of the schools which the bishops and abbots 
had established in accordance with Charlemagne'^ commands 
(see above, p. 85) were, it is true, maintained all through the 
daric and disorderly times which followed his death. But the 
litde that we know of the instruction offered in them would 
indicate that it was very elementary. 

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Books and Science in the Middle Ages 251 

About the year iioo an ardent young man named Abelard Abelard, 
started out from his home in Brittany to visit all the places "*" 
where he might hope to receive instruction in logic and phi- 
losophy, in which, like all his learned contemporaries, he was 
esjjedally interested. He reports that he found teachers in 
several of the French towns, particularly in Paris, who were 
attracting large numbers of students to listen to their lectures 
upon logic, rhetoric, and theology, Abelard soon showed his 
superiority to his teachers hy defeating them several times in 
debate. So he began lecturing on his own account, and such 
■ was his success that thousands of students flocked to hear him, . 

Abelard did not found the University of Paris, as has some- 
times been supposed, but he did a great deal to make the dis- 
cussions of theological problems popular, and by his attractive 
method of teaching he greatly increased the number of those 
who wished to study. 

Before the end of the twelfth century the teachers had be- Origin of th 
come so numerous in Paris that they formed a union, or guild, (,f"p^ 
for the advancement of their interests. This union of professors 
was called by the usual name for corporations in the Middle 
Ages, universitas ; hence our word " university." The king and 
the pope both favored the university and granted the teachers 
and students many of the privileges of the clergy, a class to 
which they were regarded as belonging, because learning had 
for so many centuries been confined to the clergy. 

About the time that we find the beginnings of a university or studj of thi 
guild of professors at Paris, another great institution of learning cancn'iaw ii 
was growing up at Bologna. Here the chief attention was given, ^^oioe™ 
not to theology, as at Paris, but to the study of the iaw, both 
Roman and church (canon) law. Students began to stream to 
Bologna in greater and greater numbers. In order to protect 
themselves in a town where they were regarded as strangers, 
they also organized themselves into unions, which became so 
powerful that they were able to force the professors to obey the 
rules which they laid down. 

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252 The Middle Period of European History 

Other uni- The University of Oxford was founded in the time of Henry II, 

founded probably by English students and masters who had become dis- 

contented at Paris for some reason. The University of Cambridge, 
as well as numerous universities in France, Italy, and Spain, 
were foiuided in the thirteenth century. The German universities, 
which are still so famous, were established somewhat later, most 
of them in the latter half of the fourteenth and in the fifteenth 
century. The northern institutions generally took the great 
mother university on the Seine as their model, while those in . 
southern Europe usually adopted the methods of Bologna. 
The academic When, after some years of study, a student was examined ■ 
^^" by the professors, he was, if successful, admitted to the cor- 

poration of teachers and became a master himself. What we 
call a degree tOKiay was originally, in the medieval universi- 
ties, nothing more than the right to teach ; but in the thirteenth 
century many who did not care to become professors in our 
sense of the word began to desire the honorable title of master 
or doctor (which is only the Latin word for " teacher ").' 
Simple The students in the medieval universities were of all ages, 

inscniction ^''O'" thirteen to forty, and even older. There were no univer- 
sity buildings, and in Paris the lectures were given in the Latin 
Quarter, in Straw Street, so called from the straw strewn on the 
floors of the hired rooms where the lecmrer explained the text- 
book, with the students squatting on the floor before him. There 
were no laboratories, for there was no experimentation. All 
that was required was a copy of the textbook. This the lecturer 
explained sentence by sentence, and the students listened and 
sometimes took notes. 

The most striking peculiarity of the instruction in the medieval 
university was the supreme deference paid to Aristotie, Most 


■he origin of the ba 




, which come 

s at (he end of oi 

lit college 

! nowadays, may be 

: e,;pli 

bachelor in the thirteenth 

century was a student wli 



irt of hia exa 



en called, and was 

permitted to tea 



ntary subjects befo 
.r 10 the A.M. then 




I fult-fledged 

maslet. So the 

A.B. was 

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Books and Science in the Middle Ages 253 

of the courses of lectures were devoted to the explanation of Ari»totle'« 
some one of his numerous treatises — his Physics, his Meta- b^me 
physics, his treatises on logic, his Ethics, his minor works Jj^fy^^^ 
upon the soul, heaven and earth, etc Only his Lo^ had been 
known to Abelard, as all his other works had been forgotten. 
But early in the thirteenth century all his comprehensive con- 
tributions to science reached the West, either from Constandnople 
or through the Arabs, who had brought them to Spain. The 
Latin translations were bad and obscure, and the lecturer had 
enough to do to give some meaning to them, to explain what the 
Arab philosophers had said of them, and, finally, to reconcile 
them to the teachings of Christianity. 

AristoUe was, of course, a pagan. He was uncertain whether Veaenition 
the soul continued to exist after death ; he had never heard of 
the Bible and knew nothing of the salvation of man through 
Christ One would have supposed that he would have been 
promptly rejected with horror by the ardent Christian believers 
of the Middle Ages, But the teachers of the thirteenth cen- 
tury were fascinated by his logic and astonished at his learn- 
ing. The great theologians of the time, Albertus Magnus 
(d. 1280) and Thomas Aquinas (d. 1274), did not hesitate to 
prepare elaborate commentaries upon all his works. He was 
called " The Philosopher " ; and so fully were scholars convinced 
that it had pleased God to permit Aristotle to say the last word 
upon each and every branch of knowledge that they humbly 
accepted him, along with the Bible, the church fathers, and the 
canon and Roman law, as one of the unquestioned authorities 
which together formed a complete guide for hun:iamty in conduct 
and in eVery branch of science. 

The term " scholasticism " is commonly given to the beliefs and Sdiolw- 
method of discussion of the medieval professors. To those who 
later ou^jew the fondness for logic and the supreme respect for 
Aristotle, scholasticism, with its neglect of Greek and Roman 
literature, came to seem an arid and profitless plan of education. 
Yet, if we turn over the pages of the wonderful works of 

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254 The Middle Period of European History 

Thomas Aquinas, we see that the scholastic philosopher might 
be a person of extraordinary insight and learning, ready to 
retx^nize all the objections to his position and able to express 
himself with great clearness and cogency,' The training in 
logic, if it did not increase the sum of human knowledge, 
accustomed the student to make careful distinctions and pre- 
sent his arguments in an orderly way. 
cburae of No attention was given to the great subject of history in the 

* " ' medieval universities, nor was Greek taught. Latin had to be 

learned in order to carry on the work at all, but little time was 
given to the Roman classics. The new modem languages were 
considered entirely unworthy of the learned. It roust, of course, 
be remerobered that none of the books which we consider the 
great classics in EngUsh, French, Italian, or Spanish had as yet 
been written. 
Petrarch tries Although the medieval professors paid the greatest respect to 
Greek the Greek philosopher Aristotle and made Latin translations of 

his works the basis of the college course, very few of them could 
read any Greek and none of them knew much about Homer or 
Plato or the Greek tragedians and historians. In the fourteenth 
century Petrarch (1304-1374) set the example in Italy of care- 
fully collecting all the writings of the Romans, which he greatly 
admired. He made an unsuccessful effort to learn Greek, for he 
found that Cicero and other Roman writers were constantly 
referring vrith enthusiasm to the Greek books to which they 
owed so much, 
Ch^poloras Petrarch had not the patience or opportunity to master Greek, 

teach Greek bu' twenty years after his death a learned Greek prelate from 
13^''"*"'*' Constantinople, named Chrysoloras, came to Florence and found 
pupils eager to learn his language so that they could read the 
Greek books. Soon Italian scholars were going to Constanti- 
nople to carry on their studies, just as the Romans in Cicero's 
time had gone to Athens. They brought back copies of all the 

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Books and Science in the Middle Ages 255 

andent writers that they could find, and by 1^30 Greek books Greek 
were once more known in the West, after a thousand years of broughTto' 
neglect. '"J? 

In this way western Europe caught up with ancient tinw 
scholars could once more know all that the Greeks and Romans ' 
had known and could read in the original the works of Homer, 
Sophocles, Herodotus, Plato, Aristotle, Demosthenes, and other 
philosophers, historians, orators, and tragedians. Those who 
devoted their lives to a study of the literature of Greece and 
Rome were called Humanists. The name is derived from the 
Latin word kumaniias, which means " culture." In time the 
colleges gave up the exclusive study of Aristotle and substituted 
a study of the Greek and Latin Uterature, and in this way what 
is known as our " classical " course of study originated. 

Beginnings of Modern Inventions 

51. So long, however, as intellectual men confined them- 
selves to studying the old books of Greece and Rome they were 
not Ukely to advance beyond what the Greeks and Romans had 
known. In order to explain modern discoveries and inventions 
we have to take account of those who began to suspect that Aris- 
totle was ignorant and mistaken upon many im[>ortant matters, 
and who set to work to examine things about them with the hope 
of finding out more than any one had ever known before. 

Even in the thirteenth century there were a few scholars who Roger 
criticized the habit of relying upon Aristotle for all knowledge, awdion 
The most distinguished faultfinder was Roger Bacon, an EngUsh ^^^ 
Franciscan monk (d. about 1290), who declared that even if 
Aristotle were very wise he had only planted the tree of knowl- 
edge and that this had " not as yet put forth all its branches nor 
produced all its fruits." " If we could continue to live for end- 
less centuries we mortals could never hope to reach full and 
complete knowledge of all the things which are to be known. 
No one knows enough of nature completely to describe the 

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2S6 The Middle Period of European History 

peculiarities of a single fly and give the reason for its color and 
why it has just so many feet, no more and no less." Bacon held 
that truth could be reached a hundred thousand times better by 
experiments with real things than by poring over the bad Latin 
translations of Aristotle. " If I had my way," he declared, " I 
should bum all the books of Aristotle, for the study of them can 
only lead to a loss of time, produce error and mcrease ignorance." 

Roger Bacon declared that if men would only study common 
things instead of reading the books of the ancients, science would 
outdo the wonders which people of his day thought could be 
produced by magic He said that in time men would be able to 
fly, would have carriages which needed no horses to draw them 
and ships which would move swiftly without oars, and that 
bridges could be built without piers to support them. 

All this and much more has come true, but inventors and 
modem scientists owe but little to the books of the Greeks and 
Romans, which the scholastic philosophers and the Humanists 
relied upoa Although the Greek philosophers devoted consider- 
able attention. to natural science, they were not much inclined to 
make long and careful experiments or to invent anything like 
the microscope or telescope to help them. They knew very little 
indeed about the laws of nature and were sadly mistaken upon 
many points. Aristotle thought that the sun and all the stars 
revolved about the earth and that the heavenly bodies were per- 
fect and unchangeable. He believed that heavy bodies fell faster 
than light ones and that all earthly things wert made of the four 
elements — earth, air, water, and fire. The Greeks and Romans 
knew nothing of the compass, or gunpowder, or the printing 
press, or the uses to which steam can be put. Indeed, they had 
scarcely anything that we should call a machine. 

The thirteenth century witnessed certain absolutely new 
achievements in the history of mankind. The compass began 
to be utilized in a way to encourage bolder and bolder ventures 
out upon the ocean (see above, section 46). The properties of 
the lens were discovered, and before the end of the century 


Books and Science in the Middle Ages 257. 

spectacles are mentioned. The lens made the later telescope, Arabic 
microscope, spectroscope, and camera possible, upon which so "" 
much of our modem science depends. The Arabic numerals 
began to take the place of the awkward Roman system of 
using letters. One cannot well divide XLVIII by VIII, but he 
can easily divide 
48 by 8. Roger 
Bacon knew of the 
explosive nature 
of a compound of 
sulphur, saltpeter, 
and charcoal, and 
a generation after 
his death gunpow- 
der began to be 
used a litde for 
guns and artillery. 
A document is still 
preserved referring 
to the making of 
brass cannon and 
balls in Florence 

in the year 1326. ^^^ ^ Effects of Cannon on a 

By 1350 powder Medieval Castle 

works were in ex- 
istence in at least three German towns, and French and Eng- 
lish books refer now and then to its use. 

At least a hundred and fifty years elapsed, however, before 
gunpowder really began to supplant the okJ ways of fighting 
with bows and arrows and axes and lanc«s. By the year 1500 
it was becoming clear that the old stone casdes were insufficient 
protection against cannon, and a new type of unprotected castle 
began to be erected as residences of the kings and the nobility 
{see below, p. 276). Gunpowder has done away with armor, 
bows and arrows, spears and javelins, castles and walled towns. 

C k")0<^ Ic 

258 The Middle Period of European History 

It may be that sometime some such fearfully destructive c»m- 
pound may be discovered, that the nations may decide to give 
up war altogether as too dangerous and terrible a thing to resort 
to under any circumstances. 

The inventions of the compass, of the lens, and of gunpowder 
have helped to revolutionize the world. To these may be added 
the printing press, which has so facilitated and encouraged read- 
ing that it is nowadays rare to find anybody who cannot read. 

The Italian classical scholars of the fifteenth century suc- 
ceeded, as we have seen (pp. 254-255. above), in arousing a new 
interest in the books of the Greeks as well as of the Romans. 
They carefully collected every ancient work that they could lay 
hands on, made copies of it, edited it, and if it was in Greek, 
translated it into Latin. While they were in the midst of this 
work certain patient experimenters in Germany and Holland 
were turning their attention to a new way of multiplying books 
rapidly and cheaply by the use of lead type and a press. 

The Greeks and Romans and the people of the Middle Ages 
knew no other method of obtaining a new copy of a book 
except by writing it out laboriously by hand. The professional 
copyists were incredibly dexterous with their quills, as may be 
seen in Fig. 70 — a page from a Bible of the thirteenth cen- 
tury which is reproduced in its original size.' The letters are 

1 On pages 260 . 

and 26. are re[ 

iroductions, eiactly the si 

ze of the original, of 

two pages ins man 

uscripl Bible of the thirteenth century (ir 

1 Latin) belonging to 

the library of Colur 

nbia Univeraitj 

'. The first of the two wa 

s chosen to illustrate 

perfection of the best work ; the second i 

show irregularities 

The first of the two p^es is 

taken from I Maccabee! 

1 i, 56-ii, 65 <a por- 

tion of the Scripcui 

included in the Protestant Bibles), It begins, 

"... ditiE fugitivoi 

umlocis. Die 

tev, quinto et quadia- 


rit rex Antiochus abominai 

ndum idolum desola- 

Dei ; et per un 

liversas dvitates Juda in ■ 

aras et ijite jarniiB 

in plateis incendebant tfa 

et libros legis Dei 

1." The scribes used a good many abbievU- 

Uons, aa was the custom of the time, and what is tran5cril« 

d here fills five lines 

of the manuscript. 

The second leas perfect page 

here reproduced is from 

the prophet Amos, 

iii, 9-vii, 16. It b, 

coroedit enica et n. 

>[> redistis ad n 

ie, dicit Dominus." 

:ectv Google 

1 Book of Houkh, Fifteenth Century 
(Original Size) 

1.1 .:, Google 

3 by Google 

Books and Science in the Middle Ages 259 

as clear, small, and almost as rt^lar as if they had been printed. iHuminateiJ 
The whole volume containing the Old and New Testaments is "™"^"P" 
. about the size of this book. After the scribe had finished his 
woric the volume was often turned over to the illuminator, 
who would put in gay illuminated initials and sometimes page 
borders, which were delightful in design and color.' Books de- 
signed to be used in the church services were adorned with pic- 
tures as well as with ornamented initials and decorative borders. 
Plate VIII is a reproduction of a page from a Book of Hours 
in the library Of Columbia University, It is the same size as the 

The written books were, in short, often both compact and Slow process 
beautiful, but they were never cheap or easily produced in byiX'd^ 
great numbers. When Cosimo, the father of Lorenzo the 
Magnificent, wished to form a library just before the in- 
ventkin of printing, he applied to a contractor who engaged 
forty-five copyists. By working hard for nearly two years 
they were able to produce only two hundred volumes for the 

Moreover, it was impossible before the invention of printing to Erron of 
have two copies of the same work exactly alike. Even with the Pj™" 
greatest care a scribe could not avoid making some mistakes, and a 
careless copyist was sure to make a great many. The universi- 
ties required their students to report immediately any mistakes 
discovered in their textbooks, in order that the error might not 
be reproduced in another copy and so lead to a misunderstand- 
ing of the author. With the invention of printing it became 
possible to produce in a short time a great many copies of a 
given book which were exactly alike. Consequently, if suffi- 
cient care was taken to see that the types were properly set, 
the whole edition, not simply a single copy, might be relied 
upon as correct 

' The word " miniature," which ii often applied to ihetn, is derived from minaim, 
that ii, vermilion, which wsu one of the favorite color*. Later the word came to 
be applied to anything tmall. 

3 by Google 

_ ft . i » f» . ^ i>aii i Miiiiii f;<fhj Mwwr — — — y-~- , - 

.■fiiiii*iifiiirii»i*ffiiirfc^ih.iiiMii.j- 1 Ml r- riiii-tliijiiiiiiiiiiiii liiiiiiiiiiirik 

Fig. 70. Page from a Copy of the Bible made in the Thirteenth 
Century, showing Perfection of the Best Work (see note p. 258) 

DC, zecbvGoOgIc 

Fig. 71. Another Page from the Same Volume from which the 

Page opposite is taken, showing Imperfections and Mistakes of 

Poor Copyists 

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262 The Middle Period of European History 

Paper After the supply of papyrus — the paper of the Egyptians, 

inwestera Greeks, and Romans — was cut off from Europe by the con- 
Europe quest of Egypt by the Mohammedans the people of the Middle 
Ages used parchtnent, made from the skin of lambs 
'his was so expensive that printing would 
but little use, even if it had been thought 

iibrinidanibul^ DiHinatttrliiftinihie- 
niliii«ra iinprimmliianaraitoi^anln: 
iitij|anjritftagniat ?,pff|p|t m6ig 


Fig, 72. Closing Lines of the Psalter of 1459 
(Much reduced) 
The closing lines (that is, the so-called lelopkBn) of the second edition of 
the Psalter, which are here reproduced, are substantially the same as 
those of the first edition. They may be translated as follows ; " The 
present volume of the Psalms, which is adorned with handsome capitals 
and is clearly divided by means of rubrics, was produced not by writing 
with a pen but by an ingenious invention of printed characters; and 
was completed to Che glory of God and the honor of St. )ames by John 
Fust, a citiien of Mayence, and Peter Schoifher of Gemsheim, in the 
year of our Lord 1459, on the i9th of August" 

of, before paper was introduced into Europe by the Moham- 
medans.' Paper began to become common in the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries and was already replacing parchment 
before the invention of printing, 
rhe earliesi The earliest book of any considerable size to be printed was 
Eooka the Bible, which appears to have been completed at Mayence in 

the year 1456. A year later the famous Mayence Psalter was fin- 
ished, the first dated book (Fig. 72). There are, however, earlier 

1 The Arabs seem to have derived their knowkdge of paper-making from 
the ChintK. 

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Books and Science in the Middle j 


examples of little books printed with engraved blocks and even 
wiUi movable l^pes. In the German towns, where the art spread 
rapidly, the printers adhered to the style of letters which the 
scribe had found it convenient to make with his quill — the so- 
called Gothic, or black letter. In Italy, however, where the first Blad: letter 
printing press was set up 
in 1466, a type was soon 
adopted which resembled 
the letters used in andent 
Roman inscriptions. This 
was quite ^milar to the 
style of letter commonly 
used to-day. The Italians 
also invented the com- 
pressed italic type, which 
enabled them to get a 
great many words on a 
page. The early printers 
generally did their work 
conscientiously, and the ' 
very first book printed is 
in most respects as well 
done as any later book. 

By the year 1500, after 
printing had been used 
less than half a century, 
there apj>ear to have been 
at least forty printing 
presses to be found in va- 
rious towns of Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and 
England. These presses had, it is estimated, already printed 
eight millions of volumes. So there was no longer any danger 
of the old books being again lost, and the encouragement to 
write and publish new books was greatly increased. From 
that date our sources for history become far more voluminous 

Fig. 73. An Old-fashioned 
Printing Office 

Until the nineteenth century printing 

IS carried on with very little machin- 

y. The type was inked by hand, 

then the paper laid on and the form 

slipped under a wooden press operated 

by hand by means of a lever 

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264 The Middle Period of European History 

than those which exist for thfe previous history of the world; 
we are much better informed in regard to events and con- 
ditions since ijoo than we ever can be respecting those of 
the earlier periods;^^;;^ 

^ ' The Art of the Renaissance 

Development 53. We have already described briefly the work of the medi- 
Italy cval architects and referred to the beautiful carvings that adorned 

the Gothic cathedrals and to the pictures of saints and angels 
in stained glass which filled the great churdi windows. But in 
the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries art developed in a most 
astonishing manner in Italy and set new standards for all of 
western Europe. 
Florence the Florence was the great center of artistic activity during the 
of lialv fifteenth century. The greatest sculptors and almost all of the 

most famous painters and architects of the time either were 
natives of Horence or did their best work there. During the 
first half of the century sculpture again took the lead. The 
bronze doorsof the baptistery at Florence by Ghiberti, which 
were completed in 1452, are among the finest products of 
Renaissance sculpture (see illustration).' 
Rome Florence reached the height of its preeminence as an art 

center of center during the reign of Lorenzo the Magnificent, who was 
^^J^^ a devoted patron of all the arts. With his death (1492), this 

preeminence passed to Rome, which was fast becoming one of 
the great capitals of Europe. The art-loving popes, Julius II 
and Leo X, look pains to secure the services of the most dis- 
tinguished artists and architects of the time in the building and 
adornment of St. Peter's and the Vatican ; that is, the papal 
church and palace (see above, p. 231). 

1 Opposite the cathedral at Florence <Fig. 67) stands the ancient baptisteiy. 
Its northern bronze doors, with ten scenes from the Bible, surrounded by a very 
lovely border of foliage, birds, and animals, were completed by Loienio Ghiberti 
in 1452, after many years of Ulwr. Michael Angelo declared them worthy to be 
the gates of heaven. 

DD.:eab, Google 

Ghiberti's Doors at Florence 

D.D.t.zea by Google 

HoLV Family by Andrea del Sakto 

D.D.t.zea by Google 

Books and Science in the Middle Ages 265 

During the sixteenth century the art of the Renaissance Height of 
reached its highest development. Among all the great artists of _^|]^'"°'"=* 
this period three stand out in heroic proportions — Leonardo da ^^^f'' 
Vinci, Michael Angelo, and Raphael. The first two not only Angeio, 
practiced, but achieved distinction in, the three arts of archi- 
tecture, sculpture, and painting.' It is impossible to give in a 
few lines any idea of the beauty and significance of the work of 
these great gMiiuses. Both Raphael and Michael Angelo left 
behind them so many and such magnificent frescoes and paint- 
ings, and in the case of Michael Angelo statues as well, that it 
is easy to appreciate their importance. Leonardo, on the other . 
hand, left but litde completed work. His influence on the art 
of his time, which was probably greater than that of either <A 
the others, came from his many-sidedness, his originality, and 
his unflagging interest in the discovery and application of new 
methods. He was almost more experimenter than artist 

While Florence could no longer boast of being the art center Tiw Venetian 
of Italy, it still produced great artists, among whom Andrea del "^ 
Sarto may be especially mentioned (see illustration). But the 
most important center of artistic activity outside of Rome in the 
sixteenth century was Venice. The distinguishing characteristic 
of the Venetian pictures is their glowing color. This is strik- Titian 
ingly exemplified in the paintings of Titian, the most famous ''^''~'S^^' 
of all the Venetian painters.^ 

It was natural that artists from the northern countries should Painting m 
be attracted by the renown of the Italian masters and, after Europe 
learning all that Italy could teach them, should return home to 
practice their art in their own particular fashion. About a century 
after painting began to develop in Italy two Flemish brothers, 
Van Eyck by name, showed that they were not only able to 
paint quite as excellent pictures as the Italians of their day, hut 
they also discovered a new way of mixing their colors superior 
to that employed in Italy. Later, when painting had reached DUrer 
its height in Italy, Albrecht Diirer and Hans Holbein the <'*''"'''^' 
1 Leonardo was engineer and inventor aa well. > S« Fig. 74. 


266 The Middle Period of European History 

Younger' in Germany vied with even Raphael and Michael 
Angelo in the mastery of their art Diirer is espedally cele- 
brated for his wonderful woodcuts and copperplate engravings, 

in which field he has perhaps never been excelled." 

When, in the seventeenth century, painting had declined south 
of the Alps, Dutch and Flemish masters — above all, Rubens 
and Rembrandt — developed a new and admirable school of 
painting. To Van Dyck, another Flemish master, we owe many 
noble portraits of historically important persons.' Spain gave 
to the world in the seventeenth century a painter whom some 
would rank higher than even the greatest artists of Italy, namely, 
Velasquez (1599-1660). His genius, bke that of Van Dydt, is 
especially conspicuous in his marvelous portraits. 


Section 47, Why was Ladn used l^ learned men, churchmen, 
scholars, and lawyers in the Middle Ages? What is the origin of the 
Gemianic languages? of the Romance tongues ? When does English 
become sufficiently modem for us to read it easily without special study? 
What is the character of the French romances of the Middle Ages ? 

Section 48, Who were the troubadours? Describe chivalry 
and the ideal knight. 

Section 49. Why did people know little of history in the Middle 
Ages? Give some examples of the beliefs in regard to the habits of 
animals and the existence of strange races of men. What value was 
supjKised to come from studying the habits of animals? Define 
astrology. What words do we use that recall the beliefs of the 
Middle Ages in regard to the influence of the stars on man ? What 
was alchemy? 

Section 50. Who was Abelard? What was a "university" 
originally? Mention some early universities. What was the origin 
of our degrees? What subjects were studied in a medieval imiver- 
si^? Why was Aristotle so venerated by the medieval scholars? 
What was scholasticism ? How and when were Greek books again 
brought into western Europe ? Who were the Humanists ? Why did 
riot the Humanists make any discoveries? 

1 See below, Fig. 78. , » See below, Fig. 80. - * See below, Pigi. 96 nd 98. 


Books and Science in the Middle Ages 267 

Section 51. Why did Roger Bacon criticize the enthu»asm for 
Aristotle? What great inventions did he foresee? What great new 
discoveries were made in the thirteenth century f 

What effects did the introduction of gunpowder have ? How were 
books made before ihe invention of prindng? What are the dis- 
advantages of a book copied by hand? What is the earliest large 
printed book? How rapidly did prindng spread? What do you 
consider the chief effects of the introduction of printing? 

Section 52. Say something of the chief artists of the Renais- 
sance in Italy and their work. Name some of the artists of the 
sisteentb and seventeenth centuries who lived outside of Italy. 

3 by Google 


bhpbros ceasles v and his vast realms 

Emperor Maximilian and the Hapsburg Marriages 

53. In the year rjoo a baby was bom in the town of 
Ghent who was destined before he reached the age of twenty 
to rule, as Emperor Charles V, over more of Europe than 
■ any one since Charlemagne. He owed his vast empire not 
to any conquests of his own but to an extraordinary series 
of roya] marriages which made him heir to a great part of 
western Europe. These marriages had been arranged by his 
grandfather, Maximilian I, one of the most successful match- 
makers that ever lived. Maximilian belonged to the House 
of Hapsburg, and in order to understand European history 
^nce 1500 we must learn somethii^ of Maximilian and the 
Hapsburg line. 

The German kings had failed to create a strong kingdom 
such as those over which Louis XI of France and Henry VII 
of England ruled. Their fine title of emperor had made them 
a great deal of trouble and done them no good, as we have 
seen.' Their attempts to keep Italy as well as Germany under 
flieir rule, and the alliance of the mighty bishop of Rome with 
their enemies had well-nigh ruined them. Their position was 
further weakened by the fact that their office was not strictly 
hereditary. Although the emperors were often succeeded by 
their sons, each new emperor had to be ekded, and those great 
vassals who controlled the election naturally took care to bind 
the candidate by solemn promises not to interfere with their 

1 See above, sections 16, iS-33. 

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Emperor Charles V and his Vast Realms 269 

privil^es and independence. The result was that, after the 
downfall of the Hohcnstaufens, Germany fell apart into a great 
number of practically independent states, of which none were 
very large and some were extremely small 

After an interregnum, Rudolf of Hapsburg had been chosen Rudolf of 
emperor in 1273 (see above, p. 164). The or^nal seat of the gelT^Ms. 
Hapsburgs, who were destined to play such a great part in ?j°" ".' 
European affairs, was in northern Switzerland, where the ves- 
tiges of their or^nal casde may still be seen. Rudolf was the 
first prominent member of the family ; he established its poa- 
tion and influence by seizing the duchies of Austria and Styria, 
whidi became, under his successors, the nucleus of the extensive 
Austrian possessions. 

About a century and a half after the death of Rudolf the The imperial 
German princes began regularly to choose as their emperor the praciiSlfy'"' 
ruler of the Austrian possessions, so that the imperial tide became, ^^"1^, 
to all intents and purposes, hereditary in the Hapsburg line, of Auatria 
The Hapsburgs were, however, far more interested in addir^ 
to their family domains than in advancing the interests of the 
German Empire as a whole. Indeed, the Holy Roman Empire 
was nearly defunct and, in the memorable words of Voltaire, it 
had ceased to be either holy, or Roman, or an empire. 

Maximilian, while sdll a very young man, married Mary of 
Burgundy, the heiress to the Burgundian realms, which included 
what we now call Holland and Belgium and portions of eastern 
France. In this way the House of Austria got a hold on the 
shores of the North Sea. Mary died in 1482 and her lands were 
inherited by her infant son, Philip. Maximilian's next matri- 
monial move was to arrange a marriage between his son Philip 
and Joanna, the heiress to the Spanish kingdoms, and this 
makes it necessary for us to turn a moment to Spain, of 
which little or nothing has been said since we saw how the 
kii^om of the Vis^oths was overthrown by the Mohammedan 
invaders, over seven hundred years before Maximilian's time 
(section 14). 

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270 The Aliddie Period of European History 

The Mohammedan conquest served to make the history of 
Spain very different from that of the other states of Europe. 
One of its first and most important results was the conversion 
of a great part of the inhabitants to Mohammedanism. During 
the tenth century, which was so dark a period in the rest of 
Europe, the Arab civilization in Spain reached its highest de- 
velopment. The various elements in the population, Roman, 
Gothic, Arab, and Berber, appear to have been thoroughly 
amalgamated. Agriculture, industry, commerce, art, and the 
sciences made rapid progress. Cordova, with its half million 
of inhabitants, its stately palaces, its university, its three thou- 
sand mosques and three hundred public baths, was perhaps 
unrivaled at that period in the whole world. There were thou- 
sands of students at the University of Cordova at a time when, 
in the North, only clergymen had mastered even the simple 
arts of reading and writing. This brilliant dviUzation lasted, 
Iiowever, for hardly more than a hundred years. By the middle 
of the eleventh century the caliphate of Cordova had fallen to 
[neces, and shortly afterwards the country was overrun by new 
invaders from Africa. 

But the Christians were destined to- reconquer the peninsula. 
As early as the year 1000' several small Christian kingdoms 
— Castile, Aragon, and Navarre — had come into existence in 
the northern part of Spain. Castile, in particular, began to push 
back the Mohammedans and, in 1085, reconquered Toledo from 
them. Ari^n also widened its bounds by incorporating Barce- 
lona and conquering the territory watered by the Ebro. By 
1250 the long war of the Christians against the Mohammedans, 
which fills the medieval annals of Spain, had been so success- 
fully prosecuted that Castile extended to the south coast and 
included the great towns of Cordova and Seville. TTie Christian 
kingdom of Portugal was already as large as it is to-day. 

The Moors, as the Spanish Mohammedans were called, main- 
tained thonselves for two centuries more in the mountainous 
1 See map above, p. 146. 

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Emperor Charles V and kis Vast Realms 271 

kji^om of Granada, in the southern part of the peninsula. 
During this period Castile, which was the largest of the Spanish 
kingdoms and embraced all the central part of the peninsula, 
was too much occupied by internal feuds and struggles over 
the crown to wage successful war against the Moorish kingdom 
to the south. 

The first Spanish monarch whose name need be mentioned Marriage of 
here was Queen Isabella of Castile, who, in 1469, concluded cudle^and 
an all-important marriage with Ferdinand, the heir of the crown ^^'"™'' "' 
of Aragon, It is with this union of Castile and Aragon that 
the great importance of Spain in European history begins. For 
the next hundred years Spain was to enjoy more military power 
than any other European state, 

Ferdinand and Isabella undertook to complete the conquest Granada, the 
of the peninsula, and in 1492, after a long siege, the city of stronghold 
Granada fell into their hands, and therewith the last vestige of '^"* 
Moorish domination disapp>eared.^ 

In the same year that the conquest of the peninsula was com- Spain's in- 
pleted, the discoveries of Columbus, made under the auspices S«'New" 
of Queen Isabella, opened up sources of undreamed-of wealth ^i"'l^"lo 
beyond the seas. The transient greatness of Spain in the six- become a 
teenth century is largely to be attributed to the riches which p^t 
poured in from her American possessions. The shameless and 
cruel looting of the Mexican and Peruvian cities by Cortes and 
Pizarro (see above, p. 237), and the products of the silver mines 
of the New World, enabled Spain to assume, for a time, a posi- 
tion in Europe which her internal strength and normal resources 
would never have permitted. 

Unfortunately, the most industrious, skillful, and thrifty Persecution 
among the inhabitants of Spain, that is, the Moors and the Jews, ^j Moore' 
who well-nigh supported the whole kingdom with the products 

1 No one can gaie upon the great castle and palace of the Alhamhra, nhich 
was built for the Moorish kings, without realizing what a high degree of culture 
the Moors had attained. Its beautiful and impressive arcades 
courts, and the delicate traceiy of its arches lepreseot the highest achi 


2/2 The Middle Period of European History 

tii their toil, were bitterly persecuted by the Christians. So 

anxious was Isabella to rid her kingdom of the infidels that she 
revived the court of the Inquisition.' For several decades its 
tribunals arrested and condemned innumerable persons who 
were suspected of. heresy, and thousands were burned at the 
stake during this period. These wholesale executtons have 
served to associate Spain especially with the horrors of the 
Inquisition. Finally, in 1609, a century after Isabella's death, 
the Moors were driven out of the country altogether. The per- 
secution diminished or disheartened the most useful and enter- 
prising portion of the Spanish people, and permanently crippled 
the country. 

It was no wonder that the daughter and heiress of Ferdinand 
and Isabella seemed to Maximilian an admirable match for his 
son Philip. Philip died, however, in 1506, — sue years after 
his eldest son Charles was bom, — and his poor wife, Joanna, 
became insane with grief and was thus incapacitated for ruling. 
So Charles could look forward to an unprecedented accumula- 
tion of glorious titles as soon as his grandfathers, Maximilian 
of Austria and Ferdinand of Aragon, should pass away." He 
was soon to be duke of Brabant, margrave of Antwerp, 
count of Holland, archduke of Austria, count of Tyrol, king 
of Castile, Aragon, and Naples,' and of the vast Spanish 
possessions in America — to mention a few of his more 
important titles. 

1 See above, pp. 189-190. 

* AnitrlA BatEnndy CutlM An(On napUi, etc. 


MaxiiDilian I = Maiy (d. nii), Isabella = FeidinaDd (d. i;i6) 

(d. ISI9) I dau. of Charles (d- 1504} I 

tbe Bold (d. M7?) I 

FhUip (a. 1506) — ! Joanna the Insane (d. 1555) 

Charles V (d. IJ58) Ferdinand (d. i;64} — Anna, heiress to kingdoms 

Emperor, 1519-1556 Emperor, 1556-1564 of Bohemia and Hungaiy 

' Naples and Sidl; were in the hands of the king of Aragon at this time 
<p. 165). 

D.D.t.zeab, Google 

Emperor Charles V and kis Vast Realms 273 

Ferdinand died in 1516, and Charles, now a lad of sixteen, ChariuK 
who had been bom and reared in the Netherlands, was much p^j^^g 
bewildered when he first landed in his Spanish dominions. The 
Burgundian advisers whom he brought with him were distasteful 

FiG. 74. Charles V at the Age of 48, by Titian 

to the haughty Spaniards, to whom, of course, they were for- 
eigners; suspidon and opposition awaited him in each of his 
several Spanish kingdoms, for he found by no means a united 
Spain. Each kingdom demanded special recognition of its rights 
and proposed important reforms before it would acknowledge 
Charles as its king. 

DD.:eab, Google 

274 2^ Middle Period of European History 

It seemed as if the boy would have his hands full in assert- 
ing his authority as the first " king of Spain " ; nevertheless, a 
still more imposing dde and still more perplexing responsibilities 
were to fall upon his shoulders before he was twenty years <AA. 
It had long been Maximilian's ambition that his grandson 
should succeed him upon the imperial throne. After his death, 
in 1519, the electors finally chose Charles as emperor — the 
fifth of that name — instead of the rival candidate, Francis I 
of France. By this election the king of Spain, who had not yet 
been in Gennany and who never learned its language, became 
its ruler at a critical juncture, when the teachings of Luther 
(see next chapter) were adding a new kind of trouble to the 
old disorders. 

How Italv became the Battleground of the 
European Powers 

54. In order to understand the Europe of Charles V and 
the constant wars which occupied him all his life, we must turn 
back and review the questions which had been engaging the 
attention of his fellow kings beforehe came to the throne. It 
is particularly necessary to see clearly how Italy had suddenly 
become the center of commotion — the battlefiekl for Spain, 
France, and Gennany. 
!«vni Charles VIII of France (1483-1498) possessed little of the 
islBly practical sagacity of his father, Louis XI (pp. 142-143). He 
dreamed of a mighty expedition against the Turks and of the 
conquest of Constantinople. As the first step he determined to 
lead an army into Italy and assert his claim, inherited from his 
father, to the kingdom of Naples, which was in the bands of 
the House of Aragon.' While Italy had everything to lose by 

■ It wffllbe remembered thatIhepopes,mtheirlongstnigg1e with Frederick II 
and the Hohenalaufens, faaHy called in Chailo of Anjou, the brother of St. Louis, 
and gave to him both Naples and Sicily (see above, pp. 163 «.). Sicily revolted 
in iz8i and was united with the kingdom of Atagon, whicH atill held it when 

Emperor Charles Vandkis Vast Realms 275 

permitting a powerful foreign monarch to get a foothold in the 
South, there was no probability that the various little states 
into which the peninsula was divided would lay aside their 
animosities and combine against the invader. On the contraiy, 
Charles VIII was urged by some of the Italians themselves 
to come. 

Had Lorenzo the Magnificent still been alive, he might have SaronaroU 
otganized a league to oppose the French king, but he had died yiii 
in 14911 two years before Charles started. Lorenzo's sons 
failed to maintain the influence over the people of Florence 
which their father had enjoyed ; and the leadership of the cAy 
fell into the hands of the Dominican friar, Savonarola, whose 
fervid preaching attracted and held for a time the attention of 
the fickle Florentine populace. He believed himself to be a 
prophet and proclaimed that God was about to scourge Italy 
for its iniquities. I 

When Savonarola heard of the French invasion, it appeared Charles Vlll j 

to him that this was indeed the looked-for scourge of God, " ^""* * 

which might afflict, but would also purify, the Church. As 
Charles approached Florence, the people rose in revolt against 
the Medici, sacked their palaces, and drove out the three sons 
of Lorenzo. Savonarola became the chief figure in the new 
republic which was established.^ Charles was admitted into 
Florence, but his ugly, insignificant figure disappointed the 
Florentines. They soon made it clear to him that they did not 
regard him in any-sense as a conqueror, and would oppose a 
prolonged occupation by the French. So, after a week's stay, 
the French army left Florence and proceeded on its southward 

Charles V came to ihe Spanish throne. Naples also waa conquered by die king 
of Aragon, and was in his family when Charles VIII undertook his ItiBiii 
expedition. Louis XI, although he claimed the right of the French to nile in 
Naples, had prudently refused to attempt to ousi the Aragonese usurpers, as he 
had quite enough to do at home. 

1 The fate of Savonarola was a tragic one. He lost the confidence of (he 
Florentines and aroused the opposition of the pope. Three yean after Charles 
VIII'i visit he wai accused of heresy and executed. 

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2/6 The Middle Period of European History 

Aujtude of The next power with which Charles had to deal was the pope, 
*^^ who ruled over the states of the Church. The pope was greatly 
perturbed when he realized that the French army was upon 
him. He naturally dreaded to have a foreign power in control 
of southern Italy just as his predecessors had dreaded the efforts 
of the Hohenstaufen to add Naples to their empire. He was 
unable, however, to oppose the French and they proceeded on 
their way. 
charics VIII The success of the French king seemed marvelous, for even 
unconquered Naples speedily fell into his hands. But he and his troops were 
demoralized by the wines and other pleasures of the South, and 
meanwhile his enemies at last began to form a combinadon 
against him. Ferdinand of Aragon was fearful lest he might 
lose Sicily, and Emperor Maximilian objected to having the 
French control Italy. Charles's situation became so dangerous 
that he may well have thought himself fortunate, at the close 
of 1495, to escape, with the loss of only a single batde, from 
the country he had hoped to conquer. 
Kesuiuof The results of Charles VIII's expedition appear at first sight 

eipedition trivial ; in reality they were momentous. In the first place, it 
was now clear to Europe that the Italians had no real national 
feeling, however much they mi^t despise the " barbarians" 
who Lved north of the Alps. From this time down to the 
latter half of the nineteenth century, Italy was dominated by 
foreign nations, especially Spain and Austria. In the second 
place, the French learned to admire the art and culture of Italy 
(section 52), Tlie nobles be^n to change their feudal castles, 
which since the invention of gunpowder were no longer im- 
pregnable, into luxurious palaces and country houses. The new 
scholarship of Italy also took root and flourished not only in 
France but in England and Germany as well, and Greek began 
to be studied outside of Italy. Consequently, just as Italy was 
becoming, politically, the victim of foreign aggressions, it was also 
losing, never to regain, that intellectual leadership which it had 
enjoyed since the revival of interest in Latin and Greek literature. 

Emperor Charles V and his Vast Realms 277 

It would be wearisome and unprofitable to follow the at- 
tempts of the French to get a foothold in Milan. Suffice it 
to say that Charles VIII soon died and that his successor 
Louis XII laid claim to the duchy of Milan in the north as welt as 
to Naples in the south. But he concluded to sell his claim to 

Fig. 75. Francis I 

Naples to Ferdinand of Aragon and centered his attention on 
holding Milan, but did not succeed in his purpose, largely owing''* 
to the opposition of the Pope. .-"^^ 

Francis I, who came to the French throne in 1515 at the age 
of twenty, is one of the most famous of the French kings. He 
was gracious and chivalrous in his ideas of conduct, and his 
proudest title was "the gentieman king." Like his contempo- 
raries, Pope Leo X, son of Lorenzo de' Medici, and Henry 
VIII of England, he helped artists and men of letters and 
was interested in fine buildings (F^. 76), 

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2/8 Tke Middle Period of European History 

// Francis opened his reign by a very astonishing victory. He 

' led his troops into Italy over a pass which had hitherto been 

regarded as impracticable for cavalry and defeated the Swiss 

— who were in the Pope's pay — at Marignano. He then 

Fig. 76. Court of the Palace at Blois 

The ejipedition of Charles VIII to Italy called the attention of French 
architects to the beautiful Renaissance style used there. As cannon 
had by this time begun to render the old kind of castles with thick 
walls and towers useless as a means of defense, the French Icings 
began to construct magnificent palaces of which several still exist. 
Charles VIIl's successor, Louis XII, began a handsome structure at 
Blois, on the Loire River, and Francis I added a wing, the inner side of 
which is here reproduced. Its magnificent open staircase and wide, high 
windows have little in common with the old donjons of feudal times 

occupied Milan and opened negotiations with Leo X, who was 

glad to make terms with the victorious young king. The pope 

agreed that Francis should retain Milan, and. Francis on his 

of Fiance' P^rt acceded to Leo's plan for turning over Florence once more 

'"'^nd'dudi* ^'^ '■^^ Medici, of which family the pope himself was a member. 

of Tuscany This was done, and some years later this wonderful republic 

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Emperor Charles V and his Vast Realms 279 

became the grand duchy of Tuscany, governed by a line of petty 
princes under whom its former glories were never renewed. 

Friendly relations existed at first between the two young Sources of 
sovere^s, Francis I and Charles V, but there were several bmreen 
circumstances which led to an almost incessant series of wars j^™^ 
between them. France was damped in between the northern Hapsburgi 
and southern possessions of Charles, and had at that time no 
natural boundaries. Moreover, there was a standing dispute 
over portions of the Burgundian realms, for both Charles and 
Frands claimed the duc/iy of Burgundy and also the neighboring 
county of Burgundy — commonly called Franche-Comtd (see ac- 
companying map). Charles also believed that, through his grand- ' 
father, Maximilian, he was endtled to Milan, which the French 
kings had set their hearts upon retaining. For a generation the 
rivals fought over these and other matters, and the wars be- 
tween Charies and Francis were but the prelude to a conflict 
lasting over two centuries between France and the overgrown 
power of the House of Hapsburg. 

In the impending struggle it was natural that bodi monarchs Heniy VIII 
should try to gain the aid of the king of England, whose friend- 1509^54? ' 
ship was of the greatest importance to each of them, and who 
was by no means loath to take a hand in European affairs. 
Henry VIII had succeeded his fatiier, Henry VII, in 1509 
at the age of e^hteen. Like Francis, he was good-looking and 
graceful, and in his early years made a very happy impression 
upon those who came in contact with him. He gained much 
popularity by condemning to death the two men who had been 
most active in extorting the " benevolences " which his father 
had been wont to require of unwilling givers. With a small but 
important class, his learning brought him credit lie married, 
for his first wife, an aunt of Charles V, Catherine of Aragon, 
and chose as his chief adviser Thomas Wolsey, whose career 
and sudden downfall were to be strangely associated with the 
fate of the unfortunate Spanish princess.' 
I See below, pp. 315-J17. 

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28o The Middle Period of European History 

ChariesV In 15^0 Charles V started for Germany to receive the 

S^naoj imperial crown at Aix-la-Chapelle. On his way he landed in 
England with the purpose of kee^nng Heniy from forming an 
alliance with Francis. He judged the best means to be that 
of freely bribing Wolsey, who had been made a cardinal by 
Leo X, and who was all-powerful with Henry. Charles there- 
fore bestowed on the cardinal* a lai^ annuity in addition to 
one which he had granted him somewhat earlier. He then set 
sail for the Netherlands, where he was duly crowned king of 
the Romans. From there he proceeded, for the first time, to 
Germany, where he summoned his first diet at Worms. 

Condition of Germany when Charles V 
BECAME Emperor 

Germany of 55. To US lo-day, Germany means the German Empire, one 
' of the three or four best organized and most powerful of the 

European states. It is a compact federation, somewhat like 
that of the United States, made up of twenty-two monarchies 
and three litde city-republics. Each member of the union man- 
ages its local affairs, but leaves all questions of national impor- 
tance to be settled by the central government at Berlin. This 
federation is, however, less than half a century old. 
The " Ger In the time of Charles V there was no such Germany as this, 

the siMeenth ^»it Only what the French called the " Germanics " ; that is, two 
cenwuy ^j. (jjj-gg hundred states, which differed greatly from one another 

in size and character. This one had a duke, that a count, at its 
head, while others were ruled over by archbishops, bishops, or 
abbots. There were many cities, like Nurembei^, Frankfort, and 
Cologne, which were just as independent as the great duchies 
of Bavaria, Wiirtemberg, and Saxony. Lastly there were the 
knights, whose possessions might consist of no more than a 
single strong castle with a wretched village lying at its foot. 
Weakneu of As for the emperor, he no longer had any power to control 
'^^™' his vassals. He could boast of unlimited pretensions and great 

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Emperor Charles V and his Vast Realms 281 

traditions, but he had neither money nor soldiers. At the time 
of Luther's birth the poverty-stricken Frederick III (Maxi- 
milian's fadier) might have been seen picking up a free meal 
at a monastery or 
riding behind a slow 
but economical ox 
team. The real 
power in Germany 
lay in the hands of 
the more important 

First and fore- 
most among these v 
seven electors, so ca 
cause, since the thirtet 
tury, they had enjo 
right to elect the t 
Three of them wei 
bishops — kings in 
name of considerab 
tones on the Rhine, 
the electorates of J 
Treves, and Cologne. 
them, to the south, 
region ruled over by the elector 
of the Palatinate; to the 
northeast were the territories 
of the electors of Brandenburg 
and of Saxony; the king of 
Bohemia made the seventh of 
the group. 

Beside these states, the do- 
minions of other rulers scarcely less important than the electors 
appear on the map. Some of these territories, like Wiirtemberg, 
Bavaria, Hesse, and Baden, are familiar to us to-day as members 

; the 

ne town in Gennany, Rothen- 
urg, on the little river Tauber, 
nee a free imperial city, retains 
s old walls and towers intact and 
many ot its old houses. It gives 
the visitor an excellent idea of how 
the smaller imperial (owns looked 
two or three hundred years ago 


282 The Middle Period of European History 

of the present German Empire, but all of them have been much 
enlarged since the sixteenth century by the absorption of the 
little states that formerly lay within and about them. 

The towns, which had grown up since the great economic 
revolution that had brought in commerce and the use of money 
in the thirteenth century, were centers of culture in the north of 
Europe, just as those of Italy were in the south. Nuremberg, 
the most beautiful of the German cities, still possesses a great 
many of the extraordinary buildings and works of art which it 
produced in the sixteenth century. Some of the towns were 
immediate vassals of. the emperor and were consequendy in- 
dependent of the particular prince within whose territory they 
were situated. These were called free, or imperial, cities and 
must be reckoned among ihe states of Germany {Fig. 77). 

The knights, who ruled over the smallest of the German 
territories, had earlier formed a very important class, but the 
introduction of gunpowder and new methods of fighting put 
them at a disadvantage, for they clung to their medieval tra- 
ditions. Their tiny realms were often too small to support them, 
and they frequently turned to robbery for a living and proved a 
great nuisance to the merchants and townspeople whom they 
plundered now and then. 

It is clear that these states, littie and big, all tangled up with 
one another, would be sure to have disputes among themselves 
which would have to be settled in some way. The emperor was 
not powerful enough to keep order, and the result was that each 
ruler had to defend himself if attacked. Neighborhood war was 
permitted by law if only some courteous preliminaries were 
observed. For instance, a prince or town was required to 
give warning three days in advance before attacking another 
member of the Empire (see above, section 22). 

Germany had a national assembly, called the diet, which met 
at irre^lar intervals, now in one town and now in another, for 
Germany had no capital .city. The towns were not permitted 
to send delegates until 1487, long after the townspeople were 

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Emperor Charles V and his Vast Realms 283 

represented in France and England. The restless knights and 
other minor nobles were not represented at all and consequently 
did not always consider the decisions of the diet binding 
upon them. 

It was this diet that Charles V summoned to meet him on the 
Rhine, in the ancient town of Worms, when he made his first 
visit to Germany in 1520. The most important business of the 
assembly proved to be the consideration of the case of a uni- 
versity professor, Martin Luther, who was accused of writing 
heretical books, and who had in reality begun what proved Co 
be the first successful revolt against the seemingly all-powerful 
Medieval Church. 


Section 53. When and how did the House of Hapsburg become 
important? What marriages were arranged by Majdmiiian 1 which 
affected the history of Europe? How did Spain become a powerful 
kingdom? Over what countries did Ferdinand and Isabella rule? 
What was the extent of Charles V'a dominions? 

Section 54. Describe the Italian expedition of Charles VllI, 
What were its results? What were the rauses of trouble between 
the French kings and the Hapaburgs? What are your impresMons 
ofFrandsI? of Henry VlII? 

Section 55. Contrast Germany in Charles V's time with the 
German Empire of to-day. Who were the knights? the electors? 
What was the German diet? Why was the emperor unable to 
maintain order in Germany? 

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The Question of Reforming the Church : 

BreakM»>of 56. By far the most important event during the rdgn of 

Church Charles V was the revolt of a considerable portion of western 

Europe against the popes. The Medieval Church, which was 

described in a previous chapter, was in this way broken up, and 

Protestant churches appeared in various European countries 

which declared themselves entirely independent of the pope 

and rejected a number of the religious beliefs which the Church 

had held previously. 

Enrope^ With the exception of England all those countries that lay 

Cathoiic'and within tile ancient bounds of the Roman Empire — Italy, 

France, Spain, Portugal, as well as southern Germany and 

Austria — continued to be faithful to the pope and the Roman 

Catholic Church. On the other hand, the rulers of the northern 

German states, of England, Holland, Denmark, Norway, and 

Sweden, sooner or later became Protestants. In this way 

Europe was divided into two great religious parties, and this 

led to terrible wars and cruel persecutions which fill the aimals 

of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 

Sources of The revolt began in Germany. The Germans, while good 

with the Catholics, were suspicious of the popes, whom they regarded as 

eap^'ly in Italians, bent upon getting as much money as possible out of 

Germany ihe simple people north of the Alps. The revenue flowing to 

the popes from Germany was very large. The great German 

prelates, like the archbishops of Mayence, Treves, and Cologne, 


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The Revolt of Germany against the Papacy 285 

were each ejqjccted to contribute no less than ten thousand 
gold guldens to the papal treasury upon having their election 
oonfirmed by the church authorities at Rome. The pope en- 
joyed the right to fiil many important church offices in Germany, 
and frequentiy appointed Italians, who drew the revenue with- 
out performing the duties attached to the office. A single per- 
son frequently held several church offices. For example, early 
in the sixteenth century, the archbishop of Mayence was at the 
same time archbishop of Magdeburg and bishop of Halberstadt 
There were instances in which a single person had accumulated 
over a score of benefices. 

It is impossible to exaggerate the impression of widespread 
discontent with the cor«iition of the Church which one meets 
in the writings of the early sixteenth century. The whole Ger- 
man people, from the rulers down to the humblest tiller of the 
fields, felt themselves unjustly used. The clergy were denounced 
as both immoral and inefficient. While the begging friars — the 
Frandscans, Dominicans, and Augustinians ' — were scorned 
by many, they, rather than the ordinary priests, appear to have 
carried on the real religious work. 

At first, however, no one thought of withdrawing from the 
Church or of attempting to destroy the power of the pope. All 
that the Germans wanted was that the money which flowed 
toward Rome should be kept at home, and that the clergy 
should be upright, earnest men who should conscientiously 
perform their religious duties. 

Among the critics of the Church in the early days of Charles V's EiMimn, 
reign the most famous and influential was Erasmus. He was '* ^-isjc 
a Dutchman by birth, but spent his life in various other coun- 
tries — France, England, Italy, and Germany. He was a citizen 
of the world and in correspondence with literary men every- 
where, so that his letters give us an excellent idea of the 
feeling of the times. He was greatly interested in the Greek 

is orgariied in Uie 


286 The Middle Period of European History 

and Latin authors, but his main pugx>se in life was to better 
the Church. He was well aware of the bad reputation of many 
of the deigymen of the time and he especially disliked the 

Fig. 78, Portrait of Erasmus, by Holbein 

This wonderful picture by Hans Holbein the Younger (i497-lS43t 
hangs in the Louvre gallery at Paris. We have every reason to suppose 
that it is an excellent portrait, for Holbein lived in Basel a considerable 
part of his life and knew Erasmus well. The artist was, moreover, 
celebrated for his skill in catching the likeness when depicting the 
human face. He later painted several well-known Englishmen, including 
Henry VIII and his little son Edward VI (see Fig. 83) 

monks, for when he was a boy he had been forced into a 
monastery, much against his will. 

It seemed to Erasmus that if everybody could read the 
Bible, especially the New Testament, for himself, it would bring 
about a great chat^e for the better. He wanted to have the 
Gospels and the letters of Paul translated into the language 


The Revolt of Germany against the Papacy 287 

of the people so that men and women who did not know Latin 
could read them and be helped by them. 

Erasmus believed that the two arch enemies of true religion EraMnva' 
were (i) paganism, into which many of the more enthusiastic re^on"^ 
Italian Humanists fell in their admiration for the Greek and Latin 
writers; and (z) the popular confidence in outward acts and 
ceremonies, like visiting the graves of saints, the mere repetition 
of prayers, and so forth. He claimed that the Church had be- 
come careless and had permitted the simple teachings of Christ 
to be buried under myriads of dogmas introduced by the theo- ■ 
logians. " The essence of our religion," he says, " is peace and 
harmony. These can only exist where there are few dogmas and 
each individual is left to form his own opinion upon many matters." 

In a little book called The Praise of Folly, Erasmus has much in his Prmst 
to say of the weaknesses of the monks and theologians, and of %^^as 
the foolish people who thought that religion consisted simply in fl"?*» ^e 
pilgrimages, the worship of relics, and the procuring of indul- Church 
gences. Scarcely one of the abuses which Luther later attacked 
escaped Erasmus' pen. The book is a mixture of the lightest 
humor and the bitterest earnestness. As one turns its pages 
one is sometimes tempted to think Luther half right when he 
declared Erasmus " a regular jester who makes sport of every- 
thing, even of religion and Christ himself." 

Yet there was in this humorist a deep seriousness that cannot 
be ignored. Erasmus believed, however, that revolt from the 
pope and the Church would produce a great disturtiance and 
result in more harm than good. He preferred to trust in the 
slower but surer effects of education and knowle<%e. Supersti- 
tions and the undue regard for the outward forms of religion 
would, he argued, be outgrown and quietly disappear as man- 
kind became more cultivated. 

He believed, moreover, that the time was favorable for reform. Erasmus 

As he looked about him he beheld intelligent rulers on the ^^v?r? 

thrones of Europe, men interested in books and art and ready ^M^ ^°' 
' ^ reform 

to help scholars and writers. There was Henry VIII of England 


288 The Middle Period of European History 

and Francis I of France, Then the pope himself, Leo X, the 
son of Lorenzo the Magnificent, was a friend and admirer of 
Erasmus and doubtless sympathized with many of his views. 
The youthful Charles V had advisers who believed Erasmus to 
be quite right and were ready to work toward a reform of the 
Church. Charles was a devout Catholic, but he too agreed that 
there were many evils to be remedied. So it seemed to Erasmus 
that the prospects were excellent for a peaceful reform ; but, in- 
stead of its coming, his latter years were embittered by Luther's 
revolt a;ul all the ill-feelings and dissensions that it created. ,•, 

How Martin Luther revolted against the 
1 ' Papacy 

57- Martin Luther was bom in 1483. He was the son of a 

poor miner, and he often spoke in later life of the poverty and 
superstition in which his boyhood was spent. His father, how- 
ever, was determined that his son should be a lawyer, and so 
Martin was sent to the University of Erfurt, After he finished his 
college course and was about to take up the study of the law 
he suddenly decided to become a monk. He summoned his 
college friends for a last evening together, and the next morn- 
ing he led them to the gate of a monastery, bade them and the 
world farewell, and became a b^ging friar. 

He was much worried about his soul and feared that nothing 
he could do would save him from helL He finally found comfort 
in the thought that in order to be saved he had only to believe 
sincerely that God would save him, and that he could not 
possibly save himself by trying to be good. He gained the re- 
spect of the head of the monastery, and when Frederick the Wise 
of Saxony (Fig. 80) was looking about for teachers in his new 
university at Wittenberg, Luther was recommended as a good 
person to teach Aristotie ; so be became a professor. 

As time went on Luther began to be suspicious of some of 
the things that were taught in the university. He finally decided 

t>. Google 

HOI, like HoJbem tne Vounger, a great portrait painter. 
This cut shows the reformer when his revolt against the Church was 
juat beginning. He was thirty-seven years old and still in (he dress of 
an Augustinian friar, which he soon abandoned 

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290 The Middle Period of European History 

that Aristotle was after all only an ancient heathen who knew 
nothing about Christianity and that the students had no business 
to study his works. He urged them to rely instead upon the 
Bible, especially the letters of St. Paul, and upon the writii^ of 
SL Augustine, who closely followed Paul in many respects. 
Luther's Luther's main point was that man, throu^ Adam's sin, had 

salvation become so corrupt that he could, of himself, do nothing pleas- 
ing to God. He could only hope to be saved through faith hi 
God's promise to save those who should repent Consequentiy 
" good works," such as attending church, going on pilgrimages, 
repeating prayers, and visiting relics of the saints, could do 
nothing for a sinner if he was not already " justified by faith," 
that is, made acceptable to God by his faith in God's promises. 
If he was "justified," then he might properly go about his daily 
duties, for the;^ would be pleasing to God without what the 
Church was accustomed to regard as "good works." 

Luther's teachings did not attract much attention until the 
year 1517, when he was thirty-four years old. Then something 
occurred to give him considerable prominence. 
Collection The fact has already been mentioned that the popes had 

ingS. Peter's undertaken the rebuilding of Sl Peter's, the great central church 
of Christendom (see above, p. 231). The cost of the enterprise 
was very great, and in order to collect contributions for the 
purpose, Pope Leo X arrai^ed for an extensiv& distribution 
of indulgences in Germany, 
Indalgences In order to understand the nature of indulgences and Luther's 
opposition to them, we must consider the teaching of the Catholic 
Church m regard to the forgiveness of sin. The Church taught 
that if one died after committing a serious (" mortal ") sin of 
which he had not repented and confessed, his soul would cer- 
tainly be lost. If he sincerely repented and confessed his sin 
to a priest, God would forgive hira and his soul would be saved, 
but he would not thereby escape punishment This punishment 
might consist in fasting, saying certain prayers, going on a pil- 
grimage, or doing some other " good work." It was assumed, 


The Revolt of Germany against the Papacy 291 

however, that most men committed so many sins that even if 
they died repentant, they had to pass through a long period in 
purgatory, where they would be purified by suffering before 
they could enter heaven. 

Now an indulgence was a pardon, issued usually by the pope 
himself, which freed the person to whom it was granted from 
a part or all of his suffering in purgatory. It did not forgive 
his sins or in any way take the place of true repentance and 
confession; it only reduced the punishment which a truly 
contrite sinner would otherwise have had to endure, either 
in this world or in purgatory, before he could be admitted to 

The contribution to the Church which was made in return for 
indulgences varied greatiy ; the rich were required to give a con- 
siderable sum, while the very poor were to receive these pardons 
gratis. The representatives of the pope were naturally anxious 
to collect all the money possible, and did their best to induce 
every one to secure an indu^ence, either for himself or for his 
deceased friends in purgatory. In their zeal they made many 
claims for the indulgences, to which no thoughtful churchman 
or even layman could listen without misgivings. 

In October, 1517, Tetzel, a Dominican monk, began granting Luther** 
indulgences in the neighborhood of Wittenberg, and making indulgMcei 
claims for them which appeared to Luther wholly irreconcilable 
with the deepest truths of Christianity as he understood and 
taught them. He therefore, in accordance with the custom of 
the time, wrote out a series of ninety-five statements in regard 
to indulgences. These theses, as they were called, he posted on 
the church door and invited any one interested in the matter to 
enter into a discusson with him on the subject, which he believed 
was very ill understood. 

1 It is a common mistake of Protestants tt 
foi^ven^sB granted beforehand for aina to be 
absolutely no foundation for thia idea. A person propoung tc 
Bibly be contrite in the eyes of the Church, and even if he aeci 
it would, according to the tbcologiana, have been quite worth! 


292 The Middle Period of European History 

Fig. 8o, Portrait of Frederick the Wise, by 
Albrecht DiiRER 

Frederick the Wise, Elector of Saxony, was very proud of the univer- 
sity that he founded at Wittenberg, and, while he was a devout Catholic 
and seems hardly to have understood what Luther stood for, he pro- 
tected his professor and did not propose to have him tried for heresy 
by the Church. The portrait is a fine example of the work of the artist 
who distinguished himself as hoth a painter and an engraver 

In positing these theses, Luther did not intend to attack the 
Church, and had no expectation of creating a sensation. The 
theses were in Latin and addressed, therefore, only to learned 
men. It turned out, however, that every one, high and low, learned 
and unlearned, was ready to discuss the perplexing theme of the 

The Revolt of Germany against the Papacy 293 

nature of indulgences. The theses were promptly translated into < 
Geiman, printed, and scattered abroad throughout the land, 
these nindy-five theses Luther declared that the indulgence was 
very unimportant and that the poor man would better spend his 
money for the needs of his household. The truly repentant, he 
argued, do not flee punishment, but bear it willingly in sign of 
their sorrow. Faith in God, not the procuring of pardons, brings 
forgiveness, and every Christian who feels true sorrow for 
his sins will receive full remission of the punishment as well as 
of the guilt Could the pope know how his agents misled the 
people, be would rather have St Peter's bum to ashes than 
build it up with money gained under false pretenses. Then, 
Luther adds, there is danger that the common man will ask 
awkward questions. For example, " If the pope releases souls 
from purgatory for money, why not for charity's sake ? " or, 
" Since the pope is rich as Crcesus, why does he not build 
SL Peter's with his own money, instead of taking that of the 
poor man ? " 

Luther now began to read church history and reached the Luther 
conclusion that the influence of the popes had not been very suipiciousof 
great until the times of Gregory VII (sections 30-31), and i^epapacjr 
therefore that they had not enjoyed their supremacy over the 
Church for more than four hundred years before bis own birth. 
He was mistaken in this condusion, but be bad hit upon a line 
of argument that has been urged by Protestants ever since. 
They assert that the power of the Medieval Church and of the 
papacy developed gradually, espedally during the Middle Ages, 
and that the apostles knew nothing of masses, indulgences, pil- 
grimages, purgatory, or the headship of the bishop of Rome. 

The publication of Luther's theses brought him many syrapa- wide diffu- 
thizers in Germany. Some were attracted by his protests against Luihert 
the ways in which the popes raised money, and others liked him ™°''" 
for attacking Aristotle and the scholastic theologians, Erasmus' 
publisher at Basel agreed to publish Luther's books, of which 
he sent copies to Italy, France, England, and Spain, and in this 

DD.:eab, Google 


towaii the 

294 TAe Middle Period of Eurepean History 

way the Wittenberg monk b^an before long to be widely known 
outside of Germany as well as within it 

But Erasmus himself, the mighty sovereign of the men of 
letters, refused to take sides in the controversy. He asserted that 
he had not read more than a dozen pages of Luther's writings. 
Although he admitted that " the monarchy of the Roman high 
priest was, in its existing condition, the pest of Christendom," he 
believed that a direct attack upon it would do no good. Luther, 
he urged, would better be discreet and trast that as mankind 
became more intelligent they would outgrow their false ideas, 
rast To Erasmus, man was capable of progress ; cultivate him and 

ler and extend his knowledge, and he would grow better and better, 
""" He was, moreover, a free agent, with, on the whole, upright 

tendencies. To Luther, on the other hand, man was utterly cor- 
rupt, and incapable of a single righteous wish or deed. His 
will was enslaved to evil, and his only hope lay in the recogni- 
tion of his absolute inability to better himself, and in a humble 
reliance upon God's mercy. "By faith, and not by doing "good 
works," could he be saved. 

Erasmus was willing to wait until every one agreed that the 
Church should be reformed. Luther had no patience with an 
institution which seemed to him to be leading souls to destruc- 
tion by inducing men to rely upon their good works. Both men 
realized that they could never agree. For a time they expressed 
respect for each other, but at last they became involved in a 
bitter controversy in which they gave up all pretense to friend- 
ship. Erasmus declared that Luther, by scorning good works 
and declaring that no one could do right, had made his follow 
ers indifferent to their conduct, and that those who accepted 
Luther's teachings straightway became pert, rude fellows, who 
would not take off their hats to him on the street 
ler By 1520, Luther, who gave way at times to his naturally 

'ioSnt violent disposition, had become threatening and abusive and 
■^s^ suggested that the German rulers should punish the church- 
men and force them to refonn thdr conduct "We punish 

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The Revolt of Germany against the Papacy 295 

thieves with the gallows, bandits with the sword, heretics with 
fire ; why should we not, with far greater propriety, attack with 
every kind of weapon these very masters of perdition, the cardi- 
,nals and popes," " The die is cast," he writes to a friend ; " I 
despise Rome's wrath as 1 do her favor ; I will have no recon- 
ciliation or intercourse with her in all time to come. Let her 
condemn and bum my writings. I will, if fire can be found, 
publicly condemn and bum the whole papal law." 

Luther had gained the support of a German knight named Luther'iuid 
Ulrich von Hutten, who was an ardent enemy of the popes. ap]J^,othe 
He and Luther vied with one another durii^ the year 1520 in 'German 
attacking the pope and his representatives. They both pos- 
sessed a fine command of the German language, and they were 
fired by a common hatred of Rome. Hutten had little or none 
of Luther's religious fervor, but he was a bom fighter and he 
could not find colors dark enough in which to picture to his coun- 
trymen the greed of the papal curia, which he described as a 
vast den, to which everything was dragged which could be 
filched from the Germans. 

Of Luther's popular pamphlets, the first really famous one Luther"* 
was his Address to the German Nobility, in which he calls upon /^, gJ^«^ 
the rulers of Germany, especially the knights, to reform the ^"*'^ 
abuses themselves, since he believed that it was vain to wait 
for the Church to do so. He explains that there are three walls 
behind which the papacy had been wont to take refuge when 
any one proposed to remedy its abuses. There was, first, the 
claim that the clergy formed a separate class, superior even to 
the civil mlers, who were not permitted to punish a churchman, 
no matter how bad he was. Secondly, the pope claimed to be 
superior even to the great general assemblies of tlie Church, 
called councils, so that even the representatives of the Church 
itself might not correct him. And, lastiy, the pope assumed the 
sole right, when questions of belief arose, to interpret with 
authority the meaning of the Scriptures ; consequently he could 
not be refuted by arguments from the Bible. 

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296 The Middle Period of European History 

Luther undertook to cast down these defenses by denying, to 
begin with, that there was anything especially sacred about a 
clergyman except the duties which he had been designated to 
perform. If he did not attend to his work, it should be possible 
to deprive him of his office at any moment, just as one would 
turn off an incompetent tailor or fanner, and in that case he 
should become a simple layman again. Luther claimed, more- 
over, that it was the right and duty of the civil government to 
punish a churchman who does wrong just as if he were the 
humblest layman. Whtn this first wall was destroyed the others 
would fall easily enough, for the dominant position of the clergy 
was the very cornerstone of the Medieval Church. 

The Address to the German Nobility doses with a lof^ list 
of evils which must be done away with before Germany can 
become prosperous. Luther saw that his view of religion really 
implied a social revolution. He advocated reducii^ the monas- 
teries to a tenth of their number and permitting those monks 
who were disappointed in the good they got from living in them 
freely to leave. He would not have the monasteries prisons, 
but hospitals and refuges for the soul-sick. He points out the 
evils of pilgrimages and of the numerous church holidays, which 
interfered with daily work. The clergy, he urged, should be 
permitted to marry and have families like other citizens. The 
universities should be reformed, and " the accursed heathen, 
Aristotle," should be cast out from them. 

It should be noted that Luther appeals to the authorities 
not in the name of religion chiefly, but in that of public order 
and prosperity. He says that the money of the Germans flies 
' feather-light " over the Alps to Italy, but it immediately be- 
comes like lead when there is a question of its coming back. 
He showed himself a master of vigorous language, and his 
denunciations of the clergy and the Church resounded like a 
trumpet call in the ears of his countrymen.' 

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The Revolt of Germany against the Papacy 297 

Luther had long expected to be excommunicated. But it was Luther 
not until Jate in 1520 that John Eck, a personal enemy of his, "™"""'' 
arrived in Germany with a papal bull (Fig. 81) condemning 
many of Luther's assertions as heretical and giving him sixty 
days in which to recant Should he fail to return to his senses 
within that time, he and all who adhered to or favored him 
were to be excommunicated, and any place which harbored him 
should fall under the interdict Now, since the highest power in 
Christendom had pronounced Luther a heretic, he should un- 
hesitatingly have been delivered up by the German authorities. 
But no one thought of artesting him. 

The bull irritated the German princes ; whether they liked The German 
Luther or not, they decidedly disliked to have the pope issuing reiuciant to 
commands to them. Then it appeared to them very unfair that ^uS|^^^ 
Luther's personal enemy should have been intrusted with the Luther 
publication of the bull. Even the princes and universities that 
were most friendly to the pope published the bull with great 
reluctance. In many cases the bull was ignored altogether. 
Luther's own sovereign, the elector of Saxony, while no con- 
vert to the new views, was anxious that Luther's case should 
be fairly considered, and continued to protect him. One mighty 
prince, however, the young Emperor Charles V, promptly and 
willingly published the bull ; not, however, as emperor, but as 
ruler of the Austrian dominions and of the Netherlands. Luther's 
works were publicly burned at Louvain, Mayence, and Coli^ne, 
the strongholds of the old theology. 

The Wittenberg professor felt himself forced to oppose him- Luther defies 
self to both pope and emperor. " Hard it is," he exclaimed, ^"^mr, 
" to be forced to contradict ail the prelates and. princes, but ^^'g'tuji 
there is no other way to escape hell and God's anger." Late is*" 

which he sought to overthrow the whole system o£ the sacraments, as it had 
been taught by the theologians. Four of the seven sacraments — ordination, 
marriage, confirmation, and ertreme unction — he rejected altogether. He re- 
vised the conception of the Mass, or the Lord's Supper. The prieat was, in 
his eyes, only a minittrr, in the Protestant sense of the word, one of whose 
chief functions was pieachiog. 

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298 The Middle Period of European History 

in 1520 he summoned his students to witness what he called "a 
pious religious sp)ectacle,'* He had a fire built outside the walls 
of Wittenberg and cast into it Leo X's bull condemning him, 


Fig. 81. The Papal Bull directed against Luther, 1521 

This is a much-reduced reproduction of the title-page of the pojre's bull 

"against the errors of Martin Luther and his followers" as it was 

printed and distributed in Germany. The coat of arms with its "balls" 

is that of the Medici family to which Leo X belonged 

and a copy of the Laws of the Church, together with a volume 
of scholastic theology which he specially disliked 

Yet Luther dreaded disorder. He was certainly sometimes 
reckless and violent in his writings and often said that bloodshed 

b, Google 

The Revolt of Germany against the Papacy 299 

could not be avoided when it should please God to visit his Lmher'a 
judgments upon the stiff-necked and perverse generation of Mwird a 
" Romanists," as the Germans contemptuously called the sup- "o'="' ^"^ 
porters of the pope. Yet he always discounted hasty reform, refonm 
He was reluctant to make changes, except in beUef. He held 
that so long as an institutioD did not actually mislead, it did 
no harm. He was, in short, no fanatic. at heart. 

The Diet at Worms, 1520-1521 

58. The pope's chief representative in Germany, named Ale- Views of the 
ander, wrote as follows to Leo X about, this time: "I am ^^t^f"" 
pretty familiar with the history of this German nation. I know on.PiJiiiip 
their past heresies, councils, and schisms, but never were affairs Geimany 
so serious before. Compared with present conditions, the struggle 
between Henry IV and Gregory VII was as violets and roses. 
. . . These mad dogs are now well equipped with knowledge 
and arms ; they boast that they are no longer ignorant brutes like 
their predecessors ; they claim that Italy has bst the monopoly 
of the sciences and that the Tiber now flows into the Rhine. 
Nine-tenths of the Germans are shouting ' Luther,' and the other 
tenth goes so far at least as ' Death to the Roman curia.' " 

Among the enemies of Luther and his supporters none was Charles V'a 
more important than the young emperor. It was toward the ^y'ViX^ 
end of the year 1520 that Charles came to Germany for the '" 
first time. After being crowned King of the Romans at Aix- 
la-Chapelle, he assumed, with the pope's consent, the title of 
Emperor elect, as his grandfather Maximilian had done. He 
then moved on to the town of Worms, where he was to hold 
his first diet and face the German situation. 

Although scarcely more than a boy in years, Charles had 
already begun to take life very seriously. He had decided that 
Spain, not Germany, was to be the bulwark and citadel of all 
his realms. Like the more enlightened of his Spanish subjects, 
he realized the need of reforming the Church, but he had no 



300 The Middle Period of European History 

sympathy whatever with any change of religious belief. He 
proposed to live and die a devout Catholic of the old type, such 
as his orthodox ancestors had been. He felt, moreover, that he 
must maintain the same religion in all [>arts of his hetert^eneous 
dominions. If he should permit the Germans to declare their 
independence of the Church, the next step would be for them 
to claim that they had a right to regulate their government 
r^^ardless of their emperor. 

Upon arriving at Worms the case of Luther was at once 
forced upon Charles's attention by Aleander, the papal repre- 
sentative, who was indefatigable in urging him to outlaw the 
heretic without further delay. While Charles seemed convinced 
of Luther's guilt, he could not proceed against him without 
serious danger. The monk had become a sort of national hero 
and had the support of the powerful elector of Saxony. Other 
princes, who had ordinarily no wjsh to protect a heretic, felt 
that Luther's denunciation of the evils in the Church and of 
the actions of the pope was very gratifying. After much dis- 
cussion it was finally arranged, to the great disgust of the 
zealous Aleander, that Luther should be summoned to Worms 
and be given an opportunity to face the German nation and 
the emperor, and to declare plainly whether he was the author 
of the heretical books ascribed to him, and whether he still 
adhered to the doctrines which the pope had condemned, 

Tlie emperor accordingly wrote the " honorable and respected " 
Luther a very polite letter, desiring him to appear at Worms 
and granting him a safe-c»nduct thither. 

It was not, however, proposed to give Luther an opportunity 
to defend his beliefs before the diet. When he appeared he 
was simply asked if a pile of his Latin and German works 
were really his, and, if so, whether he revoked what he had 
said in them. To the first question the monk replied in a low 
voice that he had written these and more. As to the second 
question, which involved the welfare of the soul and the Word 
of God, he asked that he might have a little while to consider. 


The Revolt of Germany against the Papacy 301 

The following day, in a Latin address which he repeated in 
German, he admitted that he had been overviolent in his attacks 
upon his opponents ; but he said that no one could deny that, 
through the popes' decrees, the consciences of faithful Chris- 
tians had been tormented, and their goods and possessions, 
especially in Germany, devoured. Should he recant those things 
which he had said against the popes' conduct, he would only 
strengthen the papal tyranny and give an opportunity for new 
usurpations. If, however, adequate arguments ag^nst his posi- 
tion could be found in the Scriptures, he would gladly and 
willingly recant. 

There was now nothing for the emperor to do but to outlaw The empeior 
Luther, who had denied the binding character of the commands |^™(, outlaw 
of the head of the Church. Aleander was accordingly assigned L"*^' 
the agreeable duty of drafting the famous Edict of Worms, 

This document declared Luther an outlaw on the following The Edict of 
grounds: that he questioned the recognized number and char- "™*' ''" 
acter of the sacraments, impeached the regulations in regard 
to the marriage of the clergy, scorned and vilified the pope, 
despised the priesthood and stirred up the laity to dip their 
hands in the blood of the clergy, denied free will, taught licen- 
tiousness, despised authority, advocated a brutish existence, and 
was a menace to Church and State alike. Every one was for- 
bidden to give the heretic food, drink, or shelter, and required 
to seize him and deliver him to the emperor. 

Moreover, the decree provides that " no one shall dare to 
buy, sell, read, preserve, copy, print, or cause to be copied or 
printed, any books of the aforesaid Martin Luther, condemned 
by our holy father the pope, as aforesaid, or any other writings 
in German or I-atin hitherto composed by him, since they are 
foul, noxious, suspected, and published by a notorious and stiff- 
necked heretic. Neither shall any one dare to affirm his opinions, 
or proclaim, defend, or advance them in any other way that human 
ingenuity can invent, — notwithstanding that he may have put 
some good into his writings in order to deceive the simple man." 

C k")0<^ Ic 


The Middle Period of European History 

" I am becoming ashamed of my fatherland," Hutten cried 
when he read the Edict of Worms. So general was the dis- 
approval of the edict that few were willing to pay any attention 
to it Charles V immediately left Germany, and for nearly ten 
years was occupied outside it with the government of Spain 
and a succession of wars. 

The Revolt against the Papacv 

59. As Luther neared Eisenach upon his way home from 
{ Worms he was kidnaped by his friends and conducted to the 
Wartburg, a castle belonging to the elector of Saxony. Here 
he was concealed until any danger from the action of the 
emperor or diet should pass by. His chief occupation during 
several months of hiding was to begin a new translation of 
the Bible into German. He had finished the New Testament 
before he left the Wartburg in March, 1522. 

Up to this time, German editions of the Scriptures, while 
not uncommon, had been poor and obscure. Luther's task was 
a difficult one. He was anxious above all that the Bible should 
be put into language that would seem perfectly clear and natural 
to the common folk. So he went about asking the mothers and 
children and the laborers questions which might draw out the 
expression that he was looking for. It sometimes took him 
two or three weeks to find the right word. But so well did he 
do his work that his Bible may be regarded as a great land- 
mark in the history of the German language. It was the first 
book of any importance written in modem German, and it has 
fumi^ed an imperishable standard for the language. 

Previous to 1518 there had been very few books or pamphlets 
printed in German. The translation of the Bible into language 
so simple that even the unlearned m^ht read it was only 
one of the signs of a general rffort to awaken the minds of the 
n people. Luther's friends and enemies ako commenced 

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The Revolt of Germany against the Papacy 303 

to write for the great German public in its own language. 
The common man began to raise his voice, to the scandal 
of the learned. 

Hundreds of [pamphlets, satires, and cartoons have come 
down to us which indicate that the religious and other ques- 
tions of the day were often treated in somewhat the same 
spirit in which our comic papers deal with political problems 
and discussions now. We find, for instance, a correspondence 
between Leo X and the devil, and a witty dialogue between a 
well-known knight, Franz von Sickingen, and St. Peter at the 
gate of heaven. 

Hitherto there had been a great deal of talk of reform, but Divergent 
as yet notiiii^ had actually been done. There was no sharp h^™e 
line drawn between the different classes of reformers. All ^^™f^ _ 
agreed that something should be done to better the Church ; ally be 
few realized how divergent were the real ends in view. The 
rulers listened to Luther because they were glad ofan excuse 
to get control of the church property and keep money from 
flowing to Kome. The peasants listened because he put the 
Bible in their hands and they found nothir^ there that proved 
that they ought to go on paying the old dues to their lords. 

While Luther was quietly living in the Wartburg, translating The revolt 
the Bible, people began to put his teachings into practice. The ^"' 
monks and nuns left their monasteries in his own tovm of 
Wittenberg, Some of them married, which seemed a very 
wicked thing to all those that held to the old beliefs. The 
students and citizens tore down the images of the saints in 
the churches and opposed the celebration of the Mass, the 
chief Catholic ceremony. 

Luther did not approve of these sudden and violent changes Luther 
and left his hiding place to protest He preached a series of vidint"*™* 
sermons in Wittenberg in which he urged that all alterations reform 
in religious services and practices should be introduced by the 
government and not by ihs people. He said, however, that those 
who wished might leave their monasteries and that those «^ 


304 ike Middle Period of European History 

diose to stay should give up begging and earn tb^ living like 
other people. He predicted that if no one gave any money to 
the Church, popes, bishops, monks, and nuns would in two years 
vanish away like smoke. 

Revolt of the But his counsel was not heeded. First, the German knights 
knighu organized a movement to put the new ideas in practice. Franz 

von Sickingen and Uirich von Hutten, admirers of Luther, at- 
tacked the archbishop of Treves and proclaimed that they were 
going to free his subjects from "the heavy undiristian . yoke of 
the ' parsons ' and lead them to evangelical liberty." But the 
German princes sided with the archbishop and battered down 
Franz von Sickingen's castle with cannon, and Franz was fatally 
injured by a falling beam. Twenty other casdes of the knights 
were destroyed and this put an end to their revolt ; but Luther 
and his teachings were naturally blamed as the real reason for 
the uprisir^. 

The conservative party, who were frankly afraid of Luther, 
received a new and terrible proof, as it seemed to them, of the 
noxious influence of his teachings. In 1525 the serfs rose, in 
the name of " God's justice," to avenge their wrongs and estab- 
lish their rights. Luther was not responsible for the civil war 
which followed, though he had certainly helped to stir up dis- 
content He had asserted, for example, that the German feudal 
lords were hangmen, who knew only how to swindle the poor 
man. " Such fellows were formerly called rascals, but now 
must we call them 'Christian and revered princes,'" Yet in 
spite of his harsh talk about the' princes, Luther really relied 
upon them to forward his movement, and he justly claimed 
that he had gready increased their power by attacking the 
authority of the pope and subjecting the clergy in all things 
to the government 

Some of the demands of the peasants were perfectly "rea- 
sonable. The most popular expression of their needs was the 
dignified " Twelve Articles." ' In these they claimed that the 

'The "Twelve Articles" may be found in Readings, VoL II, chip, ixvl 

Luther's rash 
talk about 
the princes 


The Revolt of Germany against the Papacy 305 

Bible did not sanction any of the dues which the lords de- 
manded of them, and that, since they were Christians like their 
lords, they should no longer be held as serfs. They were willing 
' to pay all the oli and well-established dues, but they asked to 
be properly remunerated for extra services demanded by the 
lord. They thought too that each community should have the 
right freely to choose its own pastor and to dismiss him if he 
proved negligent or inefficient. 

There were, however, leaders who were more violent and Luiher urges 
who proposed to kill the " godless " priests and nobles, Hun- mer«'to"up- 
dreds of castles and monasteries were destroyed by the frantic p^qIj""^ 
peasantry, and some of the nobility were murdered with shock- 
ing cruelty, Luther tried to induce the peasants, with whom, 
as the son of a peasant, he was at first inclined to sympathize, 
to remain quiet; but when his warnings proved vam, he turned 
against them. He declared that they were guilty of the most 
fearful crimes, for which they deserved death of both body and 
soul many times oyer. They had broken their allegiance, they 
had wantonly plundered and robbed castles and monasteries, 
and lasdy, they had tried to cloak their dreadful sins with ex- 
cuses from the Gospels. He therefore urged the government 
to put down the insurrection without pity. 

Luther's advice was followed with terrible literalness by the The peasant 
German rulers, and the nobility took fearful revenge on the jjj^n ^,h 
peasants. In the summer of 1525 their chief leader was de- ei^atcruelfy 
feated and killed, and it is estimated that ten thousand peasants 
were put to death, many with the utmost cruelty. Few of the 
rulers or landlords introduced any reforms, and the misfortunes 
due to the destruction of property and to the despair of the 
peasants cannot be imagined- The people concluded that the 
new gospel was not for them, and talked of Luther as Dr. 
Lijgner, that is, " liar." The old exactions of the lords of the 
manors were in no way lightened, and the situation of the 
serfs for centuries following the great revolt was worse rather 
than better. 

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3o6 The Middle Period of European History 


Division of Germany into Catholic and 
Protestant Countries 

.60. Charles V was occupied at this time by his quarreb with 
Frands I (see p. 279) and was in no portion to return to 
Germany and undertake to enforce the Edict of Worms against 
Luther and his followers. Germany, as we have seen, was 
divided up into hundreds of practically independent countries, 
and the various electors, princes, towns, and knights naturally 
could not agree as to what would best be done in the matter of 
reforming the Church. It became apparent not long after the 
Peasant War that some of the rulers were going to accept 
Luther's idea (hat they need no longer obey the pope but that 
they were free to proceed to regulate the property and affairs 
of the churchmen in their respective domains without r^ard to 
the pope's wishes. Other princes and towns agreed that they 
would remain faithful to the pope if certain reforms were intro- 
duced, especially if the papal taxation were reduced. Southern 
Germany decided for the pope and remains Catholic down to 
the present day. Many of the northern rulers, on the other 
hand, adopted the new teachings, and finally all of them fell 
away from the papacy and became Protestant. 
Action of Since there was no one powerful enough to decide the great 

Speyer, 1516 question for the, whole of Germany, the diet which met at 
Speyer in 1526 deteraiined that pending the summoning of a 
church coundl each ruler should "so live, reign, and conduct'- 
himself as he would be willing to answer before God and His 
Imperial Majesty." For the moment, then, the various German 
governments were left to determine the religion of their subjects. 
Yet everybody still hoped that one religion might ultimately 
be agreed upon. Luther trusted that all Christians would some- 
time acc^t the new gospel. He was willing that the bishops 
should be retained, and even that the pope should still be 
F^arded as a sort of presiding officer in the Church. As 
for his enemies, they were equally confident that the heretics 

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The Revolt of Germany against the Papacy 307 

would in time be suppressed, as they had always been in the 
past, and that harmony would thus be restored. Neith'er party 
was right ; for the decision of the diet of Speyer was destined 
to become a permanent arrangement, and Germany remained 
divided between different religious faiths. 

New sects opposed to the old Church had also begun to CharfesV 
appear. Zwingli, a Swiss reformer, was gaining many followers, ^g" '^Sx 
and the Anabaptists w.ere rousing Luther's apprehensions by ™iie«>u».«»i- 
their radical plans for doing away with the Catholic religion alto- Gennany 
gether. The emperor, finding himself again free for a time to 
attend to German affairs, commanded the diet, which again met 
at Speyer in 1529, to order the enforcement of the Edict of 
Worms against the heretics. No one was to preach against 
the Mass, and no one was to be prevented from attending 
it freely. 

This meant that the " Evangelical " princes would be forced oriein of 
to restore the most characteristic of the Catholic ceremonies, "piSeMant" 
As they formed only a minority in the diet, all that they could 
do was to draw up a protest^ signed by John Frederick, elector 
of Saxony, Philip of'Hesse, and fourteen of the imperial towns 
(Strassburg, Nuremberg, Ulm, etc.). In this they claimed that 
the majority had no right to abrogate the edict of the former 
diet of Speyer, which had been passed unanimously, and which 
all had solemnly pledged themselves to observe. They there- 
fore appealed to the emperor and a future council against 
the tyranny of the majority. Those who signed this appeal 
were called from their action Protestants. Thus originated the 
name which came to be generally applied to those who do not 
accept the rule and teachings of the Roman Catholic Churdi. 

Ever since the diet at Worms the emperor had resided in Prepuatians 
Spain, busied with a succession of wars carried on with the ,3 Augsbi^ 
king of France. It will be remembered that both Charles and 
Francis claimed Milan and the duchy of Burgundy, and they 
sometimes drew the pope into their conflicts. But in rs3o the 
emperor found himself at peace for the moment and came to 


308 The Middle Period of European History 

Germany to bold a brilliant diet of his German subjects at 
Augsburg in the hope of settling the religious problem, which, 
however, he understood very imperfecdy. He ordered the Prot- 
estants to draw up a statement of exacdy what they believed, 
which should serve as a basis for discussion. Melanchthon, 
Luther'^ most famous friend and colleague, who was noted 
for his great learning and moderation, was intrusted with this 
delicate task. 

The Augsburg Confession^ as his declaration was called, is 
a historical document of great importance for the student of 
the Protestant revolt* Melanchthon's gentle dispwsition led him 
to make the differences between his belief and that of the old 
Church seem as few and slight as possible. He showed that 
both parties heW the same fundamental views of Christianity. 
But he defended the Protestants' rejection of a number of the 
practices of the Roman Catholics, such as the celibacy of the 
clergy and the observance of fast days. There was little or 
nothing in the Augsburg Confession concemmg the organization 
of the Church. 

Certain theologians who had been loud in their denunciations 
of Luther were ordered by the emperor to prepare a refutation 
of the Protestant views. The statement of the Catholics ad- 
mitted that a number of Melanchthon's positions were perfectly 
orthodox ; but the portion of the Augsburg Confession which 
dealt with the practical reforms introduced by the Protestants 
was rejected altogether. 

Charles V declared the Catholic statement to be " Christian 
and judicious" and commanded the Protestants to accept it. 
They were to cease troubling the Catholics and were to give 
back all the monasteries and church property which they had 
seized. The emperor agreed, however, to urge the pope to call 
a coundl to meet within a year. This, he hoped, would be able 

DC, zecbvGoogIc 

_^ The Revolt of Germany against the Papacy 309 

to settle all differences and reform the Church according to the ■ ' 
views of the Catholics. 

It is unnecessary to follow in detail the progress of Protestant- Progress of 
ism in Germany during the quarter of a century succeeding the ism up'io'ihe 
diet of Augsburg. Enough has been said to show the character ^"'^l"^ 
of the revolt and the divergent view^ taken by the German isss 
princes and people. For ten years after the emperor left Augs- 
burg he was kept busy in southern. Europe by new wars ; and 
in order to secure the assistance of the Protestants, he was 
forced to let them go their own way. Meanwhile the number 
of rulers who accepted Luther's teachings gradually increased. 
Finally, there was a brief war between Charles and the Protestant 
princes, but there was little fighting done. Charles V brought his 
Spanish soldiers into Germany and captured both John Frederick 
of Saxony and his ally, Philip of Hesse, the chief leaders of the 
Lutheran cause, whom he kept prisoners for several years. 

This episode did not, however, check the progress of Prot- 
estantism. The king of France promised them help against his 
enemy, the emperor, and Charles was forced to agree to a peace 
with the Protestants. 

In ISSS ^^^ religious Peace of Augsburg was ratified. Its The Peace oi 
provisions are memorable. Each German prince and each town "^' "'^ 
and knight immediately under the emperor was to be at liberty 
to make a choice between the beliefs of the venerable Catholic 
Church and those embodied in the Augsburg Confession. If, 
however, an ecclesiastical prince — an archbishop, bishop, or 
abbot — declared himself a Protestant, he must surrender his 
possessions to the Church. Every German was either to con- 
form to the religious practices of his particular state or emi- , 
grate from it. Every one was supposed to be either a Cathoiic 
or a Lutheran, and no provision was made for any other belief. 

This religious peace in no way established freedom of con- 
science, except for the rulers. Their power, it must be noted, 
was greatly increased, inasmuch as they were given the control 
of religious as well as of secular matters. This arrangement 


Jio The Middle Period of European History 

The principle wtiich pennkted the ruler to determine the religimi of his 

gonniiaeDt realm was more natural in those days than it would be in 

SSetiK^' ouiB, The Church and the dvil government had been closely 

icti^ion of iu assodated with one another for centuries. No one as yet 

dreamed that every individual might safely be left quite free 

to believe what he would and to practice any religious rites 

which afforded him help and comfort 


Section 56. What were the sources of discontent with the 
Church in Germany ? What were the views of Erasmus in regard to 
church reform ? 

Section 57. Tetl something of Luther's life before he posted 
up his theses. What was an indulgence? Give some of Luther's 
views cxpresaed in his nine^-five theses. Contrast the opinions of 
Erasmus and Luther. Who wasUlrich vonHutten? Discuss Luther's 
Address to the German Nobility. Why was Luther excommuni- 
cated? What was the fate of the papal bull directed against him? 

Section 58, Why did Charles V summon Luther at Worms? 
What did Luther say to the diet ? What were the chief provisions of 
the Edict of Worms? 

Section 59. Describe Luther's translation of the Bible. What 
was the state of public opinion in Gennany after the diet at Worms f 
What was Luther's attitude toward reform f Why did the German 
peasants revolt? What did the Twelve Articles contain? What 
effect did the peasant war have on Luther ? 

Section 60. What was the origin of the term "Protestant"? 
What was the Augsburg Confesaon ? What were the results of the 
diet of Augsburg? What was the policy of Charles V in regard to 
the Protestants ? What wctc the chief provisions of the Peace of 

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ZwiNGLi AND Calvin 

61. For at least a century after Luther's death the great issue 
between Catholics and Protestants dominates the history of 
all the countries with which we have to do, except Italy and 
Spain, where Protestantism never took permanent rooL In 
Switzerland, England, France, and Holland the revolt against 
the Medieval Church produced discord, wars, and profound 
changes, which must be understood in order to follow the later 
development of these countries. 

We turn first to Switzerland, lying in the midst of the great Origin of th 
chain of the Alps which extends from the Mediterranean to fede^tkMi 
Vienna, During the Middle Ages the region destined to be 
included in the Swiss Confederation formed a part of the Holy 
Roman Empire and was scarcely distinguishable from the rest 
of southern Germany, As eariy as the thirteenth century the 
three " forest " cantons on the shores of the winding lake 
of Lucerne formed a union to protect their liberties against 
the encroachments of their neighbors, the Hapsburgs. It was 
about this tiny nucleus that Switzerland gradually consolidated. 
Lucerne and the free towns of Zurich and Berne soon joined 
the Swiss league. By brave fighting the Swiss were able to frus- 
trate the renewed efforts of the Hapsburgs to subjugate them. 

Various districts in the neighborhood joined the Swiss unk>n 

in succession, and even the region lying on the Italian slopes of 

the Alps was brought under its control. Gradually the bonds 

between the members of the union and the Empire were broken. 


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312 The Middle Period of European History 

In 1499 they were finally freed from the jurisdiction of the 
emperor and Switzerland became a practically independent 
country. Although the original union had been made up of 
German-speaking people, considerable districts had been an- 
nexed in which Italian or French was spoken.* The Swiss did 

The Swiss Confederation in the Sixteenth Century 

not, therefore, form a compact, well-defined nation, and conse- 
quently for some centuries their confederation was weak and 

In Switzerland the first leader of the revolt against the Church 
was a young priest named Zwingli, who was a year younger 

1 This condition has not changed ; oil Swias Uns are still proclaimed in 

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Protestant Revolt in Switzerland and England 313 

than Luther. He fived in the famous monastery of Einsiedeln, zwingii 
near the Lake of Zurich, which was the center of pilgrimages Ij^^^ 
on account of a wonder-workir^ image. " Here," he says, S!Jw'wj 
"I began to preach the Gospel of Christ in the year 1516, "^iiMttlie 
before any one in my locality had so much as heard the name 
of Luther." 

Three years later he was called to an influential position as Zwingii 
preacher in the cathedral of Zurich, and there his great woric die'SuBM 
really commenced. He then began to denounce the abuses in ^hm* md 
the Church as well as the shameless traffic in soldiers, which the traffic Id 
he had long regarded as a blot upon his country's honor.^ 

But the original cantons about the Lake of Lucerne, which 
feared that they might lose the great influence that, in spite 
of their small size, they had hitherto enjoyed, were ready to 
fight for the old faith. The first armed collision between the 
Swiss Protestants and Catholics took place at Kappel in 15311 
and Zwingii fell in the battle. The various cantons and towns 
never came to an agreement in religious matters, and Switzer- 
land b still part Catholic and part Protestant. 

Far more important than Zwingli's teachings, especially for Calvin 
England and America, was the work of Calvin, which was mi^ 
carried on in the ancient city of Geneva, on the very outskirts ct™^"™ 
of the Swiss confederation. It was Calvin who organized tiie 
Presbyterian Church and formulated its beliefs. He was bom 
in northern France in 1509; he belonged, therefore, to the 
second generation of Protestants. He was early influenced by 
the Lutheran teachings, which had already found their way into 
France. A persecution of the Protestants under Francis I drove 
him out of the country and he settled for a time in Basel. 

Here he issued the first editicm of his great work, Hu Insti- c»irin*» 
tutes of Christianity, which has been more widely discussed than oHtti^Mr 

1 Switietland had made a busineas, evei since the time when Charlei VIII 
of France invaded Italy, of supplying troops of mereenariea to fight for odier 
countries, especially for France and the pope. It was the Swisa who gained lh« 
battle of Marignano foi Francis I, and Swiss guards may still be teen in the 
pope's palace. 


314 The Middle Period of European History 

any other Protestant theological treatise. It was the first orderly 
exposition of the principles of Christianity from a Protestant 
Standpoint, and formed a convenient manual for study and dis- 
cussion. The Institutes are based upon the infallibility of the 
Bible and reject the infallibility of the Church and the pope. 
' Calvin possessed a remarkably logical mind and a clear and 
admirable style. The French version of his great work is the 
first example of the successful use of that language in an 
argumentative treatise. 
c»ivin'« Calvin was called to Geneva about 1540 and intrusted with 

inGcMva" the task of reforming the town, which had secured its inde- 
pendence of the Duke of Savoy. He drew up a constitution 
and established an extraordinary government in which the 
^^' Church and the dvil government were as closely associated as 

they had ever been in any Catholic country. Calvin intrusted 
the management of church affairs to the ministers and the 
elders, or/r«^_>*^rj ; hencethename " Presbyterian." The Prot- 
estantism which found its way into France was that of Calvin, 
not that of Luther, and the same may be said of Scotland (see 
bebw, p. 346). 

^ ■, \' -■ ' 

How England fell away from the Papacy 

Erwmiu in 63. When Erasmus came to England about the year 1500 he 
** was delighted with the people he met there. Henry VII was 

still alive. It will be remembered that it was he that brought 
Older into England after the Wars of the Roses. His son, who 
was to become the famous Henry VIII, impressed Erasmus as 
a very promising boy. We may assume that the intell^ent men 
whom Erasmus met in England agreed with him in regard to 
the situation in the Church and the necessity of reform. He 

Here's was a good friend of Sir Thomas More, who is best known 

"*" for his little book called Utopia, which means "Nowhere." 

In it More pictures the happy conditions in an undiscovered 

land where the government was perfect and all the evils that 

Protestant Revolt in Switzerland and England 3 1 5 

he saw about him were done away. It was at More's house 
that Erasmus wrote his liaise 0/ Folly and dedicated it to him. 

Henry VIII came to the English throne when he was eighteen Wolsey's 

years old. His chief adviser, Cardinal Wolsey, deserves great ^ace^d 

credit for having constantly striven to discourage his sovereign's [jj' 'hSi^ 

ambition to take part in the wars on the Continent The cardinal's of powei 

Fig. 83. Henry VHI 

argument that England could become great by peace better than 
by war was a momentous discovery. Peace he felt would be 
best secured by maintaining the balance of power on the Con- 
tinent, so that no ruler should become dangerous by unduly 
extendii^ his sway. For example, he thought it good policy 
to side with Charles V when Francis I was successful, and then 
with Francis after his terrible defeat at Pavia (1525) when he 
fell into the hands of Charles. This idea of the balance of 
power came to be recognized later by the European countries 
as a very important consideration in determining their policy. 


3l6 The Middle Period of European History 

But Wolsey was not long to be permitted to put his enlightened 
ideas in practice. His fall and the progress of Protestantism in 
England are both closely associated with the notorious divorce 
case of Heniy VIII. 
HenryVlir* It will be remembered that Henry had married Catherine 
of Aragon, the aunt of Charles V. Only one of thrir children, 
Mary, survived to grow up. As time went on Henry was very 
anxious to have a son and heir, for he was fearful lest a woman 
might not be permitted to succeed to the throne. Moreover, 
he had tired of Catherine, who was considerably older than he. 
Catherine had first married Henry's older brother, who had 
died almost immediately after the marriage. Since it was 
a violation of the rule of the Church to marry a deceased 
,''""*""-'-i^_ brother's wife, Henry professed to fear that he was commit- 
ting a sin by retaining Catherine as his wife and demanded 
to he divorced from her on the ground that his marriage had 
never been legal His anxiety to rid himself of Catherine was 
greatly increased by the appearance at court of a black-eyed 
girl of sbtteen, named Anne Boleyn, with whom the king fell 
in love. 
Clement VII Unfortunately for his case, his marriage with Catherine had 
divorce been authorized by a dispensation from the pope, so that 

"'"y Clement VII, to whom the king appealed to annul the mar- 

riage, could not, even if he had been willing to run the risk 
of angering the queen's nephew, Charles V, have granted 
Henry's request 
Fallot Wolsey's failure to induce the pope to permit the divorce 

" excited the king's anger, and with rank ingratitude for his 

minister's great services, Henry drove him from office (1529) 
and seized his property. From a life of wealth which was 
fairly regal, Wolsey was precipitated into extreme poverty. 
An imprudent but innocent act of his soon gave his enemies 
a pretext for charging him with treason ; but the unhappy 
man died on his way to London and thus escaped being 
beheaded as a traitor. 

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Protestant Revolt in Switzerland and England 317 

Cardinal Wolsey had been the pope's representative in HeniyVlll 
England. Henry VIII's next move was to declare the whole n^ii'a^jnM 
clergy of England guilty in obeying Wolsey, since an old law ""^p^p*^ 
forbade any papal agent to appear in England without the king's 
consent' The king refused to forgive them until they had 
solemnly acknowledged him supreme head of the English 
Church.* He then induced Parliament to cut off some of 
the pope's revenue from England ; but, as this did not bring 
Clement VII to terms, Henry lost patience and secretly married 
Anne Boleyn, relying on getting a divorce from Catherine later. 

His method was a simple one. He summoned an EngKsh 
church court which dedared his marriage with Catherine null 
and void. He had persuaded Parliament to make a law pro- 
viding that all kwsuits should be definitely decided within the 
realm and in this way cut off the possibiUty of the queen's 
appealii^ to the pope. 

Parliament, which did whatever Henry VIII asked, also de- 
dared Henry's marriage with Catherine unlawful and that with 
Anne Boleyn legaL Consequently it was decreed that Anne's 
daughter Elizabeth, bom in 1533, was to succeed her father on 
the Er^lish throne instead of Mary, the daughter of Catherine. 

In 1534 the English Parliament completed the revolt of the The Act of 

English Church from the pope by assigning to the king the ^'^^^ 

right to appoint all the English prelates and to enjoy all ^!!j,f|., 

the income which had formerly found its way to Rome. In "uthonty 

over England 
the Act of Supremacy, Parliament declared the king to be 

" the only supreme head in earth of the Church of England," 

and that he should enjoy all the powers which the title naturally 

carried with it. 

Two years later every officer in the kingdom was required 

to swear to renounce the authority of the bishop of Rome. 

1 Heniy had, however, agreed that Wolsey should accept the office of papal 

< The clergy only reci^^niied the king as " Head of the Church and Cleigjr 
■o ^ as the bw of Christ will allow." They did not abjure the headship of the 
pope over (he whole Chuidi. 

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3 1 8 The Middle Period of European History 

Refusal to take thb oath was to be adjudged high treason. 
Many wete unwilling to deny the pope's headship merely be- 
cause king and Parliament renounced it, and this legislation 
led to a persecution in the name of treason which was even 
more horrible than that which had been carried on in the sup- 
posed interest of religion. 

It must be carefully observed that Henry VIII -was not a 
Protestant in the Lutheran sense of the word. He was led, 
it is true, by Clement VII's refusal to declare his first mar- 
riage illegal, to break the bond between the English and the 
Roman Church, and to induce the English clergy and Parlia- 
ment to acknowledge the king as supreme head in the religious 
^„__^ as well as in the worldly interests of the country. Important 

as this was, it did not lead Heniy to accept the teachings of 
Protestant leaders, like Luther, Zwingli, or Calvin. 
mty'j Henry was anxious to prove that he was orthodox, espe- 

"e'^im- daily after he had seized the property of the monasteries and 
thoUc™' '^^ sold and jewels which adorned the receptacles in which 
the relics of the saints were kept. He presided in person 
over the trial of one who accepted the opinions of Zwingli, and 
he quoted Scripture to prove the contrary. The prisoner was 
le English condemned and burned as a heretic. Heniy also authorized a 
new translation of the Bible into English. A fine edition of this 
was printed (1539), and every parish was ordered to obtain a 
copy and place it in the parish church, where all the people 
could readily make use of it. 
tnry'm Henty VIII was heartless and despotic. With a barbarity 

not uncommon in those days, he allowed his old friend and 
;ecution of adviser. Sir Thomas More, to be beheaded for refusing to pro- 
ire nounce the marriage with Catherine void. He caused numbers 
of monks to be executed for refusing to swear that his first 
marriage was illegal and for denying his title to supremacy in 
the Church. Others he permitted to die of starvation and 
disease in the filthy prisons of the time. Many Englishmen 
would doubtless have agreed with one of the friars who said 

Protestant Revolt in Switzerland and England 3 19 

humbly : " I profess that it is not out of obstinate malice or a 
mind of rebellion that I do disobey the king, but only for the 
fear of God, that I offend not the Supreme Majesty ; because 
our Holy Mother, the Church, hath decreed and appointed 
otherwise than the king and Parliament hath ordained," 

Henry wanted money; some of the Enghsh abbeys were Dissolution 
rich, and the monks were quite unable to defend themselves ^ah moiu* 
i^ainst the charges which were brought against them. The ^™^ 
king sent commissioners about to inquire into the state of the 
monasteries. A large number of scandalous tales were easily 
collected, some of which were undoubtedly true. The monks 
were doubdess often indolent and sometimes wicked. Never- 
theless they were kind landlords, hospitable to the stranger, 
and good to the poor. The plundering of the smaller monas- 
teries, with which the king began, led to a revolt, due to a 
rumor that the king would next proceed to despoil the parish 
churches as well 

This gave Henry an excuse for attacking the larger monas- 
teries. The abbots and priors who had taken part in the revolt 
were hanged and their monasteries confiscated. Other abbots, 
panic-stricken, confessed that they and their monks had been 
committing the most loathsome sins and asked to be permitted 
to give up their monasteries to the king. The royal- commis- 
sioners then took possession, sold every article upon which they 
could lay hands, including the bells and even the lead on the 
roofs. The picturesque remains of some of the great abbey 
churches are still among the chief objects of interest to the 
Hght-seer in En^and. The monastery lands were, of course, 
appropriated by the king. They were sold for the benefit of 
the government or given to nobles whose favor die king 
wished to secure. 

Along with the destruction of the monasteries went an 
attack upon the shrines and images in the churches, which 
were adorned with gold and jewels. The shrine of St Thomas 
of Canterbury was destroyed, and the bones of the saint were 

C k")0<^ Ic 

320 The Middle Period of Eurvpean History 

Dutniction bumcd. An old wocxlen figure which was revered in Wales 
and image! "3S uscd to make a fire to bum an unfortunate friar who main- 
be "fit of taincd that in religious matters the pope rather than the king 
should be obeyed. These acts resembled the Protestant attadcs 
on images which occurred in Germany, Switzeriand, and the 
Netherlands. The main object of the king and his party was 
probably to get money, although the reason urged for the de- 
struction was the superstitious veneration in whidi the relics 
and images were popularly heki. 
Heniy's tfaiid Heniy's family troubles by no means came to an end 
^^S<rf with his marriage to Anne Boleyn. Of her, too, he soon 
EdwHd VI jjj^ jy,^ (jjree y^ii after their marriage he had her executed 
on a series of monstrous charges. The very next day he married 
his third wife, Jane Seymour, who was the mother of his son 
.' and successor, Eldward VI. Jane died a few days after her 

son's birth, and later Henry married in succession three 
other women, who are historically unimportant, since they left 
no children as claimants for the crown. Henry took care that 
his three children, all of whom were destined to reign, shouM 
be given thar due place in the line of inheritance by act of 
Parliament.' His death in 1547 left the great problem of 
Protestantism and Catholicism to be settled by his son and 

England becomes Protestant 

I 63. While the revolt of England against the papacy was car- 
ried through by the government at a time when the greater part 
of the nation was still Catholic, there was undoubtedly, under 
Henry VIII, an ever-increasing number of aggressive and 
ardent Protestants who applauded the change. During the six 

Henry VIII, m. (i) Catherine m. (i) Anne Boleyn, m. (j) Jane Seymour 

Maiy (1553-1558) Elirabeth (155S-160J) Edwaid VI (iS47-"5S3) 

II was arranged that the son was to succeed to the Itinme. In case he died 
without heirs, Mary and then Eli^ieth were to follow. 

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Protestant Revolt in Switserland and England 321 

years of the boy Edward's reign — he died in 1553 at the 
age of sixteen — those in charge of the government favored 
the Protestant party and did what they could to change the 
faith of all the people by bringing Protestant teachers from 
the Continent. 

A general demolition of all the sacred images was ordered; 
even the beautiful stained glass, the glory of the cathedrals, 

Edward VI, bv Holbein 

This interesting sketch was made before Edward became king, and he 
could have been scarcely six years old, as Holbein died in 1543 

was destroyed, because it often represented saints and angels. 
The king was to appoint bishops without troubling to observe 
the old forms of election, and Protestants began to be put into 
the high offices of the Church. Parliament turned over to the 
king the funds which had been established for the purpose of 
having masses chanted for the dead, and decreed that thereafter 
the clergy should be free to many. 

A prayer book in English was prepared under the auspices 
of Parliament, not very unlike that used in the Church of 

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322 The Middle Period of Eun^ean History 

The prayer England to-day (sec bdow, p. 345), Moreover, forty-two articles 

"Thi^-Nine "^ f^'t^ Were drawn up by the government, which were to 

Amcies" (^ jj^ standard of belief for the country. These, in the time 

of Queen Elizabeth, were revised and reduced to the famous 

Fig. 84. QtjEEN Marv, by Antonio Moro 

This liCelike portrait, in the Madrid collection, is .by a favorite painter 
of Philip II, Mary's husband {see Fig. 87). It was painted about 1554, 
and one gets Che same impresGions of Mary's character from (he por- 
trait that one does from reading about her. Moro had Holbein's skill 
in painting faces 

"Thirty-Nine Articles," which still constitute the creed of the 
Church of England. 

The changes in the church services must have sadly shocked 
a great part of the English people, who had been accustomed 
to watch with awe and expectancy the various acts associated 

Protestant Revolt in Switserland and England 323 

with the many church ceremonies and festivals. Earnest men Ptotenant- 
who deplored die pohcy of those who conducted Edward's d^"^Sed'' 
government in the name of Protestantism must have concluded ^f. Edward'i 
that the reformers were chiefly intent upon, advancing their 
own interests by plundering the Church. We get some idea 
of the desecrations of the time from the fact that Edward was 
forced to forbid " quarreling and shooting in churches " and 
" the bringing of horses and mules through the same, making 
God's house like a stable or common inn." Although many were 
heartily in favor of the recent changes, it is no wonder that after 
Edward's death there was a revulsion in favor of the old religion. 

Edward VI was succeeded in 1553 by his half sister Mary, Queen Maij 
the daughter of Catherine, who had been brought up in the i^^i'aie'^ 
Catholic faith and held firmly to it. Her ardent hope of bring- ^^^ 
ing her kingdom back once more to her religion did not seem 
altogether ill-founded, for the majority of the people were still 
Catholics at heart, and many who were not, disapproved of the 
poUcy of Edward's ministers, who had removed abuses " in the 
devil's own way, by breaking in pieces." 

The Catholic cause appeared, moreover, to be strengthened 
by Mary's marriage with the Spanish prince, Philip II, the son 
of the orthodox Charles V. But although Philip later distin- 
guished himself, as we shall see, by the merciless way in which 
he strove to put down heresy within his realms, he never gained 
any great influence in England, By his marriage with Mary he 
acquired the title of king, but the English took care that he 
should have no hand in the government nor be permitted to 
succeed his wife on the English throne. 

Mary succeeded in bringing about a nominal reconciliation ' 
between England and the Roman Church. In 1554 the papa! 
legate restored to the communion of the Catholic Church the 
" Kneeling " Parliament, which theoretically, of course, repre- 
sented the nation. 

During the last four years of Mary's reign the most serious 
religious persecution in English history occurred. No less than 

C k")0<^ Ic 

324 The Middle Period of European History 

two hundred and seventy-seven persons were put to death for 
denying the teachings of the Roman Church. The majority of 
die victims were humble artisans and hushandmen. The three 
most notable sufFereis were the bishops Cranmer, Latimer, and 
Ridley, who were burned in Oxford. 

It was Mary's hope and belief that the heretics sent to the 
stake would furnish a terrible warning to the Protestants and 
diedc the spread of the new teachings, but Catholicism was not 
promoted ; on the contrary, doubters were only convinced of the 
earnestness of the Protestants who ooulddie with such constancy. 

The Catholics, it should be noted, later suffered serious per- 
secution under Elizabeth and James I, the Protestant successors 
of Mary. Death was the penalty fixed in many cases for those 
who obstinately refused to recognize the monarch as the right- 
ful head of the English Church, and heavy fines were imposed 
for the failure to attend Protestant worship. Two hundred 
Catholic priests are said to have been executed under Elizabeth, 
Mary's sister, who succeeded her on the throne ; others were 
tortured or perished miserably in prison. 

Section 6i. How did the Swiss Confederation originate? De- 
scribe the reforms begun by Zwingli. Who was Calvin, and what are 
his claims to distinction ? 

Section 6z. Mention the chief contemporaries of Erasmus. 
What was the policy of Wolacyf Describe the. divorce case of 
Henry VIH. In what way did Henry VIII break away from the 
papacy? What reforms did he introduce? What was the dissolution 
of the monasteries > 

Section 63. What happened during the reign of Edward VI ? 
What was the policy of Queen MaiyF 

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the wars of relioion 

The Council of Trent; the Jesuits 

64. In the preceding chapters we have seen how northern Ger- 
many, England, and portions of Switzerland revolted from the 
papacy and established independent Protestant churches. A great 
part of western Europe, however, remained faithful to the pope 
and to the old beliefs which had been accepted for so many cen- 
turies. In order to consider the great question of reforming the 
Catholic Church and to settle disputed quesdons of religious be- 
lief a great church council was summoned by the pope to meet 
in Trent, on the confines of Germany and Italy, in the year 1545. 
Charles V hoped that the Protestants would come to the coun- 
c3 and that their ideas might even yet be reconciled with those 
of the Catholics. But the Protestants did not come, for they 
were too suspicious of an assembly called by the pope to have 
any confidence in its decisions. 

The Council of Trent was interrupted after a few sessions Coancil 
and did not complete its work for nearly twenty years after it "545^563 
first met. It naturally condemned the Protestant beliefs so far 
as they differed from the views held by the Catholics, and it 
sanctioned those doctrines which the Catholic Church still holds. 
It accepted the pope as the head of the Church; it declared 
accursed any one who, like Luther, believed that man would be 
saved by faith in God's promises alone; for the Church held 
that man, with God's help, could increase his hope of salvation 
by good works. It ratified all the seven sacraments, several of 
which the Protestants had rejected. The ancient Latin transla- 
tion of the Bible — the Vulgate, as it is called — was proclaimed 

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326 The Middle Period of European History 

the standard of belief, and no one was to publish any views 
about the Bible differing from those approved by the Church. 
' The Council suggested that the pope's officials should com- 
pile a list of dangerous books which faithful Catholics might 
not read for fear that their faith in the old Church would be 
disturbed Accordingly, after the Coundl broke up, the pope 
issued the first " Index," or list of books which were not to be 
further printed or circulated on account of the false religbus 
teachings they contained. Similar lists have since been printed 
from time to time. The establishment of this " Index of Pro- 
hibited Books " was one of the most famous of the Council's 
acts. It was hoped that in this way the spread of heretical and 
immoral ideas through the printmg press could be checked. 

Although the Council of Trent would make no compromise* 
with the Protestants, it took measures to do away with certain 
abuses of which both Protestants and devout Catholics com- 
plained. All clergymen were to attend strictly to their duties, ' 
and no one was to be appointed who merely wanted the incom"e~--_ 
from his office. The bishops were ordered to preach regularly 
and to see that only good men were ordained priests. A great 
improvement actually took place — better men were placed in 
office and many practices which had formerly irritated the people 
were permanently abolished. 

Among those who, during the final sessions of the Council, 
sturdily opposed every attempt to reduce in any way the exalted 
power of the pope, was the head of a new religious society 
which was becoming the most powerful Catholic organization in 
Europe. The Jesuit order, or Society of Jesus, was foimded by a 
Spaniard, Ignatius Loyola. He had been a soldier in his younger 
days, and while bravely fighting for his king, Charles V, had 
been wounded by a cannon ball (1521). Obliged to lie inactive 
for weeks, he occupied his time in reading the lives of the saints 
and became filled with a burning ambition to emulate their 
deeds. Upon recovering, he dedicated himself to the service of 
die Church, doimed a be^ar's gown, and started on a pi^iimage 

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I la 



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328 The Middle Period of European History 

to Jerusalem. Once there he began to realize that he could 

do little without an education. So he returned to Spain and, 
although akeady thirty-three years old, took his place beside 
the boys who were learning the elements of Latin grammar. 
After two years he entered a Spanish university, and later went 
to Paris to carry on his theological studies. 

In Paris he sought to influence his fellow students at the uni- 
versity, and finally, in 1534, seven of his companions agreed to 
follow him to Palestine or, if they were prevented from doing 
that, to devote themselves to the service of the pope. On arriv- 
ing in Venice they found that war had broken out between that 
republic and the Turks, They accordingly gave up their plan for 
converting the infidels in the Orient and began to preach in the 
neighboring towns. When asked to what order they belonged, 
they replied, " To the Society of Jesus." 

In 1538 Loyola summoned his followers to Rome, and there 
they worked out the principles of their order. When this had 
been done the pope gave his sanction to the new society.* 
Loyola had been a soldier, and he laid great and constant stress 
upon absolute and unquestioning obedience. This he declared 
to be the mother of afl virtue and happiness. Not only were all 
the members to obey the pope as Christ's representative on 
earth, and to undertake without hesitation any journey, no matter 
how distant or perilous, which he might command, but each was 
to obey his superiors in the order as if he were receiving direc- 
tions from Christ in person. He must have no will or prefer- 
ence of his own, but must be as the staff which supports and 
aids its bearer in any way in which he sees fit to use it. This 
admirable organization and incomparable discipline were the 
great secret of the later influence of the Jesuits. 

The object of the society was to cultivate piety and the love 
of God, especially through example. The members were to 
pledge themselves to lead a pure life of poverty and devotion. 
A great number of its members were priests, who went about 

* See Riadings, Vol. 11, chap, nviil. 


The Wars of Religion 329 

preadiing, hearing confession, and encouraging devotional exer- 
cises. But the Jesuits were teachers as well as preachers and 
confessors. They clearly perceived the advantage of bringing 
young people under their infiuence ; they opened schools and 
seminaries and soon became the schoolmasters of Catholic 

Fig. 86. Principal Jesurr Church in Venice 

The Jesuits believed in erecting magnificent churches. This is a good 
example. The walls are inlaid with green marble in an elaborate pat- 
tern, and all the furnishings are very rich and gorgeous 

Europe. So successful were their methods of instruction that 
even Protestants sometimes sent their children to them. 

Before the death of Loyola over a thousand persons had Rapid ta- 
joined the society. Under his successor the number was trebled, j^uit* in 
and it went on increasing for two centuries. The founder of ""^i*" 
the order had been, as we have seen, attracted to missionary 
work from the first, and the Jesuits rapidly spread not only 
over Europe but throughout the whole world. Francis Xavier, 

C k")0<^ Ic 

3 so The Middle Period of European History 

one of Leila's original little band, went to Hindustan, the 
Moluccas, and Japan. Brazil, Florida, Mexico, and Peru were 
soon fields of active missionary work at a time when Protestants 
as yet scarcely dreamed of carrying Cliristianity to the heathen. 
We owe to the Jesuits' reports much of our knowledge of the con- 
dition of America when white men first began to explore Canada 
and the Mississippi valley, for the followers of Loyola boldly pene- 
trated into regions unknown to Europeans, and settled among 
the natives with the purpose of bring^g the Gospel to them. 

Dedicated as they were to the service of the pope, the Jesuits 
early directed their energies against Protestantism. They sent 
thtir members into Germany and the Netherlands, and evrai 
made strenuous efforts to reclaim England, Their success was 
most apparent in southern Germany and Austria, where they 
became the confessors and confidential advisers of the rulers. 
They not only succeeded in checking the progress of Protestant- 
ism, but were able to reconquer for the Catholic Church some 
districts in which the old faith had been abandoned. 

Protestants soon realized that the new order was their most 
powerful and dangerous enemy. Their apprehensions produced 
a bitter hatred which blinded them to the high purposes of the 
fotmders of the order and led them to attribute an evil purpose 
to every act of the Jesuits. The Jesuits' air of humility the 
Protestants declared to be mere hypocrisy under which they 
carried on their intrigues. They were popularly supposed to 
justify the most deceitful and immoral measures on the ground 
that the result would be " for the greater glory of God." The 
very obedience on which the Jesuits laid such stress was viewed 
by the hostile Protestant as one of their worst oiTenseE, for he 
believed that the members of the order were the blind tools of 
their superiors and that they would not hesitate even to cconmit 
a crime if so ordered.^ 

1 As time went an the Jeau<t ordet d^enerued just u the earlier ones bad 
done. In the eighteenth centuty it undertook great eommercial enterprises, 
and for tliU and other reaHna loit the confidence and icapect of even the 

The Wars of Religion 331 

Philip II and the Revolt of the Netherlands 

65. The chief ally of the pope and the Jesuits in their efforts Phiih) 11, ihe 
to check Protestantism in the latter half of the sixteenth century of Pwe™'^ 
was the son of Charles V, Philip II. Like the Jesuits he enjoys ^"n™ti,B 
a most unenviable reputation among Protestants. Certain it is ™iers of 
that they had no more terrible enemy among the rulers of the 
day than he. He eageriy forwarded every plan to attack Eng- 
land's Protestant queen, Elizabeth, and finally manned a mighty 
fleet with the purpose of overthrowing her (see below, p. 350). 
He resorted, moreover, to great cruelty in his attempts to bring 
back his possessions in the Netherlands to what he believed to 
be the true faith. 

Charles V, crippled with the gout and old before his time, Divlsi™ of 
laid down the cares of government in 1555-1556- To his Mwewioiw* 
brother Ferdinand, who had acquired by marriage the king- ™*««" '•'« 
doms of Bohemia and Hungary, Charles had earlier trans- Spanish 
ferred the German possessions of the Hapsburgs. To his 
son, Philip II (1556-1598), he gave Spain with its great 
American colonies, Milan, the kingdom of the Two Sicilies, 
and the Netherlands.' 

Calhotics. The king 0/ Portugal was the first to banish the Jesuits from his 
kingdom, and then France, where Ihey had long l«en very unpopular with an 
Influential par^ of the Catholics, npelled them in 1764. Convinced diat the 
order had outgrown its usefulness, the pope aboiished it in 17?}. It was, however, 

1 Division of the Hapsbur^posseBsions between the Spanish and the German 
Maiiinilian I (d. 1519), m. Mary of Burgundy (d. 14S2) 

Philip (d. 1506), m. Joanna the Insane (d. 1555) 

Charles y(d. 1558 
Emperor 1519-155 


inherits Spain, (he Netherlands, 

and the Italian possessions of Hungary, and the Austrian pos. 

the Hapsburgs sessions of the Hapsburgs 

The map of Europe in the sixteenth century (see above, p. 278) indicates the 
nut extent of the combined possessions of the Spanish and German Hapsburgs, 


332 The Middle Period of European History 

Charles had constantly striven to maintain the old religkn 
within his dominions. He had never hesitated to use the Inqui- 
sition in Spain and the Netherlands, and it was the great dis- 
appointment of his life that a part of his empire had beconxe 
Protestant. He was, nevertheless, no fanadc. Like many of 
the princes of the time, he was forced to take sides on the 
religious question without, perhaps, himself having any deep 
religious sentiments. The maintenance of the CUhoUc faith 
he believed to be necessary in order that he should keep his 
hold upon his scattered and diverse dominions. 

On the other hand, the whole life and poUcy of his son Philip 
were guided by a fervent attachment to the old religion. He 
was willing to sacrifice both himself and his country in his long 
fight against the detested Protestants within and without his 
realms. And he had vast resources at his disposal, for Spain 
was a strong power, not only on account of her income from 
America, but also because her soldiers and their commanders 
were the best in Europe at this period. 

The Netherlands, which were to cause Philip his first and 
greatest trouble, included seventeen provinces which Charles V 
had inherited from his grandmother, Mary of Burgundy. They 
occupied the position on the map where we now find the king- 
doms of Holland and Belgium. Each of the provinces had its 
own government, but Charles V had grouped them together and 
arranged that the German Empire should protect them. In the 
nori^ the hardy Germanic population had been able, by means 
of dikes which kept out the sea, to reclaim large tracts of low- 
lands. Here considerable cities had grown ' up — Harlem, 
Leyden, Amsterdam, and Rotterdam.' To the south were the 
flourishing towns of Ghent, Bruges, Brussels, and Antwerp, 
which had for hundreds of years been centers of manufacture 
and trade. 

Charles V, in spite of some very harsh measures, had retained 
die loyalty of the people of the Netherlands, for he was himself 
one of them, and they felt a patriotic pride in his achievements. 

The Wars of Religion 333 

Toward Philip II their attitude was very different. His haughty PhiUp ii'« 
manner made a disagreeable impression upon the people at tudetmraid 
Brussels when his father first introduced him to them as their ^^^"'"^ 
future ruler. He was to them a Spaniard and a foreigner, and 
he ruled them as such after he returned to Spain. 

Fig, 87. Phiup II, by Anto.sio Moko 

Instead of attempting to win them by meeting their legitimate 
demands, he did everything to alienate all classes in his Bur- 
gundian realm and to increase their natural hatred and suspidon 
of the Spaniards, The people were forced to house Spanish 
soldiers whose insolence drove them nearly to desperation. 

What was still worse, Philip proposed that the Inquisition The inqu 
(see above, p. 189) should cany on its work far more actively Netheilai: 
than hitherto and put an end to the heresy which appeared to 


334 ^-^^ Middle Period of European History 

him to defile his fair realms. The Inquisition was no new thing 

to the provinces. Charles V had issued the most cruel edicts 
against the followers of Luther, ZwingU, and Calvin, According 
to a law of 1550, heretics who persistently refused to recant 
were lo be burned alive. Even those who confessed their errors 
and abjured their heresy were, if men, to lose their heads ; if 
women, to be buried alive. In either case their property was 
to be confiscated. The lowest estimate of those who were 
executed in the Netherlands durir^ Charles's reign is fifty thou- 
sand Although these terrible laws had not checked the growth 
of Protestantism, all of Charles's decrees were solemnly re- 
enacted by Philip in the first month of his reign. 
Praiest For ten years the people suffered Philip's rule ; nevertheless 

^mp's their king, instead of listening to the protests of their leaders, 

policy ^ho were quite as earnest Catholics as himself, appeared to be 

bent on the destruction of the land. So in 1566 some five hun- 
dred of the nobles ventured to protest against Philip's policy. 
Thereupon Philip took a step which led finally to the revolt of 
PhUip sends the Netherlands. He decided to dispatch to the low countries 
Alva to the the remorseless Duke of Alva, whose conduct has made his 
name synonymous with blind and unmeasured cruelty. 

The report that Alva was coming caused the flight of many 
of those who espedally feared his approach. William of Orange, 
who was to be the leader in the approaching war against Spain, 
went to Germany. Thousands of Flemish weavers fled across 
the North Sea, and the products of their looms became before 
long an important article of export from England. 

Alva brought with him a fine army of Spanish soldiers, ten 
thousand in number and superbly equipped. He appeared to 
think that the wisest and quickest way of pacifying the discon- 
tented provinces was to kill all those who ventured to criticize 
" the best of kings," of whom he had the honor to be the 
faithful servant He accordingly established a special court 
for the speedy trial and condemnation of all those whose 
fidelity to Philip was suspected. This was popularly known as 

Alvau . . 


The Wars of Religion 335 

the Council of Blood, for its aim was not justice but butcheiy. The Council 
Alva's administfation from 1567 to 1573 was a veritable reign 
of terror. 

The Netherlands found a leader in William, Prince of Orange wiiuam of 
and Count of Nassau. He is a national hero whose career caUe^he 
bears a striking resemblance to that of Washington. Like the ^ig"'' '^^^~ 
American patriot, he undertook the seemingly hopeless task of 
freeing his people from the oppressive rule of a distant king. 
To the Spaniards he appeared to be only an impoverished 
nobleman at the head of a handful of armed peasants and fisher- 
men, contending against the sovereign of the richest realm in 
the worU. 

William had been a faithful subject of Charles V and would William the 
gladly have continued to serve his son after him had the ijcuan'annv- 
oppression and injustice of the Spanish dominion not become 
intolerable. But Alva's policy convinced him that it was use- 
less to send any more complaints to Philip. He accordingly 
collected a litde army in 1568 and opened the long stru^le 
with Spain. 

William found his main support in the northern provinces, Differences 
of which Holland was the chief. The Dutch, who had very SoSfe™*''^ 
generally accepted Protestant teachings, were purely German J^"^^' 
in blood, while the people of the southern provinces, who provinces 
adhered (as they still do) to the Roman Cathohc faith, were southern 
more akin to the population of northern France. 

The Spanish soldiers found little trouble in defeating the William 
troops which William collected. Like Washington, again, he toSemorof 
seemed to lose almost every battle and yet was never con- \^^^^^ 
quered. The first successes of the Dutch were gamed by the i57» 
mariners who captured Spanish ships and sold them in Protestant 
England. Encouraged by this, many of the towns in the northern 
provinces of Holland and Zealand ventured to choose William 
as their governor, although they did not throw off their allegiance 
to Philip. In this way these two provinces became the nucleus 
of the United Netherlands. 



Spain, 1576 

of Spain, 

336 T%€ MidMe Period q^ European History 

Alva recaptured a number of the revolted towns and treated 
their inhabitants ~with his customary cruelty ; even women and 
children were slaughtered in cold blood. But instead of qu^ch- 
tng the rebellion, he aroused the Catholic southern provinces 
to revolt 

After six years of this tyrannical and mistaken policy, Alva 
was recalled. His successor soon died and left matters worse 
than ever. The leaderless soldiers, trained in Alva's school, 
indulged in wild orgies of robbery and murder; they plun- 
dered and partially reduced to ashes the rich city of Antwerp. 
The " Spanish fury," as this outbreak was called, together with 
the hated taxes, created such general indignation that repre- 
sentatives from all of Philip's Burgundian provinces met at 
Ghent in 1576 with the purpose of combining to put an end 
to the Spanish tyranny. 

This union was, however, only temporary. Wiser and more 
moderate governors were sent by Philip to the Netherlands, 
and they soon succeeded in again winning the confidence of 
the southern Catholic provinces. So the northern provinces went 
their own way. Guided by William the Silent, they refused to 
consider the idea of again recognizing Philip as their icing. In 
1579 seven provinces (Holland, Zealand, Utrecht, Gelderland, 
Overyssel, Groningen, and Friesland, all lying north of the 
mouths of the Rhine and the Scheldt) formed the new and 
firmer Union of Utrecht. The artides of this union served as 
a constitution for the United Provinces which, two years later, 
at last formally declared themselves independent of Spaia 

Philip realized that William was the soul of the revolt and 
that without him it might not improbably have been put 
down. The king therefore offered a patent of nobility and 
a large sum of money to any one who should make way with 
the Dutch patriot. After several unsuccessful attempts, William, 
who had been chosen hereditary governor of the United Prov- 
inces, was shot in his house at Delft, 1584. He died praying 
the Lord to have' pity upon his soul and " on this poor people." 

The Wars of Religion 337 

The Duteh had long hoped for aid from Queen Elizabeth or Reuons vhy 
from the French, but had heretofore been disappointed. At aJ^li^^mn 
last the English queen decided to send troops to their assistance, l^nj^^ 
While the English rendered but little actual help, Elizabeth's 
policy so enraged Philip that he at last decided to attempt the 
(xtnquest of England. The destruction of the "Armada," the 
great fleet which he equipped for that purpose,' interfered with 
further attempts to subjugate the United Provinces, which might 
otherwise have failed to maintain their liberty. Moreover, Spain's 
resources were being rapidly exhausted, and the State was on the 
vei^e of bankruptcy in spite of the wealth which it had been draw- independ- 
ing from across the sea. But even though Spain had to surrender united 
the hope of winning back the lost provinces, which now became a ^"j^jjj,"' 
small but important European power, she refused formally to edged by 
acknowledge their independence until 1648 (Peace of Westphalia). ' 

'■''■'' The Huguenot Wahs in France 

66. TTie history of France during the latter part of the so.- Beginnings 
teenth century is little more than a chronicle of a long and taniiam in 
bloody series of civil wars between the Catholics and Protestants, f^^* 

Protestantism began in France in much the same way as in 
England. Those who had learned from the Italians to love the 
Greek language turned to the New Testament in the original 
and commenced to study it with new insight. Leffevre, the most Leftvre, 
conspicuous of these Erasmus-like reformers, transbted the '*5'^'537 
Bible into French and began to preach justification by faith 
before be had ever heard of Luther. 

The Sorbonnc, the famous theological school at PariSi soon Persecufion 
, , r .. - T ■ . ., of the Protes- 

began to arouse the suspicions of trancis 1 against the new tants under 

ideas. He had no special interest in religious matters, but he ^^^'^ ' 

was shocked by an act of desecration ascribed to the Protestants, 

and in consequence forbade the circulation of Protestant books. 

About 1535 several adherents of the new faith were burned, 

1 See beiow, p. is*. 

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Fluids II, 
Mary Queen 
of Scots, and 
the Guises 

The queen- 
CatheriDc of 

338 The Middle Period of European History 

and Calvin was forced to flee to Basel, where he prepared a 
defense of his beliefs in his Institutes of Ckristianiiy (see above, 
p. 313). This is prefaced by a letter to Francis in which he pleads 
with hhn to protect the Protestants,^ Francis, before his death, 
became so intolerant that he ordered the massacre of three 
thousand defensetess peasants who dwelt on the ^pes of the 
Alps, and whose only offense was adherence to the simple 
teachings of the Waldensians.* 

Francis's son, Henry II (1547-1559), swore to extirpate the 
Protestants, and hundreds of them were burned. -Nevertheless, 
Henry II's religious convictions did not prevent him from will- 
ingly aiding the German Protestants against his enemy Charles V, 
especially when they agreed to hand over to him three bish- 
oprics which lay on the French boundary — Metz, Verdun, 
and Toul. 

Henry II was accidentally killed in a tourney and left his 
kingdom to three weak sons, the last scions of the House of 
Valois, who succeeded in turn to the throne during a period of 
unprecedented civil war and public calamity. The eldest son, 
Francis II, a boy of sixteen, followed his father. His chief im- 
portance for France arose from his marriage with the daughter 
of King James V of Scotland, Mary Stuart, who became famous 
as Mary Queen of Scots. Her mother was the sister of two 
very ambitious French nobles, the Duke of Guise and the cardinal 
of Lorraine, Francis II was so young that Mary's uncles, the 
Guises, eagerly seized the opportunity to manage his affairs for 
him. The duke put himself at the head of the army, and the 
cardinal of the government. When the king died, after reigning 
but a year, the Guises were naturally reluctant to surrender their 
power, and many of the woes of France for the next forty years 
were due to the machinations which they carried on in the name 
of the Holy Catholic religion. 

The new king, Charles IX (1560-1574), was but ten years 
old, so that his mother, Catherine of Medici, of the famous 

ISeeffM^iB^-i, Vol.Il, chap, nviii. * See above, p, tSS, 


The Wars of Religion ' 339 

Florentine family, claimed the right to conduct the govern- 
ment for her son until he reached manhood. 

By this time the Protestants in France had become a power- 
ful party. They were known as Huguenots ^ and accepted the 

religious teachings of their fellow countryman, Calvin. Many The Hueue- 

of them, including their great leader Coligny, belonged to the "heirmlitical 

nobility. They had a strong support in the king of the litde ^""^ 
realm of Navarre, on the southern boundary of-France. He 

1 The origin of thia name ii uncertain. 

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34^ The Middle Period of Eurt^an History 



^|'1■s SI 







D.D.t.zea by Google 

The Wars of Religion 341' 

bdonged to a side line of the French royal house, known as The 
the Bourbons, who were later to occupy the French throne 
(see genealogical table, opposite). It was inevitable that the 
Huguenots should tiy to get control of the government, and 
they consequoitly fonned a political as well as a religioits par^ 
and were often fighting, in the main, for worldly ends. 

Catherine tried at first to conciliate both Catholics and Hu- Catherine 
guenots, and granted a Decree of Toleration (i 562) suspending iSomif'^ 
the former edicts against the Protestants and permitting them J?'J^*™ 
to assemble for worship during the daytime and outside of the Proteitaau, 
towns. Even this restricted toleration of the Protestants ap- 
peared an abomination to the more fanatical Catholics, and 
a savage act of the Duke of Guise precipitated civil war. 

As he was passing through the town of Vassy on a Sunday The maua- 
hc found a thousand Huguenots assembled in a bam for wor- ^j'Jhe "*'' 
ship. The duke's foUowers rudely interrupted the service, and ^"^j^"*, 
a tumult arose in which the troops killed a considerable num- leligiau 
ber of the defenseless multitude. The news of this massacre 
aroused the Huguenots and was the beginning of a war which 
continued, broken only by short truces, until the last weak ' 
descendant of the House of Valois ceased to reign. As in the 
other religious wars of the time, both sides exhibited the most 
inhuman cruelty. France was filled for a generation with 
burnings, pillage, and every form of barbarity. The leaders 
of both the Catholic and Protestant parties, as well as two of 
the French kings themselves, fell by the hands of assassins, 
and France renewed in civil war all the horrors of the English 
invasion in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. 

In 1570 a brief peace was concluded. The Huguenots were Coligny'* 
to be tolerated, and certain towns were assigned to them, plan for a 
where they might defend themselves in case of renewed attacks J?f^^j' *" 
from the Catholics. For a time both Charles IX and his mother, Philip 11 
Catherine of Medici, were on the friendliest terms with the Hu- 
guenot leader Coligny, who became a sort of prime minister. 
He was anxious that Catholics and Protestants should join in 


342 The Middle Period of European History 

a great national war against France's old enemy, Spain. In this 
way the whole people of France might sink their religious dif- 
ferences in a patriotic effort to win Franche<:omt^ (see above, 
p. 279), which seemed naturally to belong to France rather 
than to Spain. 

The strict Catholic party of the Guises frustrated this plan 
by a most fearful expedient. They easily induced Catherine 
of Medici to believe that she was being deceived by Coligny, 
and an assassin was engaged to put him out of the way ; but 
the scoundrel missed his aim and only wounded his victim. 
Fearful lest the young king, who was faithful to Coligny, 
should discover her part in the attempted murder, Catherine 
invented a story of a great Huguenot conspiracy. The credu- 
lous king was deceived, and the Catholic leaders at Paris ar- 
ranged that at a given signal not only Coligny, but all the 
Huguenots, who had gathered in great numbers in the dty to 
witness the marriage of the king's sister to the Protestant Henry 
of Navarre, should be massacred on the eve of St. Bartholomew's 
Day (August 23, 1572). 

The ^nal was duly given, and no less than two thousand 
persons were ruthlessly murdered in Paris before the end of 
the next day. The news of this attack spread into the prov- 
mces, and it is probable ■ that, at the very least, ten thousand 
more Protestants were put to death outside of the capital. 
Civil war again broke out, and the Catholics formed the famous 
Hoiy League, under the leadership of Henry of Guise, for the 
advancement of their interests, the destruction of the Hugue- 
nots, and the extirpation of heresy. 

Henry III (1574-1589), the last of the sons of Henry II, 
who succeeded Charles IX, had no heirs, and the great question 
of succession arose. The Huguenot Henry of Navarre was 
the nearest male relative, but the League could never consent 
to permit the throne of France to be sullied by heresy, espe- 
cially as their leader, Henry of Guise, was himself anxious to 
become king. 

3 by Google 

The Wars of Religion 343 

Henry III was driven weakly from one party to the other, Warofthe 
and it iinally came to a war between the three Henrys — H^jys, 
Henrylll, Henry of Navarre, and Henry of Guise (1585-1589). 'S^S-'SKe 
It ended in a way characteristic of the times, Henry the king 
had Henry of Guise assassinated. The sympathizers of the 

Fig. 89. Henry IV of France 

"niis spirited portrait of Henry of Navarre gives aj 
impression of bis geniality and good sens 

League then assassinated Heruy the king, which left the field 
to Henry of Navarre. He ascended the throne as Henry IV 
in 1589 and is an heroic figure in the line of French kings. 

The new king had many enemies, and his kingdom was 1 
devastated and demoralized by years of war. He soon saw that \ 
he must accept the religion of the majority of his people if he 
wished to reign over them. He accordingly asked to be read- 
mitted to the Catholic Church (1593), excusing himself on the 


344 ^^ Middle Period of European History 

ground that " Fans was worth a mass." He dU not forget his 
old friends, however, and in 1 598 he issued the Bkiict of Nantes. 
The Edict ot By this edict of toleration the Calvinists were permitted to 
hold services in all the towns and villages where they had pre- 
viously held them, but in Paris and a number of other towns 
all Protestant services were prohibited. The Protestants were 
to enjoy the same polilical rights as Catholics, and to be eligible 
to government offices. A number of fortified towns were to 
remain in the hands of the Huguenots, particularly La Rochelle, 
Montauban, and Nimes. Henry's only mistake lay in granting 
the Huguenots the right to control fortified towns. In the next 
generation this privilege aroused the suspidon of the king's 
minister, Richelieu, who attacked the Huguenots, not so much 
on religious grounds as on account of their independent position 
in the state, which suggested that of the older feudal nobles. 
Henry IV chose Sully, an upright and able Calvinist, for his 


chief minister. Sully set to wor-k to reestablish the kingly power, 

which had suffered greatly under the last three brothers of the 
House of Valois. He undertook to lighten the tremendous burden 
of debt which weighed upon the country. He laid out new roads 
and canals, and encouraged agriculture and commerce ; he dis- 
missed the useless noblemen and officers whom the government 
was supporting without any advantage to itself. Had his ad- 
ministration not been prematurely interrupted, it might have 
brought France unprecedented power and prosperity ; but reli- 
gious fanatidsm put an end to his reforms. 
Asiutiiutlon In 1610 Henry IV, like William the Silent, was assassinated 
1610^"^ ' just in the midst of his greatest usefulness to his country. Sully 
could not agree with the regent, Henry's widow, and so gave 
up his position and retired to private life, 
Richelieu Before many years Richelieu, perhaps the greatest minister 

France has ever had, rose to power, and from 1624 to his death 
in 1642 he governed France for Henry IV's son, Louis XIII 
(1610-1643). Something will be said of his policy in connec- 
tion with the Thirty Years' War (see section 68). 

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^^^ The Wars of Religion 345 

England under Queen Elizabeth 

67. The long and disastrous dvil war between Catholics and 
Protestants, which desolated France in the sixteenth century, 
had happily no counterpart in England. During her long reign 
Queen Elizabeth succeeded not only in maintaining peace at 
home, but in frustrating the conspirades and attacks of Philip II, 
which threatened her realm from without Moreover, by her 
interference in the Netherlands, she did much to secure Uidr 
independence of Spain. 

Upon the death of Catholic Mary and the accession of her 
sister Elizabeth in 1558, the English government became once ™o^Mri' 
more Protestant. The new queen had a new revised edition 'crviee and 

^ establishes 

issued of the Book of Common Prayer which had been pre- the church 

of England 
pared in the time of her brother, Edward VI. This contained 

the services which the government ordered to be performed in 

all the churches of England, All her subjects were required to 

accept the queen's views and to go to church, and ministers 

were to use nothir^ but the official prayer book. Elizabeth did 

not adopt the Presbyterian system advocated by Calvin but 

retained many features of the Catholic church, including the 

bishops and archbishops. So the Anglican church followed a 

middle path halfway between Lutherans and Calvinists on the 

one hand and Catholics on the other. 

The Catholic churchmen who had held positions under Queen 
Mary were naturally dismissed and replaced by those who would 
obey Elizabeth and use her Book of Prayer. Her first Parlia- 
ment gave the sovereign the powers of supreme head of the 
Church of England, although the title, which her father, Henry 
VIII, had assumed, was not revived. 

The Church of England still exists in much the same form in The English 
whidi it was established in the first years of Elizabeth's reign and jurvives in 
the prayer book is still used, although Englishmen are no longer fg^"^"*" 
required to attend church and may hold any religious views they 
please without being interfered with by the government 



346 The Middle Period of European History 

While England adopted a middle course in religious matters 
Scotland became Presbyterian, and this led to much trouble for 
Elizabeth. There, shortly after her accession, the ancient Caih 
olic Church was abolished, for the nobles were anxious to get 

Fig. 90. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth 

Elizabeth deemed herself a very handsome and imposing person. She 

was fond of fine clothes and doubtless had on her best when she sat 

for her portrait 

the lands of the bishops into their own hands and enjoy the 
revenue from them. John Knox, a veritable second Calvin in his 
stem energy, secured the introduction of the Presbyterian form 
of faith and church government which still prevail in Scotland. 

The Wars of Religion 

band, Francis II, had just died, landed at Leidi. She \ 
nineteen years old, of great beauty and charm, and, by reason ho^^'h" 
of her Catholic faith and French training, almost a foreigner to Catholics 
her subjects. Her grandmother was a sister of Henry VIII, 
and Mary claimed to be the rightful heiress to the English 
throne should Elizabeth die childless. Consequendy the beau- 
tiful Queen of Scots became the hope of all those who wished 
to bring back England and Scotland to the Roman Catholic 
faith. Chief among these were Philip H of Spain and Mary's 
relatives the Guises in France. 

Mary quickly discredited herself with both Protestants and Mark's 
Catholics by her conduct After marrying her second cousin, mJSut?" 
Lord Damley, she discovered that he was a dissolute scape- 
grace and came to despise him. She then formed an attach- 
ment for a reckless nobleman named Bothwell. The house 
near Edinburgh in which Damley was Ij^ng ill was blown up 
one night with gunpowder, and he was killed. The public sus- 
pected that both Bothwell and the queen were implicated. How 
far Mary was responsible for her husband's death no one can 
be sure. It is certain that she later married Bothwell and that 
her indignant subjects thereupon deposed her as a murderess. 
After fruitless attempts to regain her power, she abdicated in Mm flees 
favor of her infant son, James VI, and then fled to England to "^3°^™ ' 
appeal to Elizabeth. While the prudent Elizabeth denied the 
right of the Scotch to depose their queen, she took good care 
to keep her rival practically a prisoner. 

As time went on it became increasingly difficult for Elizabeth The riainE in 
to adhere to her policy of moderation in the treatment of the ,560, and'ihe 
Catholics. A rising in the north of England (1569) showed p^°jo, 
that there were many who would gladly reestablish the Catholic Seposing 
faith by freeing Mary and placing her on the English throne. 
This was followed by the excommunication of Elizabeth by the 
pope, who at the same time absolved her subjects from their 
allegiance to their heretical ruler. Happily for Elizabeth the 

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348 Tke Middle Period of European History 

rebels could look for no help either from Philip II or the French 
king. The Spaniards had their hands full, for the war in the 
Netherlands had just b^un ; and Charles IX, who had accepted 
Coligny as his adviser, was at that moment in hearty accord 
with the Huguenots. The rising in the north was suppressed, 
but the English Catholics continued to look to Philip for help. 
They opened correspondence with Alva and invited him to 
come with six thousand Spanish tnmps to dethrone Elizabeth 
and make Maty Stuart queen of England in her stead. Alva 
hesitated, for he characteristically thought that it would be better 
to kill Elizabeth, or at least capture her. Meanwhile the plot 
was discovered and came to naught 

Although Philip found himself unable to harm England, the 
English mariners caused great loss to Spain. In spite of the 
fact that Spain and England were not openly at war, Elizabeth's 
seamen extended their operations as far as the West Indies, 
and seized Spanish treasure ships, with the firm conviction that 
in robbing Philip they were serving God. The daring Sir Francis 
Drake even ventured into the Pacific, where only the Spaniards 
had gone heretofore, and carried off much booty on his litde 
vessel, the Pelican. At last he took " a great vessel with jewels 
in plenty, thirteen chests of silver coin, eighty pounds weight of 
gold, and twenty-six tons of silver." He then sailed around the 
world, and on his return presented his jewels to Elizabeth, who 
paid litUe attention to the expostulations of the king of Spain. 

One hope of the Catholics has not yet been mentioned, 
namely, Ireland, whose relations with England from very early 
times down to the present day form one of the most cheeHess ' 
pages in the history of Europe. The population was divided 
into numerous clans, and their chieftains fought constantly with 
one another as well as with the English, who were vainly 
endeavoring to subjugate the island. Under Henry II and 
later kings England had conquered a district in the eastern 
part of Ireland, and here the English managed to maintain a 
foothold in spite of the anarchy outskle. Henry VIII had 

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The Wars of Religion 349 

suppressed a revolt of the Irish and assumed the title of king of 
Ireknd. Queen Maty of England had hoped to promote better 
relations by colonizing Kings County and Queens County with 
Englishmen. This led, however, to a long struggle which only 
ended when the colonists had killed all the natives in the district 
they occupied, 

Elizabeth's interest in the perennial Irish question was stim- 
ulated by the probability that Ireland might become a basis for 
Catholic operations, since Protestantism had made little progress 
among its people. Her fears were realized. Several attempts 
were made by Catholic leaders to land troops in Ireland with the 
purpose of making the island the base for an. attack on Elngland. 
Elizabeth's officers were able to frustrate these enterprises, but 
the resulting disturbances greatly increased the misery of the 
Irish. In 1582 no less than thirty thousand people are said to ■ 
have perished, chiefly from starvation. 

As Philip's troops began to get the better of the opposition Persecutjou 
in the southern Netherlands, the prospect of sending a Spanish ^ngi^h 
army to England grew brighter. Two Jesuits were sent to Eng- Catholics 
land in 1580 to strengthen the adherents of their faith and urge 
them to assist the foreign force against their queen when it should 
come. Parliament now grew more intolerant and ordered fines 
and imprisonment to be inflicted on those who said or heard 
mass, or who refused to attend the English services. One of 
the Jesuit emissaries was cruelly tortured and executed for 
treason, the other escaped to the Continent. 

In the spring of 1582 the first attempt by the Catholics to nam to 
assassinate the heretical queen was made at Philip's instigation. ^^^ 
It was proposed that, when Elizabeth was out of the way, the 
Duke of Guise should see that an army was sent to England in 
the interest of the Catholics. But Guise was kept busy at home 
by the War of the Three Henrys, and Philip was left to under- 
take the inva^on of England by himself. 

Mary Queen of Scots did not live to witness the attempt. 
She became implicated in another plot for the assassination of 


35° ^-^^ Middle Period of European History 

Execution of Elizabeth. Parliament now realized that as long as Mary Uved 

of^ciwi!"" Ellizabeth's life was in constant danger ; whereas, if Mary were 

'5^7 out of the way, Philip II would have no interest in the death 

of Elizabeth, ^nce Mary's son, James VI of Scotland, who 

would succeed Elizabeth on the English throne, was a Protestant 

Elizabeth was therefore reluctantly persuaded by her advisers 

to sign a warrant for Mary's execution in 1587. 

Dmruction Philip II, however, by no means gave up his project of re- 

Spaniah claiming Protestant England. In 15S8 he brought t<%ether a 

Armadi, 1588 gj^g^j ^^^ including his best and largest warships, which was 

proudly called by the Spaniards the " Invincible Armada " (that 

is, fleet). This was to sail through the English Channel to the 

Netheriands and bring over the Duke of Panna and his veterans, 

who, it was expected, would soon make an end of Elizabeth's 

raw militia. The English ships were inferior to those of Spain in 

Mze although not in number, but they had trained commanders, 

such as Francis Drake and Hawkins. 

Tliese famous captains had bng sailed the Spanish Main and 
knew how to use their cannon without getting near enough to 
the Spaniards to suffer from their short-range weapons. When 
the Amuida approached, it was permitted by the English fleet 
to pass up the Channel before a strong wind, which later became 
a storm. The English ships then followed, and both fleets were 
driven past the coast of Flanders. Of the hundred arid twenty 
Spanish ships, only fifty-four returned home ; the rest had been 
destroyed by English valor or by the gale to which Elizabeth 
herself ascribed the victory. The defeat of the Armada put an 
end to the danger from Spain. 

Prospecuot As we look back over the period covered by the reign of 
cause ""fte P^ilip H. i* '8 clear that it was a most notable one in the history 
opening of ^f ^^ Catholic Church. When he ascended the throne in icce 

Ihe leign of ■'■' 

II Germany, as well as Switzerland and the Netherlands, had be- 
come largely Protestant, England, however, under his Catholic 
wife, Mary, seemed to be turning back to the old religion, while 

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The Wars of Religion 351 

die French monarchs showed no inclination to tolerate the heret- 
ical Calvinists. Moreover, the new and enthusiastic order of 
the Jesuits promised to be a powerful agency in inducing the 
Protestants to accept once more the supremacy of the pope 
and the doctrines of the Catholic Church as formulated by the 
Council of Trent The tremendous power and apparendy 
boundless resources of Spain itself, which were viewed by the 
rest of Europe with terror, Philip was prepared to dedicate to 
the destruction of Protestantism throughout western EXirope. 

But when Philip II died in 159S all was changed. England Ouicomeof 
was hopelessly Protestant : the " Invincible Armada " had been pou^' 
miserably wrecked and Philip's plan for bringing England once 
more within the fold qf the Roman Catholic Church was for- 
ever frustrated. In France the terrible wars of religion were 
over, and a powerful king, lately a Protesta.nt himself, was on 
the throne, who not only tolerated the Protestants but chose 
one of them for his chief minister and would brook no more 
meddling of Spain in French affairs. A new Protestant state, the 
United Netherlands, had actually appeared within the bounds 
of the realm bequeathed to Philip by his father. In spite of its 
small size this state was destined to play, from that time on, 
quite as important a part in European affairs as the harsh 
Spanish stepmother from whpse control it had escaped. 

Spain itself had suffered most of all from Philip's reign. His Decline of 
domestic policy and his expensive wars had sadly weakened the th^jitMoth 
country. The income from across the sea was bound to decrease """"y 
as the mines were exhausted. The final expulsion of the in- 
dustrious Moors, shortly after Philip's death (see above, p. 272), 
left the indolent Spaniards to till their own fields, which rapklly 
declined in fertility under their careless culdvation. Some one 
once ventured to tell a Spanish king that " not gold and silver 
but sweat is the most precious metal, a coin which is always 
current and never depreciates " ; bilt it was a rare form of cur- 
rency in the Spanish peninsula. After Philip II's death Spain ^ 
sank to the rank of a secondary European power. ^^ 


353 The Middle Period of European History 

'^^V-^ \ ' The Thirty Years' War 
The Thii^ /y 68. The last great conflict caused by the differences between 
^^ , " '/the Catholics and Protestants was fought out in Germany during 
ten» of iijg first jiaK of the seventeenth century. It is generally known 

as the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648), but there was in reality 
a series of wars ; and althou^ the fighting was done upon 
Cierman territory, Sweden, France, and Spain played quite as 
important a part in the struggle as the various German states. 
WeakiKBCB Just before the abdication of Charles V, the Lutheran princes 
of Augabucg had forced the emperor to acknowledge their right to their own 
religion and to the church property wliich they had appropriated. 
The religious Peace of Augsburg had, however, as we have 
seen,* two great weaknesses. In the first place only those 
Protestants who held the Lutheran faith were to be tolerated. 
The Calvinists, who were increasing in numbers, were not in- 
cluded in the peace. In the second place the peace did not 
put a stop to the seizure of church property by the Protestant 
Spread of Protestantism, however, made rapid progress and invaded the 

^rotestan - Austrian possessions and, above all, Bohemia, So it looked for 
a time as if even the Catholic Hapsburgs were to see laige por- 
tions of their territory faUing away from the old Church. But 
the Catholics had in the Jesuits a band of active and efficient 
missionaries. They not only preached and founded schools, but 
also succeeded in gaining the confidence of some of the German 
princes, whose chief advisers they became. Conditions were 
very favorable, at the opening of the seventeenth century, for a 
renewal of the religious struggle. 
Opening of The long war began in Bohemia in 1618. This portion of 

Years' War ^^ Austrian possessions was strongly Protestant and decided 
1618 that the best policy was to declare its independence of the Haps- 

burgs and set up a king of its own. It chose Frederick, the 
elector of the Palatinate, a Calvinist who would, it was hoped, 
I See above, p. 309. 

b, Google 

• The Wars of Religion 3S3 

enjoy the support of his father-in-law. King James I of England.' 
So Frederick and his English wife moved from Heidelberg 
to Prague. But their stay there was brief, for the Hapsburg 
emperor (Ferdinand II) with the aid of the ruler of Bavaria put 
to flight the poor "winter king," as Frederick was called on 
account of his reign of a single season. 

This was regarded as a serious defeat by the Protestants, Dem 
and the Protestant king of Denmark decided to intervene. He 
remained in Germany for four years, but was so badly beaten by 
the emperor's able general, Wallenstein, that he retired {[om 
the conflict in 1629. 

The emperor was encouraged by the successes of the Catho- The Edict ol 
lie armies in defeating the Bohemian and Danish Protestant ,6jg 
armies to issue that same year an^ Edict of Restitution, In this 
he ordered the Protestants throughout Germany to give back 
ail the church possessions which they had seized since the reli- 
gious Peace of Augsburg (1555). These included two arch- 
bishoprics (Magdeburg and Bremen), nine bishoprics, about one 
hundred and twenty monasteries, and other church foundations. 
Moreover, he decreed that only the Lutherans might hold re- 
ligious meetings ; the other " sects," including the Calvinists, 
were to be broken up. As Wallenstein was preparing to exe- 
cute this decree in his usual merciless fashion, the war took a 
new turn. 

The Catholic League, which had been formed some time be- Dismisjal of 
fore, had become jealous of a general who threatened to become appe^ce" ' 
too powerful, and it accordingly joined in the complaints, which ^^0"^^™ 
came from every side, of the terrible extortions- and incredible Sweden, 
cruelty practiced by Wallenstein's troops. The emperor con- ' 
sented, therefore, to dismiss this most competent commander. 
Just as the Catholics were thus weakened, a new enemy ar- 
rived upon the scene who proved far more dangerous than 
any they had yet had to face, namely Gustavus Adolphus, 
king of Sweden. 

1 James VI ol Scotland who succeeded Queen Elizabeth in 1603. 


Vdolphus i 

354 Tke Middle Period of European History ' 

1 We have had no occasion hitherto to speak of the Scandinavian 
kingdoms of Norway, Sweden, and Denmarit, which the northern 
German peoples had established about Charlemagne's time ; but 
from now on they begin to take part in the affairs of central 
Europe. The Union of Calmar (1397) had brought these three 
kingdoms, previously separate, under a single ruler. About the 
time that the Protestant revolt began in Germany the union was 
broken by the withdrawal of Sweden, which became an independ- 
ent kingdom. Gustavus Vasa, a Swedish noble, led the move- 
ment and was subsequently chosen king of Sweden (1523). In 
the same year Protestantism was introduced. Vasa confiscated 
the church lands, got the better of the aristocracy, — who had 
formerly made the kings a great deal of trouble, — and started 
Sweden on its way toward national greatness. 

Gustavus Adolphus (1594-1632) was induced to invade 
Germany for two reasons. In the first place, he was a sincere 
and enthusiastic Protestant and by far the most generous and 
attractive figure of his time. He was genuinely afflicted by the 
misfortunes of his Protestant brethren and anxious to devote 
himself to their welfare. Secondly, he undoubtedly hoped by 
his invasion not only to free his fellow Protestants from the 
oppression of the Emperor and of the Catholic League, but 
to gain a strip of German territory for Sweden. 

Gustavus was not received with much cordiality at first by 
the Protestant princes of the north, but dicy were brought to 
their sMises by the awful destruction of Magdeburg by the troops 
of the Catholic League under General Tilly. Magdeburg was 
the most important town of northern Germany. When it finally 
succumbed after an obstinate and difficult siege, twenty thousand 
of its inhabitants were killed and the town burned to the ground. 
Although Tilly's reputation for cruelty is quite equal to that of 
Wallenstein, he was probably not responsible for the fire. After 
Gustavus AdolfJius had met Tilly near Leipsic and victoriously 
routed the army of the League, the Protestant princes began to 
look with more favor on the fordgner. 

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The Wars of Religion 3 5 5 

The next spring Gustavus entered Bavaria and once more Wallenatein 
defeated Tilly (who was mortally wounded in the battle) and 
forced Munich to surrender. There seemed now to be no rea- 
son why he should not continue his progress to Vienna. At 
this juncture the emperor recalled Wallenstein, who <x>llected a 
new army over which he was given absolute command. After 
some delay Gustavus met Wallenstein on the field of Lutien, Gustavus 
in November, 1632, where, after a fierce struggle, the Swedes tiliej'at" 
gained the victory. But they lost their leader and Protestantism Lutien, 1632 
its hero, for the Swedish king ventured too far into the lines of 
the enemy and was surrounded and killed. 

The Swedes did not, however, retire from Germany, but Murder of 
continued to participate in the war, which now degenerated 
into a series of raids by leaders whose soldiers depopulated 
the land by their unspeakable atrocities. Wallenstein, who 
had long been detested by even the Catholics, was deserted 
by his soldiers and murdered (in 1634), to the great relief 
of all parties. 

Just at this moment Richelieu * decided that it would be to Richelieu 
the interest of France to renew the old struggle with the Haps- itmggie of 
burgs \pj sending troops against the emperor. France was still £^5^^ ,hg 
shut in, as she had been since the time of Charles V, by the H^>sbui^ 
Hapsburg lands. Except on the side toward the ocean her 
boundaries were in the main artificial ones, and not those estab- 
lished by great rivers and mountains. She therefore longed to 
weaken her enemy and strengthen herself by winning Roussillon 
on the south, and so make the crest of the Pyrenees the line of 
demarcation between France and Spain. She dreamed, too, of ex- 
tending her sway toward the Rhine by adding the county of Bur- 
gundy (that is, Franche-Comt^ and a number of fortified towns 
which would afford protection against the Spanish Netherlands. 

RicheUeu declared war against Spain in May, 1635. He had Richelieu'i 
already concluded an alliance with the chief enemies of the ^Jllfgs ™ 
House of Austria. So the war was renewed, and French, '•'*'"" 
1 Sea above, p. J44. 

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3 S6 The Middle Period of European History 

Swedish, Spanish, and German soldiers ravaged an already 
exhausted country for a decade longer. The dearth of provi- 
sions was so great that the armies had to move quickly from 
place to place in order to avoid starvation. After a serious de- 
feat by the Swedes, the emperor (Ferdinand III, 1637-1657) 

sent a Dominican monk to expostulate with Cardinal Richelieu 
for his crime in aiding the German and Swedish heretics against 
Catholic Austria. 

The cardinal had, however, just died (December, 1642), 
well content with the results of his dipkimacy. The French 
were in possession of Roussillon and of Lorraine and Alsace. 
The military exploits of the French generals, especially Turenne 
and Cond^, during the opening years of the reign of Louis XIV 

Tke Wars of Religion 357 

(1643-1715), showed that a new period had b^un in which 
the military and political supremacy of Spain was to give way 
to that of France (see Chapter XVIII). 

The participants in the war were now so numerous and their ciou of the 
objects so various and conflicting that it is not strange that it ww^ie^s 
required some years to arrange the conditions of peace, even 
after every one was ready for it It was agreed (1644) that 
France and the Empire should negotiate at Miinster, and the 
emperor and the Swedes at Osnabruclt — both of which towns 
lie in Westphalia. For four years the representatives of the 
several powers worked upon the difficult problem of satisfying 
every one, but at last the treaties of Westphalia were signed 
late in 1648. 

The religious troubles in Germany were setded by extending Provision* 
the toleration of the Peace of Augsbuig so as to include the treaties of 
Calvinists as well as the Lutherans. The Protestant princes We»ti*»ii" 
were to retain the lands which they had in their possession in 
the year 1624, regardless of the Edict of Restitution, and each 
ruler was still to have the right to deteimine the religion of his 
state. The dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire was practi- 
cally acknowledged by permitting the individual states to make 
treaties among themselves and with foreign powers ; this was 
equivalent to recognizing the practical independence which they 
had, as a matter of fact, already long enjoyed. While portions 
of northern Gennany were ceded to Sweden, this territory did 
not cease to form a part of the Ejnpire, for Sweden was thereafter 
to have three votes in the German diet. 

The emperor also ceded to France three important towns — 
Metz, Verdun, and Toul — and all his rights in Alsace, although 
the dty of Strassburg was to remain with the Empire. Lasdy, the 
independence both of the United Netherlands and of Switzer- 
land was acknowledged. 

The accounts of the misery and depopulation of Germany Di««troii« 
caused by the Thirty Years' War are well-nigh incredible, ttie war in 
Thousands of villages were wiped out altc^ether ; m some ^ermwiy 


358 The Middle Period of European History 

r^ons the population was reduced by one half, in odiers to 
a third, or even less, of what it had been at the opening of the 
conflict The flourishing city of Augsburg was kft with but 
sixteen thousand souls instead of eighty thousand. The people 
were fearfuUy barbarized by privation and suffering and by the 
atrocities of the soldiers of all the various nations. Until the 
end of the eighteenth century Germany remained too exhausted 
and impoverished to make any considerable contribution to the 
culture of Europe. 

The Beginnings of our Scientific Age 

69. The battles of the Thirty Years' War are now well-n^ 
forgot, and few people are interested in Tilly and Wailenstein and 
Gustavus Adolphus. It seems as if the war did little but destroy 
men's lives and property, and that no great ends were accom- 
plished by all the suffering it involved. But during the years 
that it raged certain men were quietly devoting themselves to 
scientific research which was to change the world more than all 
the battles that have ever been fought. These men adopted a 
new method. They perceived that the books of ancient writers, 
especially Aristotle, which were used as textbooks in the univer- 
»ties, were full of statements that could not be proved. They 
maintained that the only way to advance sdence was to set to 
work and try experiments, and by careful thought and investi- 
gation to determine the laws of nature without regard to what 
previous generations had thought. 

The Polish astronomer Copernicus published a woric in 
1543 in which he refuted the old idea that the sun and all the 
stars revolved around the earth as a center, as-was then taught 
in all the universities. He showed that, on the contrary, the 
sun was the center about which the earth and the rest of the 
planets revolved, and that the reason that the stars seem to go 
around the earth each day is because our globe revolves on its 
axis. Although Copernicus had been encouraged to write his 

The Wars of Religion 359 

book by a cardinal and had dedicated it to the pope, the Catholic 
as well as the Protestant theologians declared that the new theory 
did not correspond with the teachings of the Bible, and they 
therefore rejected it. But we know now that Copernicus was 

Fig. 92. Galileo 

right and the theologians and universities wrong. The earth is 
a mere speck in die universe, and even the sun is a relatively 
small body compared with many of the stars, and so far as we 
know the universe as a whole has no center. 

The Italian scientist Galileo (1564-1642), by the use of a Galileo 
little telescope he contrived, was able in 1610 to see the spots 


360 The Middle Period of European History 

on the sun ; these indicated that the sun was not, as Aristotle 
had taught, a perfect, unchanging body, and showed also that 
it revolved on its axis, as Copernicus had guessed that the earth 
did. GaUleo made careful experiments by dropping objects from 

Fig. 93. Ren£ Descartes 

the leaning tower of Pisa (Fig. 45), which proved that Aristotle 
vras wrong in assuming that a body weighing a hundred pounds 
fell a hundred times as fast as a body weighing but one. To 
Galileo we owe, besides, many new ideas in the science of me- 
chanics. He wrote in Italian as well as Latin, and this, too, gave 
offense to those who pinned their faith to Aristotle, They would 

The Wars of Religion 361 

have forgiven Galileo if he had confined his discussions to the 
learned who could read Latin, but they thought it highly dan- 
gerous to have the new ideas set forth in such a way that the 
people at laige might find out about them and so come to doubt 
what the theologians and universities were teaching, Galileo 
was finally summoned before the Inquisition and some of his 
■ theories condemned by the church authorities. 

Just as the Thirty Years' War was beginning, a young French- DcBcartes 
man by the name of Descartes had finished his education at a 
Jesuit college and decided to get some knowledge of the world 
by going into the war for a short time. He did jnuch more 
thinking than fighting, however. Sitting by the stove during the 
winter lull in hostilities, deep in meditation, it occurred to him 
one day that he had no reason for believing anything. He saw 
that everything that he accepted had come to him on the authority 
of some one else, and he failed to see any reason why the old 
authorities should be right. So he hoidly set to work to think 
out a wholly new philosophy that should be entirely the result 
of his own reasoning. He decided, in the first place, that one 
diing at least was true. He was thinking, and therefore he must 
exist. This he expressed in Latin in the famous phrase Cogi/o, 
ergo sum, " I think, therefore I am." He also decided that God 
must exist and that He had given men such good minds that, if 
they only used them carefully, they would not be deceived m 
the conclusions they reached. In short, Descartes held that ^ear 
thoughts must be tn4e thoughts. 

Descartes not only founded modem philosophy, he was also Work of 
greatlyinterestedin science and mathematics. He was impressed 
by the wonderful discovery of Harvey in regard to the circulation 
of the blood (see below, p. 367), which he thought well illustrated 
what sdentific investigation might accomplish. His most famous 
book, called An Essay on Method, was written in French and 
addressed to intelligent men who did not know Latin. He says 
that those who use their own heads are much more likely to 
reach the truth than those who read old Latin books. Descartes 


362 The Middle Period of European History 

wroteclear textbooks on algebra and that branch of mathematics 

known as analytical geometry, of which he was the discoverer. 

Francis Bacon, an English lawyer and government official, 

spent his spare hours explaining how men could increase their 

Fig. 94. Francis Bacon 

incis knowledge. He too wrote in his native tongue as well as in Latin. 

uiAilaHtis He was the most eloquent representative of the new science 
which renounced authority and relied upon experiment. "We 
are the ancients," he declared, not those who lived long ago 
when the world was young and men ignorant Late in life 
he wrote a little book, which he never finished, called the 

The Wars of Religion 363 

New Atlantis. It describes an imaginary state which some Euro- 
peans were supposed to have come upon in the Pacific Ocean. 
The chief institution was a " House of Solomon," a great 
laboratory for carrying on scientific investigation in the hope of 
discovering new facts and using them for bettering the condi- 
tion of the inhabitants. This House of Solomon became a sort 
of model for the Royal Academy, which was established in 
London some fifty years after Bacon's death. It still exists and 
still publishes its proceedings regularly. 

The earliest societies for scientific research gre^v up in Italy, Scientific 
Later the English Royal Society and the French Institute were funded 
established, as well as similar associations in Germany. These 
were the first things of the kind in the history of the world. 
Their object was not, like that of the old Greek schools of 
philosophy and the medieval universities, merely to hand down 
the knowledge derived from the past, but to find out what had 
never been known before. 

We have seen how in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries 
new inventions were made, such as the compass, paper; specta- 
cles, gunpowder, and, in the fifteenth century, the printing press. 
But in the seventeenth century progress began to be much 
more rapid, and an era of invention opened, in the midst of 
which we still live. The microscope and telescope made it pos- 
sible to discover innumerable scientific truths that were hidden 
to the Greeks and Romans. In time this scientific advance 
produced a spirit of reform, also new in the world (see below, 
Chapter XIX). 


Section 64. What were the chief results of the Council of Trent? 
Why did the Protestants refuse to take part in it ? Give an account 
of the life of Loyola. What were the objects of the Jesuit order? 
What accusations did the Protestants bring against the society? 

Section 65. What are your impressions of Philip II? How did 
it come about that the Netherlands belonged to Spain? Describe 


364 The Middle Period of European History 

Philip's policy in dealing with the Netherlands. How did the United 

Netherlands gain their independence? 

Section 66, What were the religious conditions in France when 
Charles IX and Catherine of Medici came into power? What was 
the character of the Huguenot party? Describe the massacre of 
SL Bartholomew. How did Henry IV become king? Whatwaathe 
Edict of Nantes? 

Sectio!^ 67. What measures did Queen Elizabeth take in reli- 
gious matters? How did the English Church originate? Tell the 
story of Mary Queen of Scots. What was the policy of Philip II in 
regard to Elizabeth? What were the general results of Phihp W's 

Section 68, What was the origin of the Thirty Years' War? 
What led the Swedish king to intervene ? What did the Swedes gain 
by the intervendon? Why did Richelieu send trcwps to fight in the 
war? What were the chief provisions of the Treaty of Westphalia? 
What were the other results of the war ? 

Section 69. What is the difference between modem sciaitific 
research and the spirit of the medieval universities? Describe the 
discoveries of Copernicus. What did Galileo accomplish? Give the 
views of Descartes. What was the position of Francis Bacon in regard 
to scientific research? What was the " House of Solomon"? 

What societies were established for scientific inveatigadon ? Can 
you think of some of the effects that modem science has had on the 
lives of mankind? 

3 by Google 


James I and the Divine Right of Kings 

70. Onthecleathof Elizabethin i6o3,JamesI,thefirstofthe A«™ii™ of 
Scotch family of Stuart, ascended the throne. It will be retriem- &:"^d as 
bered that he was the son of Mary Stuart, Oueen of Scots, and J"°" \°^ 

J ' ^ ' England, 

through her a descendant of Henry VII (see table, p. 340). In '^i 
Scotland he reigned as James VI ; consequently the two king- 
* doms were now brought together under the same ruler. This 
did not, however, make the relations between the two countries 
much more cordial than they had been in the past 

The chief interest of the period of the Stuarts, which began Chief interest 
with the accession of James I in 1603 and ended with the flight ofihelmJm 
from England of his grandson, James II, eighty-five years later, 
is the long and bitter struggle between the kings and Parlia- 
ment. The vital question was, Should the Stuart kings, who 
claimed to be God's representatives on earth, do as they thought 
fit, or should Parliament control them and the government of 
the country ? 

We have seen how the English Parliament originated in the The attitude 
time of Edward I and how his successors were forced to pay (oward 
attention to its wishes (see above, pp. 127 ff.). Under the P"'"™"" 
Tudors — that is, from the time of Henry VII to Elizabeth — the 
monarchs had been able to manage Parliament so that it did, 
in general, just what they wished, Henry VIII was a heartless 
tyrant, and his daughter Elizabeth, like her father, had ruled the 
nation in a high-handed manner, but neither of them had been 
accustomed to say much of their rights. 

D:|-:ectv Google, 

366 The Middle Period of European History 

James I, on the other hand, had a very irritating way of dis- 
cussing his claim to be the sole and supreme ruler of England. 
" It is atheism and blasphemy," he declared, " to dispute what 
God can do ; . . . so it is presumption and high contempt in a 
subject to dispute what a king can do, or say that a king cannot 
do this or that" James was a learned man and fond of writing 


Fig. 95. James I 

books. Among them he published a work on monarcbs, in 
which he claimed that the king could make any law he pleased 
without consulting Parliament; that he was the master of 
every one of his subjects, high and low, and might put to death 
whom he pleased. A good king would act according to law, 
but is not bound to do so and has the power to change the 
law at any time to suit himself. 

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Struggle in England between King and Parliament 367 

These theories seem strange and very unreasonable to us, but The "divine 
James was only trying fo justify the powers which the Tudor j^^j" 
monarchs had actually exercised and which the kings of France 
enjoyed down to the Trench Revolution of 1789. According to 
the theory of " the divine right of kings " it had pleased God to 
appoint the monarch the father of his people. People must 
obey him as they would God and ask no questions. The king 
was responsible to God alone, to whom he owed his powers, not 
to Parliament or the nation (see below, p. 388). 

It is unnecessary to follow the troubles between James I and 
Parliament, for his reign only forms the preliminary to the fatal 
experioices of his son Charles I, who came to the throne in 1625. 

The writers of James's reign constituted its chief glory. They Gieat wriiera 
outshone those of any other European country. Shakespeare is reig^^' ' 
generally admitted to be the greatest dramatist that the world Shakespeare 
has produced. While he wrote many of his plays before the 
death of Elizabeth, some of his finest — Othello, King Lear, and 
T%e Tempest, for example — belong to the time of James I, 
During the same period Francis Bacon (see above, p. 362) was Fiancii 
writing his Advancement of Learning, which, he dedicated to 
James I in 1605 and in which he urged that men should cease 
to rely upon the old textbooks, hke Aristotle, and turn to a 
careful examination of animals, plants, and chemicals, with a 
view of learning about them and using the knowledge thus 
gained to improve the condition of mankind. Bacon's ability 
to write English is equal to that of Shakespeare, but he chose 
to write prose, not verse. It was in James's reign that the Kirg James 
authorized English translation of the Bible was made which the Bible 
is still used in all countries where English is spoken. 

An English physician of this period, William Harvey, exam- wuiiam 
ined the workings of the human body more carefully than any ""^ 
previous investigator and made the great discovery of the man- 
ner in which the blood circulates from the heart through the 
arteries and capillaries and back through the veins — a matter 
which had previously been entirely misunderstood. 

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368 Tlie Middle Period of Eitropean History 

Charlel's € 
aibitnuy lu 

How Charles I got along without Parliament 

71. Charles I, James I's son and successor, was somewhat 
more dignitied than hts father, but he was quite as obstinately set 
upon having his own way and showed no more skiU in winning 
the confidence of his subjects. He didjiothing to remove the 
disagreeable impressions of his father's reign and began ini' 
mediately to quarrel with Parliament When that body refused 
to grant him any money, mainly because they thought that it 
was likely to be wasted by his favorite, the Duke of Bucking- 
ham, Charles formed the plan of winning their favor by a great 
military victory. 

He hoped to gain popularity by prosecuting a war against 
Spain, whose king was energetically supporting the Catholic 
League in the Thirty Years' War. Accordingly, in spite of 
Pariiament's refusal to grant him the necessary funds, be em- 
barked in war. With only the money which he could raise by 
irr^ular means, Charles arranged an expedition to capture 
the Spanish treasure ships which arrived in Cadiz once a year 
from America, laden with gold and silver j but this expedition 

In his attempts to raise money without a regular grant from 
Pariiament, Charies resorted to vexatious exactions. The law 
prohibited him from asking for ^fts from his people, but it did 
not forbid his asking them to lend him money, however little 
prospect there might be of his ever repaying it. Five gentlemen 
who refused to pay such a forced loan were imprisoned by the 
mere order of the king. This raised the question of whether 
the king had the right to send to prison those whom he wished 
without any legal reasons for their arrest. 

This and other attacks upon the ri^ts of his subjects aroused 
Parliament. In 1628 that body drew up the celebrated PUitioit 
of Right, which is one of the most important documents in the 
history of the English Constitution. In it Parliament called the 
king's attention to his unlawful exactions, and to the acts of 

Struggle in England between King and Parliament 369 

his agents who had in sundry ways molested and disquieted the 

people of the realm. Parliament therefore " humbly prayed " 

the king that no man need thereafter " make or yield any gift, 

loan, benevolence, tax, or such 

like charge " without consent of 

Parliament; that no free man 

should be imprisoned or suffer 

any punishment except according 

to the laws and statutes of the 

realm as presented in the Great 

Charter ; and that soldiers should 

not be quartered upon the people 

on any pretext whatever. Very 

reluctantly Charles consented to 

this restatement of the limitations 

which the English had always, in 

theory at least, placed upon the 

arbitrary power of their king. 

The disagreement between 
Charles and Parliament was ren- 
dered much more serious by 
religious differences. The king 
had married a French Catholic 
princess, and the Catholic cause 
seemed to be gaining on the Con- 
tinent. The king of Denmark had 
just been defeated by Wallenstein 
and Tilly (see above, p. 353)- and 
Richelieu had succeeded in de- This portrait is by one of the 

priving the Huguenots of their g^=»'«" P^'"*"^ f "'« 'i™^- 
.. r r ^ . . , AnthonyVanDyck, 1599-1641 

abes of refuge. Both James I (^^ Fig. 98) 

and Charles I had shown their 

readiness to enter into agreements with France and Spain to 
protect Catholics in England, and there was evidentiy a growing 
inclmation in England to revert to the older ceremonies of the 


3yo Tlu Middle Period of European History 

Church, which shocked the more strongly Protestant members 
of the House of Commons. The communion table was again 
placed by many clergymen at the eastern end of the church and 
became fixed there as an altar, and portions of the service were 
once more chanted. 
Chuleadi*- These "pojMsh practices," as the Protestants called them, 

meni (1619) "vi^ih which Charles was supposed to sympathize, served to 
min« lo'niie *"^^" ^^^ breach between him and the Commons, which had 
by biniseU been caused by the king's attempt to raise taxes on his own ac- 
counL l~he Parliament of 1629, after a stormy session, was dis- 
solved by the king, who determined to rule thereafter by himself. 
For eleven years no new Parliament was summoned. 
Clurta'i Charles was not well fitted by nature to run the government 

tiaoiata of England by himself. He had not the necessary tireless 
energy. Moreover, the methods resorted to by his ministers to 
raise money without recourse to Parliament rendered the king 
more and more unpopular and prepared the way for the trium- 
phant return of Parliament For example, Charies applied to his 
subjects for " ship money." He was anxious to equip a fleet, 
but instead of requiring the various ports to furnish ships, as 
was the ancient custom, he permitted them to buy themselves off 
by contributing money to the fitting out of lai^ ships owned by 
himself. Even those living inland were asked for ship money. 
The king maintained that this was not a tax but simply a pay- 
ment by which his subjects freed themselves from the duty of 
defending their country. 
John John Hampden, a squire of Buckinghamshire, made a bold 

""""^ stand against this illegal demand by refusing to pay twenty 
shillings of ship money which was levied upon hira. The case 
was tried before the king's judges, and he was convicted, but 
by a bare majority. The trial made it tolerably clear that 
the country would not put up long with the king's despotic 

In 1633 Charies made William Laud Archbishop of Canter- 
bury. I.aud believed that the English Church would strengthen 

Struggle in England between King and Parliament 371 

both itself and the government by following a middle course, William 

which should lie between that of the Church of Rome and that ^4^ 

of Calvinistic Geneva. He declared that it was the part of ofCanierinuy 
good citizenship to conform outwardly to the services of the 

Fig. 97. John Hampden 

state church, but that the State should not undertake to oppress 
the individual conscience, and that every one should be at liberty 
to make up his own mind in regard to the interpretation to be 
given to the Bible and to the church fathers. As soon as he 
became archbishop he began a series of visitations through his 
province. Every clergyman who refused to conform to the 


372 The Middle Period of European History 

prayer book, or opposed the placing of the communion table 
at the east end of the church, or declined to bow at the name 
of Jesus, was, if obstinate, to be brought before the king's 
speda! Court of High Commission to be tried and, if convicted, 
to be deprived of his position. 
The different Laud's conduct was no doubt gratifying to the High Church 
miestantt— party among the Protestants, that is, those who still clung to 
"'Ilw""'' ^i"^ ^^ '^^ ancient practices of the Roman Church, althougti 
Church they rejected the doctrine of the Mass and refused to regard 

the pope as their head The Low Church part^ or Puritans, 
on the contrary, regarded Laud and his policy with aversion. 
While, unlike the Presbyterians, they did not urge the abolition 
of the bishops, they disliked all " superstitious usages," as they 
called the wearing of the surplice by the clergy, the use of the 
sign of the cross at baptism, the kneeling posture in partaking 
of the communion, and so forth. The Presbyterians, who are 
often confused with the Puritans, agreed with them in many 
respects, but went farther and demanded the introduction of 
Calvin's system of church government. 
The Lastly, there was an ever-increasing number of Separatists, 

n epenuen ^^ Independents, These rejected both the organization of the 
Church of England and that of the Presbyterians, and desired 
that each religious community should organize itself independ- 
ently. The government had forbidden these Separatists to hold 
their litde meetings, which they called conventides, and about 
The Pilgrim 1600 some of them fled to Holland. The community of them 
which established itself at Leyden dispatched the Mayflower, in 
1620, with colonists — since known as the Pilgrim Fathers — to 
the New World across the sea,' It was these colonists who laid 
the foundations of a New England which has proved a wortl^ 
offspring of the mother country. The form of worship which they 
established in their new home is still known as Congregational. 

I The name 

Puritan," it should ben 

oted, was applied loosely to the Engliah 

Proleatanis, wh 

ther Low Churchmen 

aroused theania 
popular pastime 

oniam of their neigbbo 
, especially on Sundaj. 

s by advocating a godly life and opposing 


Struggle in England between King and Parliament 373 

How Charles I lost his Head 

73. In 1640 Charles found himself forced to summon Par- Charles I's 
liament, for he was involved in a war With Scotland which he ^^sUtc'ii 
could not carry on without money. There the Presbyterian Presbyterians 
system had been pretty generally introduced by John Knox in 
Hizabeth's time (see above, p. 346). An attempt on the part 
of Charles to force the Scots to accept a modified form of the 
English prayer book led to the signing of the National Covenant The National 
in 1638. This pledged those who attached their names to it to ,6^g*"™*' 
reestablish the purity and liberty of the Gospel, which, to most 
of the Covenanters, meant Presbyterianism. 

Charles thereupon undertook to coerce the Scots. Having Charles 
no money, he bought on credit a large cargo of pepper, which th"!"^ 
had just arrived in the ships of the East India Company, and Parhament, 
sold it cheap for ready cash. The soldiers, however, whom he 
got together showed little inclination to fight the Scots, with 
whom they were in tolerable agreement on religious matters. 
Charles was therefore at last obliged to summon a Parliament, 
which, owing to the length of time it remained in session, is 
known as the Long Parliament. 

The Long Parliament began by imprisoning Archbishop Laud The meas- 
in the Tower of London. They declared him guilty of trea- j_ong 
son, and he was executed in 1645, in spite of Charles's efforts to ^"[™^* 
save him» Parliament also tried to strengthen its position by king's 
passing the Triennial Bill, which provided that it should pieet at 
least once in three years, even if not summoned by the king. 
In fact, Charles's whole system of government was abrogated. 
Parliament drew up a " Grand Remonstrance" in which all of 
Charles's errors were enumerated and a demand was made that 
the king's ministers should thereafter be responsible to Parlia- 
ment This document Parliament ordered to be printed and 
circulated throughout the country. 

Exasperated at the conduct of the Commons, Charles at- 
tempted to intimidate the oppositktn by undertaking to arrest 

C k")0<^ Ic 

374 ^^ Middle Period of European History 

five of its most active leaders, whom he declared to be traitors. 
But when he entered the House of Commons and looked 
around for his enemies, he found that they had taken shelter 
in London, whose citizens later brought them back in triumph 
to Westminster, where Parliament held its meetings. 

Fig. 98. Children of Charles I 

This very interesting picture, by the Flemish artist Van Dyck, was 
painted in 1637. The boy with his hand on the dog's head was des- 
tined to become Charles II of England. Next on the left is the prince, 
who was later James II. The girl to the extreme left, the Princess 
Mary, married the governor of the United Netherlands, and her son 
became William III of England in 1688 {see below, p. 384). The two 
princesses on the right died in childhood 

Thebeein- Both Charles and Parliament now began to gather troops 

warf 1642'— fo'' ^^ inevitable conflict, and England was plunged into civil 
ff'"''^*^'^ war. Those who supported Chafles were called Cavaliers. 
They included not only most of the aristocracy and the Catholic 
party, but also a number of members of the House of Com- 
mons who were fearful lest Presbyterianism should succeed in 

Struggle in England between King and Parliament 375 

doing away with the English Church. The parliamentary par^ 
was popularly known as the Roundheads, since some of them 
cropped their hair close because of their dislike for the long 
locks of their more aristocratic and worldly opponents. 

The Roundheads soon found a distinguished leader in Oliver Oliver 
Cromwell (b. 1599), a country gentleman and member of Parlia- ™""* 
ment, who was later to become the most powerful ruler of his 
time, Cromwell organized a compact army of God-fcaiing men, 
who were not permitted to indulge in profane words or light 
talk, as is the wont of soldiers, but advanced upon their enemies 
singing psalms. The king enjoyed the support of northern 
England, and also looked for help from Ireland, where the 
royal and Catholic causes were popular. 

The war continued for several years, and a number of Battletof 
battles were fought which, after the first year, went in general Mootwid 
against the Cavaliers. The most important of these were the '^^'^ 
battle of Marston Moor in 1644, and that of Naseby the next 
year, in which the king was disastrously defeated. The enemy 
came mto possession of his correspondence, which showed The itxiDg; 
them how their king had been endeavoring to bring armies SeU^ 
from France and Ireland into England. This encouraged Par- 
liament to prosecute the war with more energy than ever. 
The king, defeated on every hand, put himself in the hands of 
tiie Scotch army which had come to the aid of Parliament 
(1646), and the Scotch soon turned him over to Parliament. 
During the next two years Charles was held in captivity. 

There were, however, many in the House of Commons who Pride'« 
still sided with the king, and in December, 1648, that body de- ^' 
dared for a reconciliation with the monarch, whom they had 
safely imprisoned in the Isle of Wight The next day Colonel 
Pride, representing the army, — which constituted a party in it- 
self and was opposed to all negotiations between the king and 
the Commons, — stood at the door of the House with a body of 
soldiers and excluded all the members who took the side of the 
king. Thisoutrageousactisknowninhistoiyas"Pride'aPui;Be," 

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376 The Middle Period of European History 

Execudoo of In this way the House of Commons was brought compktdy 
'""^ '^' under the control of those most bitterly hostile to the king, whom 
tbey immediately proposed to bring to trial They declared that 
the House of Commons, since it was chosen by the people, 
was supreme in England and the source of all just power, and 
that consequently neither king nor House of Lords was neces- 
sary. The mutilated House of Commons appointed a special 
High Court of Justice made up of Charles's sternest oppo- 
nents, who ak)nc would consent to sit in judgment on him. 
They passed sentence upon him, and on January 30, 1649, 
Charles was beheaded in front of his palace of Whitehall, 
London. It must be clear from the above account that it was 
not the nation at large which demanded Charles's death, but a 
very small group of extremists who claimed to be the repre- 
sentatives of the nation. 

' Oliver Cromwell: England a Commonwealth 

Engtand 73- The " Rump Parliament," as the remnant of the House 

com™-* "^^ Commons was contemptuously called, proclaimed England to 

wealtii, or be thereafter a " commonwealth," that is, a republic, without a 

Cromwell at king or House of Lords. But Cromwell, the head of the army, 

the govein- ^*^^ nevertheless the real ruler of England. He derived his main 

""" support from the Independents ; and it is very surprising that he 

was able to maintain himself so loi^, considering what a small 

portion of the ^glish people was in sympathy with the religious 

ideas of that sect and with the abolition of Idi^ship. Even the 

Presbyterians were on the side of Charles I's son, Charles II, 

the legal heir to the throne. Cromwell was a vigorous and 

skillful administrator and had a wellorganized army of fifty 

thousand men at his command, otherwise the republic could 

scarcely have lasted more than a few months. 

Irehnd and Cromwell found himself confronted by every variety of difli- 

aubdued culty. The three kingdoms had fallen apart. The nobles and 

Catholics in Ireland proclaimed Charles II as king, and Ormond, 

Struggle in England between King and Parliament 377 

a Protestant leader, formed an aimy of Irish Catholics and Eng- 
lish royalist Protestants with a view of overthrowing the Com- 
monwealth. Cromwell accordingly set out for Ireland, where, 
after taking Dmgheda, he mercilessly slaughtered two thousand 
of the " barbarous wretches," as he called them. Town after 

Fig. 99. Oliver Cromwell 
This portrait is by Peter Leiy and was painted in 1653 

town surrendered to Cromwell's army, and in 1652, after much 
cruelty, the island was once more conquered. A large part of it 
was confiscated for the benefit of the English, and the Catholic 
landowners were driven into the mountains. In the meantime 
(1650) Charles II, who had taken refuge in France, had landed. in 
Scotland, and upon his agreeing to be a Presbyterian kii^, the 
\^ole Scotch nation was ready to support him. But Scotland was 
subdued by Cromwell even more promptly than Ireland had been. 


378 Tke Middle Period of European History 

So completely was the Scottish army destroyed that Cromwell 
found no need -to draw the sword again in the British Isles. 

Fig. ioo. Great Seal of England under the 
Commonwealth, 1651 

This seal is reduced considerably in the reproduction. It gives us an 
idea of the appearance of a session of the House of Commons when 
England was for a short period a republic. It is Still to-day the custom 
for members to sit with their hats on, except when making a speech 

The Naviga- Although it Would seem that Cromwell had enough to keep 


him busy at home, he had already engaged in a victorious 
foreign war against the Dutch, who had become dangerous 
commercial rivals of England. The ships which went out from 

Struggle in England between King and Parliament 379 

Amsterdam and Rotterdam were the best merchant vessels in 
the world and had got control of the carrying trade between 
Europe and the colonies. In order to put an end to this, the 
. English Parliament passed the Navigation Act (1651), which 
permitted only English vessels to bring goods to England, 
unless the goods came in vessels belonging to the country 
which had produced them. This led to a commercial war he- Comm^rdal 
tween Holland and England, and a series of battles was fought Holland and 
between the English and Dutch fleets, in which sometimes one England 
and sometimes the other gained the upper hand. This war is 
notable as the first example of the commercial struggles which 
were thereafter to take the place of the religious conflicts of 
the preceding period. 

Cromwell failed to get along with Parliament any better than Cromweii 
Charles I had done. The Rump Parliament had become very i^ng pariia" 
unpopular, for its members, Jn spite of their boasted piety, 'nent(i65j) 
accepted bribes and were zealous in the promotion of their Lord Pio- 
relatives in the public service. At last Cromwell upbraided his own 
them angrily for their injustice and self-interest, which were " ' 
injuring the public cause. On being interrupted by a mem- 
ber, he cried out, " Come, come, we have had enough of this I 
I '11 put an end to this. It 's not fit that you should sit here 
any longer," and calling in his soldiers he turned the members 
out of the House and sent them home. Having thus made an 
end of the Long Parliament (April, 1653), he summoned a 
Parliament of his own, made up of " God-fearing " men whom 
he and the officers of his army chose. This extraordinary body 
is known as Barebone's Parliament, from a distinguished mem- 
ber, a London merchant, with the characteristically Puritan 
name of Praisegod Barebone. Many of these godly men were 
unpractical and hard to deal with. A minority of the more sen- . 
sible ones got up early one winter morning (December, 1653) . 
and, before their opponents had a chance to protest, declared 
Parliament dissolved and placed the supreme authority in the 
bands of Cromwell 

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380 Tke Middle Period of European History 

For nearly five years Cromwell was, as Lord Protector, — a 
title equivalent to that of Regent, — practically king of England, 
although he refused actually to accept the royal insignia. He 
did not succeed in permanently organizing the government a>- 

Fig. ioi, Dutch War Vessel in Cromwell's Time 

This should be compared with Fig. 233 to realize the change that had 

taken place in navigadan since the palmy days of the Hanseatic League. 

(See above, p. Z14) 

home but showed remarkable ability in his foreign negotiations. 
He formed an alliance with France, and English troops aided 
the French in winning a great victory over Spain. England 
gained thereby Dunkirk, and the West Indian island of Jamaica. 

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Struggle in England between King and Parliament 381 

The French king, Louis XIV, at first hesitated to address Crom- 
well, in the usual courteous way of monarchs, as " my cousin," 
but soon admitted that he would have even to call Cromwell 
" father " should he wish it, as the Protector was undoubtedly 
the most powerful person in Europe. Indeed, he found himself 
forced to play the part of a monarch, and it seemed to many 
persons that he was quite as despotic as James I and Charles I. 

In May, 165S, Crom- 
well fell ill, and as a great 
storm passed over Eng- 
land at that time, the 
Cavaliers asserted that 
the devil had come to 
fetch home the soul of 
the usurper. Cromwell 
was dying, it is true, hut 
he was no instrument of 
the devil. He closed a 
life of honest effort for 

his fellow beings with a ' — ~ ~ 

last touching prayer to 
God, whom he had con- 
sistently sought to serve : 
"Thou hast made me, 
thoi^h veiy unworthy, 
a mean instrument to do 
Thy people some good 
and Thee service: and 
many of them have set too high a value upon me, though 
others wish and would be glad of my death. Pardon such as 
desire to trample upon the dust of a poor worm, for they 
are Thy people too ; and pardon the folly of this short prayer, 
even for Jesus Christ's sake, and give us a good night, if it 
be Thy pleasure. Amen." 

This is laken from a picture at Cologne, 
painted in 1409. It, as well as other pic- 
tures of the time, makes it clear that tho 
Hanseatic ships were tiny compared with 
those used two hundred and fifty years 
later, when Cromwell fought the Dutch 

3 by Google 

382 The Middle Period of European History 

The Restoration 

The Reoo- 74. After Cromwell's death his son Richard, who succeeded 
him, found himself unable to cany on the government. He soon 
abdicated, and the remnants of the Long Parliament met once 
more. But the power was really in the hands of the soldiers. 
In 1660 George Monk, who was in command of the forces in 
Scotland, came to London with a view of putting an end to the 
anarchy. He soon concluded that no one cared to support the 
Rump, and that body peacefully disbanded of its own accord. 
Resbtance would have been vain in any case with the army 
Charles II against it. The nation was glad to acknowledge Charles II, 
back u king, whom evcfy one preferred to a government by soldiers. ' A new 
'**" Parliament, composed of both houses, was assembled, which 

welcomed a messenger from the king and solemnly resolved 
that, " according to the ancient and fundamental laws of this 
kingdom, the government is, and ought to be, by king, lords, 
and commons." Thus the Puritan revolution and the short-lived 
republic was followed by the Restoration, of the Stuarts. 
Character of Charles II was quite as fond as his father of having his own 
way, but he was a man of more ability. He disliked to be ruled 
by Parliament, but, unlike his father, he was too wise to arouse 
the nation against him. He did not propose to let anything 
happen which would send him on his travels again. He and his 
courtiers were fond of pleasure of a light-minded kind. The 
immoral dramas of the Restoration seem to indicate that those 
who had been forced by the Puritans to ^ve up their legitimate 
pleasures now welcomed the opportunity to indulge in reck- 
less gayety without regard to the bounds imposed by custom 
and decency. 
Religious Charles's first Parliament was a moderate body, but his second 

sS™ted by was made up almost wholly of Cavaliers, and it got along, on 
Parliament j.jjg ^holc, SO well With the king that he did not dissolve it for 
eighteen years. It did not take up the old question, which was 
still unsettled, as to whether Parliament or the king was really 

D.D.t.zeab, Google 

■ Struggle in England between King and Parliament 383 

supreme. It showed its hostility, however, to the Puritans t^ a 
series of intolerant acts, which are very important in English 
history. It ordered that no one should hold a town office who 
. had not received the communion according to the rites of the 
Church of. England. This was aimed at both the Presbyterians 
and the Independents. By the Act of Uniformity (1662) every TheActof 
clergyman who refused to accept everything contained in the "' ""'^ 
Book of Common Prayer was to be excluded from holding his 
benefice. Two thousand clergymen thereupon resigned their 
positions for conscience' sake. 

These laws tended to throw all those Protestants who refused The Dis- 
to conform to the Church of England into a single class, stiil known 
to-day as Dissenters. It included the Independents, the Pres- 
byterians, and the newer bodies of the Baptists and the Society 
of Friends, commonly known as Quakers. These sects aban- 
doned any idea of controlling the religion or politics of the coun- 
try, and asked only that they might be permitted to worship in 
their own way outside of the English Church. 

Toleration found an unexpected ally in the king, who, in Toleration 
spite of his dissolute habits, had interest enough in religion to ^^ lung 
have secret leanings toward Catholicism. He asked Parliament 
to permit him to moderate the rigor of the Act of Uniformity 
by making some exceptions. He even issued a declaration in 
the interest of toleration, with a view of bettering the posi- 
tion of the Catholics and Dissenters. Suspicion was, however, 
aroused lest this toleration might lead to the restoration of 
"popery," — as the Protestants called the Catholic beliefs, — 
and Parliament passed the harsh Conventicle Act (1664). TheConven- 

Any adult attending a conventicle — that is to say, any reli- 
gious meedng not held in accordance with the practice of the 
English Church — was liable to penalties which might culminate 
in transportation to some distant colony. Samuel Pepys, who 
saw some of the victims of this law upon their way to a terrible 
exile, notes in his famous diary : " They go like lambs without 
any resistance. I would to God that they would conform, or be 

C k")0<^ Ic 

384 "^ke Middle Period of European History 

more wise and not be catched." A few years later Charies II 
issued a declaration giving complete religious liberty to Roman 
Catholics as well as to Dissenters. Parliament not tmly forced 
him to withdraw this enlightened measure but passed the Test 
Act, which excluded every one from public ofKce who did not 
accept the views of the En^ish Church. 

The old war with Holland, b^un by Cromwell, was renewed 
under Charles II, who was earnestly desirous to increase Eng- 
lish commerce and to found new colonies. The two nations 
were very evenly matched on the sea, but in 1664 the English 
seized some of the West Indian Islands from the Dutch and 
also their colony on Manhattan Island, which was re-named 
New York in honor of the king's brother, the Duke of York. 
In 1667 a treaty was signed by England and Holland which 
confirmed these conquests. 


The Revolution of 1688 

75. Upon Charles II's death he was succeeded by his brother, 
James II, who vras an avowed Catholic and had married, as his 
second wife, Mary of Modena, who was also a Catholic. He was 
ready to reestablish Catholicism in England r^ardless of what it 
might cost him. Mary, James's daughter by his first wife, had 
married her cousin, William III, Prince of Orange, tho head of 
the United Netherlands. The nation might have tolerated James 
so long as they coukl look forward to the accession of his 
Protestant daughter. But when a son was bom to his Catholic 
second wife, and James showed unmistakably his puTpos9 of 
favoring the Caiiiolics, messengers were dbpatched by a group 
of Protestants to William of Orange, asking him to come and 
rule over them, 

William landed in November, 1688, and marched upon Lon- 
don, where he received general support from al! the English 
Protestants, regardless of party. James II started to oppose Wil- 
liam, but his army refused to fight and his courtiers deserted 

Struggle in England between King and Parliament 385 

him. William was glad to forward James's flight to France, as 
he would hardly have known what to do with him had James in- 
sisted on remaining in the country. A new Parliament declared 
the throne vacant, on the ground that King James II, " by the 
advice of the Jesuits and other wicked persons, having violated 
the fundamental laws and withdrawn himself out of the kingdom, 
had abdicated the government." 


ia of France 

Cbuies II Macy,m. William II, Anne Hyde, m. James 1 1, m. Maiy of Modena 
<i6&o-i68;) I Piinceof I (i63s-i6aS} I 

violation of the constitution and appointing William and Mary 
joint sovereigns. The Bill of Eights, which is an important 
monument in Ejiglish constitutional history, once more stated 
the fundamental rights of the English nation and the limitations 
which the Petition of Bight and Magna Charta had placed upon 
the king. By this peaceful revolution of 1688 the English rid 
themselves of the Stuarts and their claims to rule by divine i%bt, 
and once more declared themselves against the rule of the pope, 
A bill of toleration was passed by Parliament which freed 
Dissenters from all penalties for failing to attend services in 
Anglican churches and allowed them to have their own meet- 
ings. Even Catholics, while not included in the act of toleration, 
were permitted to hold services undisturbed by the government 

■ Section 70. What was the great issue during the period of the 
Stuarts? What were the views of kingship held by James I ? Men- 
tion some of the books of his time. 

Section 71. What policy did Charles I adopt in regard to Par-" 
liament? What was the Petition (rf Right? What were the chief 

C k")o<^ Ic 

386 The Middle Period of European History 

religious parties in England in the time of Charles I ? Who was John 
Hampden ? Mention some of the religious sects Hat date from that 
time which still exist in the United States. 

Sectiok 72. What measures did the Long Fariiament take 
against the king 1 Describe the dvil war. What led to the execution 
of Chai les I ? 

Section 73. What were the chief events during Cromwell's ad- 
ministration ? What are your impressions of Cromwell } 

Section 74. What led to the restoiation of the Stuarts? What 
was the attitude of Charles II toward the rdigious difficulties? Who 
were the Dissenters? 

Section 75, Why was James II unpopular? Give an account of 
the revolution which put William and Mary on the English thnme. 

D.D.t.zeab, Google 



Position and Character of Louis XIV 

76. Under the despotic rule of Louis XIV (1643-1715) Franceatthe 
France enjoyed a commanding influence in European affairs. Louis xiv 
After the wars of religion were over, the royal authority had been '^J''"5 
reestablished by the wise conduct of Henry IV. Later, Riche- 
lieu had solidified the monarchy by depriving the Huguenots of 
the exceptional privileges granted to them for their protection 
by Henry IV ; he had also destroyed the fortified castles of the 
nobles, whose power had greatly increased during the turmoil 
of the Huguenot wars. His successor. Cardinal Mazarin, who 
conducted the government during Louis XlV's boyhood, was 
able to put down a last rising of the discontented nobility. 

When Mazarin died, in 1 661, he left the young monarch with WhatRkhe- 
a kingdom such as no previous French king had enjoyed. The M^^ann bad 
nobles, who for centuries had disputed the power with the king, p™"^' *'" 
were no longer feudal lords but only courtiers. The Huguenots, a«*y 
whose claim to a place in the State beside the Catholics had led 
to the terrible civil wars .of the sixteenth century, were reduced 
in numbers and no longer held fortified towns from which they 
couM defy the king's officers, Richelieu and Mazarin had suc- 
cessfully taken a hand in the Thirty Years' War, and France 
had come out of it with enlarged territory, and increased impor- 
tance in European affairs. 

Louis XIV carried the work of these great ministers still The govern- 
farther. He gave that form to the French monarchy which it Huis'xiv 
retained until the French Revolution. He made himself the very 
mirror of kingship. His marvelous court at Versailles h 


388 Tlu Middle Period of European History 

dw model and the despair of other less opulent and powerful 
princes, who accepted his theory of the absolute power of kings 
but could not afford to imitate his luxury. By his incessant wars 
he kept Europe in turmoil for over half a century. The dis- 
tinguished generals who led his newly organized troops, and the 
wily <Dpkimats who arranged his alliances and negotiated his 

Fig. 103. Louis XIV 

treaties, made France feared and respected by even the most 

powerful of the other European states. 

The theoi7 Louis XIV had the same idea of kingship that James I had 

"divSie right ^"^ '" ^^jn to induce the English people to accept God had 

of kings "m gjygjj jtingg to men, and it was His will that monarchs should 

be regarded as Mis lieutenants and that all those subject to 

them should obey them absolutely, without asking any questions 

or making any criticisms ; for in submitting to their prince they 

were really submitting to God Himsdf. If the king were good 



i-^oLiC L...,.,ai 

D.D.t.zea by Google 

France under Louis JCIV 389 

and wise, his subjects should thank the Lord; if he proved 
foolish, cruel, or perverse, they must accept their evil ruler as 
a punishment which God had sent them for their sins. But in 
no case might they limit his power or rise against him.' 

Louis XIV had two great advantages over James I. In the Different 
first place, the English nation has always shown itself far more JJe EneUA 
reluctant than France to place absolute power in the hands of its """I ^'^^ 
rulers. By its Parliament, its courts, and its various declarations to™d 
of the nation's rights, it had built up traditions which made it monaichy 
impossible for the Stuarts to establish their claim to be absolute 
rulers. In France, on the other hand, there was no Great 
Charter or Bill of Rights ; the Estates General did not hold the 
purse strings, and the king was permitted to raise money without 
asking their permission or previously redressing the grievances 
which they chose to point out. They were therefore only sum- 
moned at irregular intervals. When Louis XIV took charge of 
the government, forty-seven years had passed without a meet- 
ing of the Estates General, and a century and a quarter was 
still to elapse before another call to the representatives of the 
nation was issued in 1789, - " 

Moreover, the French people placed far more reliance upon 
a powerful king than the English, perhaps because they were 
not protected by the sea from their neighbors, as England was. 
On every side France had enemies ready to take advantage of 
any weakness or hesitation which might arise from dissension 
between a parliament and the king. So the French felt it best, 
on the whole, to leave all in the king's hands, even if they 
suffered at times from his tyranny, 

Louis had another great advantage over James. He was a Penonai 
handsome man, of elegant and courtly mien and the most ex- \g^^^ l"' 
quisite perfection of manner; even when playing billiards he LouiaXiV 
is said to have retained an air of world mastery. TTie first of 

1 Louis X t V does nol appear to hare himself used the famous eKpreukin " /am 
the Slait," usually attributed to him, but it exactly correaponds to bi* idea of the 
relatkm of the Idng and the State. 

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390 The Middle Period of European History 

the Stuarts, on the contrary, was a veiy awkward man, whose 
filching gait, intolerable manners, and [)edantic conversation 
were utterly at variance with hb lofty preten^ons. Louis added, 
moreover, to his graceful exterior a sound judgment and quick 
apprehension. He said neither too much nor too little. He 
was, for a king, a hard worker and spent several hours a day 
attending to the business of govenmient. 

It requires, in fact, a great deal of energy and application to 
be a real despot. In order thoroughly to understand and to solve 

Fig. 104. Facade of the Palace of Versailles 

the problems which constantly face the ruler of a great state, a 
monarch must, like Frederick the Great or Napoleon, rise early 
and toil late. Louis XIV was greatly aided by the able min- 
isters who sat in his council, but he always retained for himself 
the place of first minister. He would never have consented to 
be dominated by an adviser, as his father had been by Richelieu. 
" The profession of the king," he declared, " is great, noble, 
and delightful if one but feels equal to performing the duties 
which it involves," — and he never harbored a doubt that he 
himself was bom for the business. 

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France under Loitts XIV 391 

How Louis encouraged Art and Literature 

77. Louis XIV was careful that his surroundings should suit The lung's 
the grandeur of his office. His court was magnificent Seyond ^J^l^tt^ 
anything that had been dreamed of in the West ■ He had an 
enormous palace constructed at Versailles, just outside of Paris, 
with interminable halls and apartments and a vast garden 

Fig. 105, One of the Vast Halls of Versailles 

stretching away behind it About this a town was laid out, 
where those who were privileged to be near his majesty or 
supply the wants of the royal court lived. This palace and 
its outlying buildings, including two or three less gorgeous 
residences for the king when he occasionally tired of the cere- 
mony of Versailles, probably cost the nation about a hundred 
million dollars, in spite of the fact that thousands of peasants 
and soldiers were forced to turn to and work without pay. 
The furnishings and decorations were as rich and costly as the 
palace was splendid and still fill the visitor with wonder. For 

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Loui* XIV** 

392 The Middle Period of European History 

over a century Versailles continued to be the home of the 
French kings and the seat of their government. 

This splendor and luxury helped to attract the nobility, who 
no longer lived on their estates in well-fortified castles, plan- 
ning how they might escape the royal control. They now dwelt 
in the effulgence of the king's countenance. They saw him to 
bed at night and in stately procession they greeted him in the 
momii^. It was deemed a high honor to hand him his shirt as 

Fig. 106. Facade of the Palace of Vek^iAILLES toward 
THE Gardens 

he was being dressed or, at dinner, to provide him widi a fresh 
napkin. Only by living close to the king could the courtiers 
hope to gain favors, pensions, and lucrative offices for them- 
selves and their friends, and perhaps occasionally to exercise 
some little influence upon the policy of the government For 
they were now entirely dependent upon the good will of their 

The reforms which Louis XIV" carried out in the earlier part 
of his reign were largely the work of the great financier Colbert, 
to whom France still looks back with gratitude. He early 

D.D.t.zea by Google 

France under Louis XIV 393 

discovered that the king's officials were stealing and wasting vast 
sums. The offenders were arrested and forced to disgorge, and 
a new system of bookkeeping was introduced, similar to that 
employed by business men. He then turned his attention to 
increasing the manufactures of France by establishing new in- 
dustries and seeing that the older ones kept to a high standard, 
which would make French goods sell readily in foreign markets. 
He argued justly that if foreigners could be induced to buy 
French goods, these sales would bring gold and silver into the 
country and so enrich it He made rigid rules as to the widdi 
and quality of cloths which the manufacturers might produce 
and the dyes which they might use. He even reorganized the 
old medieval guilds ; for through them the government could 
keep its eye on all the manufacturing that was done ; this would 
have been far more difficult if every one had been free to cany 
on any trade which he might choose. 

It was, however, as a patron of art and literature that Art and liter- 
Louis XIV gained much of his celebrity.- Molifere, who was at ^"^ of 
once a playwright and an, actor, delighted the court with come- ^'"''° '"^ 
dies in which he delicately satirized the foibles of his time. 
Comeille, who had gained renown by the great tragedy of 7^e 
Cid in Richelieu's time, found a worthy successor in Racine, the 
most distinguished, perhaps, of French tragic poets. The chaim- 
ing letters of Madame de S^vign^ are models of prose style and 
serve at the same time to give us a glimpse into the more refined 
life of the court circle. In the famous memoirs of Saint-Simon, 
the weaknesses of the king, as well as the numberless intr^ues 
of the courtiers, are freely exposed with inimitable skill and wit. 

Men of letters were generously aided by the king with pen- The govem- 
sions. Colbert encouraged the French Academy, which had ™de^^& 
been created by RicheUeu. This body gave special attention to ™™' f'^' 
making the French tongue more eloquent and expressive by piage and 
determining what werds should be used. It is now the greatest " 
honor that a Frenchman can obtain to be made one of the 
forty members of this association. A magazine which still exists, 

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394 "^^^ Middle Period of European History 

the Journal des Savants, was founded for the promotion of 
science at this time. Colbert had an astronomical observatory 
built at Paris; and the Royal Library, which only possessed 
about sixteen thousand volumes, b^an to grow into that great 
collection of two and a half million volumes — by far the largest 
in existence — which to-day attracts scholars to Paris from all 
parts of the world. In short, Louis XIV and his ministers be- 
lieved one of the chief objects of any government to be the pro- 
motion of art, literature, and science, and the example they set 
has been followed by almost every modem state. 

Louis XIV attacks his Neighbors 

78. Unfortunately for France, the king's ambitions were by no 
means exclusively peaceful. Indeed, he regarded his wars as his 
chief glory. He employed a carefully reorganized army and the 
skill of his generals in a series of inexcusable attacks on his neigh- 
bors, in which he finally squandered all that Colbert's economies 
had accumulated and led France to the edge of financial ruin. 

Louis XIV's predecessors had had, on the whole, little time 
to think of conquest. They had first to consolidate their realms 
and gain the mastery of their feudal dependents, who shared the 
power with them ; then the claims of the English Edwards and 
Henrys had to be met, and the French provinces freed from 
their clutches ; lastly, the great religious dispute was only settled 
after many'years of disintegrating civil war. But Louis XIV 
was now at liberty to look about him and consider how he 
might best realize the dream of his ancestors and perhaps rees- 
tablish the ancient boundaries which Csesar reported that the 
Gauls had occupied. Tlie " natural limits " of France appeared 
to be the Rhine on the north and east, the Jura Mountains and 
the Alps on the southeast, and to the south the Mediterranean 
and the Pyrenees. Richelieu had believed that it was the chief 
end of his ministry to restore to France the boundaries deter- 
mined for it by nature. Mazarin had labored hard to win Savoy 

D.D.t.zeab, Google 

France under Louis XIV 395 

and Nice and to reach the Rhine on the north. Before his 
death France at least gained Alsace and reached the Pyrenees, 
"which," as the treaty with Spain says (1659), "formerly 
divided the Gauls from Spain," 

Louis XIV first turned his attention to the conquest of the LouU XIV 
Spanish Netherlands, to which he laid claim through his wife, the the'sp^sh 
elder sister of the Spanish king. Charles II (1665-1700). In N<tl>"'»"'ls 
1667 he surprised Europe by publishing a little treatise in whidi 
he set forth his claims not only to the Spanish Netherlands, but 
even to the whole Spanish monarchy. By confounding the king- 
dom of France with the old empire of the Franks he could main^ 
tain that the people of the Netherlands were his subjects, 

Louis placed himself at the head of the army which he had The invauon 
re-formed and reorganized, and announced that he was to under- ]a„ds, 1667 
take a "journey," as if his invasion was only an expedition into 
another part of his undisputed realms. He easily took a num- 
ber of towns on the border of the Netherlands and then turned 
south and completely conquered Franche-Comt^, This was 
an outlying province of Spain, isolated from her other lands, 
and a most tempting morsel for the hungry king of France.* 

These conquests alarmed Europe, and especially Holland, 
which could not afford to have the barrier between it and France 
removed, for Louis XIV would be an uncomfortable neighbor. 
A Triple Alliance, composed of Holland, England, and Sweden, 
was accordingly organized to induce France to make peace with 
Spain. Louis contented himself for the moment with the dozen 
border towns that he had taken and which Spain ceded to him 
on condition that he would return FrancheComt^. 

The success with which Holland had held her own against i-ouia xiv 
the navy of England and brought the proud king of France the xnpie 
to a halt produced an elation on the part of that tiny country ^m!'*''i? ""* 
which was very ag^avating to Louis XIV. He was thoroi^hly »el[ wi* 
vexed that he should have been blocked by so trifling an EDgljmd 
obstacle as Dutch intervention. He consequently conceived a 

1 See ibove, pp, 379 (nd 355. 

■ D:|-:ectvGoOglc 

396 The Middle Period of European History 

strong dislike for the United Provinces, which was tnt 
by the protection that they afforded to writers who annoyed 
him with .their attacks. He broke up the Triple Alliance by 
inducing Charles II of England tO conclude a treaty which 
pledged England to help France in a new war against the 
Louii XIV'» Louis XIV then startled Europe again by seizing the duchy of 
Holiand, 167a Lorraine, which brought him to the border of Holland, At the 
head of a hundred thousand men he crossed the Rhine (1672) 
and easily conquered southern Holland. For the moment the 
Dutch cause appeared to be lost But William of Orange shopped 
the spirit of his great ancestor William the Silent; the sluices 
in the dikes were opened and the country flooded, so the French 
army was checked before it could take Amsterdam and advance 
into the north. The emperor sent an army against Louis, and 
England deserted him and made peace with Holland. 
Peace of When a general peace was concluded at the end of six years, 

^^mwegen, ^^ ^^^ pTovisions Were that Holland should be left intact, and 
that France shoukl this time retain Franche-Comt^, which had 
been conquered by Louis XIV in person. This bit of the 
BuTgundian heritage thus became at last a part of France, 
after France and Spain had quarreled over it for a century 
Louis XIV and a half. For the ten years following there was no open 
^^i^burg war, but Louis seized the important free city of Strassburg and 
made many other less conspicuous but equally unwarranted ad- 
ditions to his territory. The emperor was unable to do more than 
protest against these outrageous encroachments, for he was fully 
occupied with the Turits, who had just laid siege to Vienna. 

Louis XIV and his Protestant Subjects 

Situation of 79. Louis XIV exhibited as woeful a want of statesmanship 

^Itfhr '" tl"^ treatment of his Protestant subjects as in the prosecution 

beginning of q£ disastrous wars. The Huguenots, deprived of their former 

reign military and political power, had turned to manufacture, trade, 

France under Louis XIV 397 

and banking ; " as rich as a Huguenot " had become a proverb 
in France, There were perhaps a million of them among fifteen 
million Frenchmen, and they undoubtedly formed by far the 
most thrifty and enterprising part of the narion. The Catholic 
clergy, however, did not cease to urge the complete suppression 
of heresy. 

Louis XIV had scarcely taken the reins of government into Louii'a 
his own hands before the perpetual nagging and injustice to preUi™ '"^ 
which the Protestants had been subjected at all times took a 
more serious form. Upon one pretense or another their churches 
were demolished. Children were authorized to renounce Prot- 
estantism when they reached the age of seven. Rough dragoons 
were quartered upon the Huguenots with the hope that the in- 
sulting behavior of the soldiers might frighten the heretics into 
accepting the religion of the king. 

At last Louis XIV was !ed by his officials to believe that prao- RevMatioii 
tically all the Huguenots had been converted by these harsh ofNante*«nd 
measures. In 1685, therefore, he revoked the Edict of Nantes, *»«"!» 
and the Protestants thereby became oudaws and their ministers 
subject to the death penalty. Even liberal-minded Catholics, . 
like the kindly writer of fables, La Fontaine, and the charming 
letter writer, Madame de S^vignd, hailed this reestablishment 
of " religious unity " with delight They believed that only an 
insignificant and seditious remnant still clung to the beliefs of 
Calvin. But there could have been no more serious mistake. 
Thousands of the Huguenots succeeded in eluding the vigi- 
lance of the royal offidals and fled, some to England, some to 
Prussia, some to America, carrying with them their skill and 
industry to strengthen France's rivals. This was the last great 
and terrible example in western Europe of that fierce religious 
intolerance which had produced the Albigensian Crusade, the 
Spanish Inquisition, and the Massacre of St. Bartholomew. 

Louis XIV now set his heart upon conquering the Palatinate, Louis'i 
a Protestant land, to which he easily discovered that he had a 5« Rhenish 
claim. TherumoTof his intention and the indignation occasioned I'^'in"* 

398 The Middle Period of European History 

in Protestant countries by the revocation of the Edict of Nantes 
resulted in an alliance against the French king headed by William 
of Orange. Louis speedily justified the suspicions of Europe by 
a frightful devastation of the Palatinate, burning whole towns 
and destroying many castles, includii^ the exceptionally beautiful 
one of the elector at Heidelberg. Ten years later, however, 
Louis agreed to a peace which put things back as they were 
before the struggle began. He was preparing for the final and 
most ambitious undertaking of his life, which precipitated the 
longest and bloodiest war of all his warlike reign. 

War of the Spanish Succession 

The qaeation 8o. The king of Spain, Charles 11, was childless and brother- 

iihaircc™S)ii l^ss, and Europe had long been discussing what would become of 
his vast realms when his sickly existence should come to an end. 
Louis XIV had married one of his sisters, and the emperor, 
Leopold I, another, and these two ambitious rulers had been 
considering for some time how they might divide the Spanish 
possessions between the Bourbons and the Hapsburgs. But 
when Charles II died, in 1700, it was discovered that he had 
left a will in which he made Louis's younger grandson, Philip, 
the heir to his twenty-two crowns, but on the condition that 
France and Spain should never be united. 
Louis's ^and- It was a weighty question whether Louis XIV should permit his 
becomes '"' grandson to accept this hazardous honor. Should Philip become 
Sk^"* king of Spain, Louis and his family would control all of south- 

western Europe from Holland to Sicily, as well as a great part 
of North and South America. This would mean the establish- 
ment of an empire more powerful than that of Charles V. It 
was clear that the disinherited emperor and the ever watchful 
William of Orange, now king of England (see above, p. 384), 
would never permit this unprecedented extension of French 
influence. They had already shown themselves ready to make 
great sacrifices in order to dieck far less serious aggressions on 

France under Louis XIV 399 

the part of the French king. Nevertheless, family pride and 
personal ambition led Louis criminally to risk the welfare of 
his country. He accepted the will and informed the Spanish 
ambassador at the French court that he might salute Philip V 
as his new king. The leading French newspaper of the time 
boldly proclaimed that the Pyrenees were no more. 

King William soon succeeded in forming a new Grand Alii- The War of 
ance (1701) in which Louis's old enemies, England, Holland, succuiion 
and the emperor, were the most important members. William 
himself died just as hosdJides were beginning, but the long 
War of the Spanish Succession was carried on vigorously by 
the great English general, the Duke of Marlborough, and the 
Austrian commander, Eugene of Savoy. The conflict was more 
general than the Thirty Years' War; even in America there was 
fighting between French and English colonists, which passes in 
American histories under the name of Queen Anne's War. All 
the more important battles went against the French, and after 
ten years of war, which was rapidly ruining the country by the 
destruction of its people and its wealth, Louis XIV was willing 
to consider some compromise, and after long discussion a peace 
was arranged in 1713. 

The Treaty of Utrecht changed the map of Europe as no TheTreaqr 
previous treatyhad done, not even that of Westphalia. Each "^,3 *" 
of the chief combatants got his share of the Spanish booty over 
which they had been fighting. The Bourbon Philip V was per- 
mitted to retain Spain and its colonies on condition that the 
Spanish and French crowns should never rest on the same 
head. To Austria fell the Spanish Netherlands, hereafter called 
the Austrian Netherlands, which continued to form a barrier 
between Holland and France. Holland received certain for- 
tresses to make its position still more secure. The Spanish 
possessions in Italy, that is, Naples and Milan, were also given 
to Austria, and in this way Austria got the hold on Italy which 
it retained until 1866. From France, England acquired Nova 
Scotia, Newfoundland, and the Hudson Bay r^on, and so 


400 The Middle Period of European History 

began the oipulsion of the French from North America. Besides 
thcae American provinces she received the rode and fortress of 
(Mbraltar, whidi still gives her command of the narrow entrance 
to the Mediterranean. 
The develop- The period of Louis XIV b remarkable for the development 
^^,^„^ of international law. The incessant wars and great alliances 
"^ embracing several powers made increasingly dear the need of 

wdl-defined rules governing states in their relations with one 
another both in peace and in war. It was of the utmost 
importance to determine, for instance, the rights of ambassa- 
dors and of the vessels of neutral powers not engaged in the 
war, and what should be considered fair conduct in warfare 
and in the treatment of prisoners. 
Grotiin'i War The first great systematic treatise on international law was 
published by Grotius in 1625, when the horrors of the Thirty 
Years' War were impressing men's minds with the necessity of 
finding some means other than war of settling disputes between 
nations. While the rules laid down by Grotius and later writers 
have, as we must sadly admit, by no means put an end to war, 
they have prevented many conflicts by increasing the ways in 
which nations may come to an understanding with one another 
through their ambassadors without recourse to arms. 

Louis XIV outlived his son and his grandson and left a 
sadly demoralized kingdom to his five-year-old great-grandson, 
Louis XV (i7r5-i774). The national treasury was depleted, 
the people were reduced in numbers and were in a miserable 
state, and the army, once the finest in Europe, was in no 
condition to gain further victories. 


Section 76. What did Richelieu accomplish in strengthening 
the French monarchy? What were Louis XIV's ideas of kingship? 
Why did the French view the "divine right of kings" differently 
from the En^h? Contrast Louis XIV with James I. 


; ■.;::■ ':-v/ tcH'^ 
: rU'J-C I.:?RARY 


D.D.t.zea by Google 

b, Google 

France under Louis XIV 40 1 

Section 77. Describe the palace of Versaillea. What were the 
chief reforms of Colbert? Mention some of the great writers of 
Louis XIVs tinte. How did the government aid scholarship and 

Section 78. What ledLouisXlVtoattack his neighbors? What 
are the "natural "boundaries of France? What country did Louis first 
attack? What additions did he make to French territory? 

Section 79. What was the policy of Louis XIV toward the 
Huguenots? Who were Louis XIVs chief enemies? 

Section 80, What were the causes of the War of the Spanish 
Succession ? What were the chief changes provided for in the Trea^ 
of Utrecht? 

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It is not the aim of Ihis bibliography to mention all of ev«n the im- 
portant books in various languages that relate to the period in question. 
The iTiiter is well aware that teachers are busy people and that high' 
school libraries and local public libraries usually furnish at best onl]f a 
few historical works. It is therefore most important that those books 
should be given prominence in this list which Che teacher has some 
chance of procuring and finding the time lo use. Il not infrequently 
happens that the best account of a particular period or topic is in a for^ 
eign language or in a rare publication, such as a doctor's dissertation, 
which could only be found in one of our largest libraries. All such titles, 
however valuablSi are omitted from this list. They can be found men- 
tioned in all the more scholarly works in the various fields. 


For a general sketch of ancient history the student may be referred A. General 
to the first eleven chapters of Robinson and Breasted, OiUlinii >^<^E 
0/ Eurofiian History, Part I. Other textbooks on ancient history are 
BoTSFORD, A ncunt History, or his more detailed Hiitory of Greece and 
History of Rome. West, Ancient History lolhi Death e/ Charlemagne; 
Pblham, Outlines 0/ Roman History ; and MVBRS, Rome: its Rise and 
Fall. There are good Wbliographies in these books, with references to 
larger histories. The best work in English on the conditions In the 
Empire upon the eve of the invasions is Dill, Roman Society in ike 
Last Century of the Western Empire. Every historical student should 
gain some acquaintance with the celebrated historian Gibbon. Al- 
though his Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire was written about a 
century and a half ago, it is still of great interest and importance and 
is incomparable in its style. The best, edition is published by The 
Macmillan Company, with corrections and additions by a competent 
modem historian, J. B. Bury. The Cambridge Afediaval History., by 
various writers, now in course of publication, devotes its first volume 
to the period in question. BURV, Later Roman Empire, is especially 
good for the history of (he eastern part of the Empire. Hodgkin, 

C k")0<^ Ic 

B. The 

C. ChriMian- 

404 The MiddU Period of EMTopttm History 

Italy anJ Aer Imnderi, tw eitenuve woik id eight volumes, has desciip- 
(ive secliont based on loiirce materiaL Hii two snudl works, the Dyitatty 
ef Thipduiui and Tktedtric tkt Getk, are very readable but somewhat 
exaggerate the invasions. Cithningham, Waltrn CiviUiatiim in Us 
Economic Aiftctt, is a suggestive survey, less popular but more general 
than Davis, Infiiutut ef Wcoith on Jmftrial /tvme, which is a brilliant 
but somewhat overdrawn account of the economic situation in Che Empire. 

Glovei, Cenjlict tf Rttigumi in the Early Raman Empin, is a valu- 
able book on the conditions under which Christianity arose. For the 
history of the Church, Nkwhan, Manual ef Church History, is a clear 
account. Of more elaborate worts, Schap», Histery ef the Christian 
Church, or Mobllek, Church History, may be recommended. 

The textbook and the collateral reading should always be supple- 
mented by examples of contemporaneous materials. Robinson, Read- 
ings in European History, Vol. I (from the barbarian invasions to the 
opening of the sixteenth century) and Vol. II (from the opening of the 
■uiteenth century to the present day), arranged to accompany chapter 
by chapter the author's Intreduciion to the History of WisSem Europe, 
will be found especially useful in furnishing extracts which recnforce 
the narrative, together with extensive bibliographies and topical refer- 
ences. This compilation will be referred to hereafter simply as Readings. 
There is also an abridged edition in one volume. In addition the fol- 
lowing may be mentioned; Thatcher and McNeal, Source Book f err 
Medimal History ; Ogg, Source Booh for Medieval History, and the 
series of lyanslatians and Reprints of the University of Pennsylvania. 
The Columbia University Press is now bringing out a new series of 
source nuterial. Records of Civiliiaiion, edited by J. T. Shotwbll, 
which aim* to give many important documents of history in full in 
English translation. Its volumes on HelUnic Civilitalion aiul TTte Rise 
of Christianity should be noted here. 
I Constant use should be made of good historical atlases. By far the 
best and most convenient for the hi^ school is Shepherd, Williau 
R., Historical Atlas, IQI I (see maps 43, 45, 48, 50-52). Dow, Eaklb E., 
Atlas of European History, 1907, also furnishes clear maps of th« 
chief changes. 


The best short account of the barbarian invasions is Euekton, . 
Jnlroduclion to the Middle Ages, chaps, i-vii. OMAN, The Dark Ages, 
gives a somewhat fuller narrative of the events. Adams, G. B., CivUi- 
tatioit during the Middle Ages, chaps. 1, ii, iv, and v, discusses the 
general conditions and results. 

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Bibliography 40S 

For extracts relating to the barbarian invaj 
pp. 28-55. ^'^<^\-^ Sbhtcc Beek of Mtdiaval Histffry,<AiX^.\-vi. Much ' 
more extensive are the extracts given in Hayes, C. H., An Intreductign 
to tht Saurcei rektling to Ike Germanie Invasions, 1909 (Columbia Uni- 
veisity Studies in History, Economics, and Public Law, Vol. XXXIII, 
No. III). There is a translation of Gregory of Tours' History of tkt 
Franks, by Brehaut, in the series. Records 0/ Civilitahmi. 


There are no veiy satisfactory short accounts of the development of A. Genenl 
the papacy. One must turn to the church histories, which ate written "^""'8 
by either Catholics or Protestants and so difFer a good deal in Iheir in- 
terpretation of events. One may refer 10 Yiiat.t., Nistary of tie Chris- 
tian Church (Prolestant), or Alzog, Manual of Universal Church 
History (Catholic). Milman, History of Latin Christianity, although' 
old, is scholarly and readable and to be found in many good Ubraries. 
Cambridge Mediitval History, Vol. I. chaps; iv, vi. Newman, Manual 
of Church History, Vol. I (Protestant). 

Readings, Vol. I, pp. 14-27 and chap. iv. By far the best collection B. Source 
■ of illustrative sources is lo be found in Aver. J. C, A Source Book of ™<=ri^ 
Ancient Church History, 1913. 


The church histories referred lo above all have something to say of A. Genenl 
the monks. There is an excellent chapter on roonasticism in Taylor, reading 
Henry O.. Classical Heritage of the Middle Ages, Ch3.p. \n. See also a 
little book by the famous church historian Harnack, Motiasticism. 

Readings, chap. v. There is a Life of St. CoSumban, written by one of B. Source 
his companions, which, although short and simple in the extreme, fur- material 
nishes a better idea of the Christian spirit of the sixth century than the 
longest treatise by a modem writer. This life may be found in Transla- 
tions and Reprints, Vol. II, No. 7, translated by Professor Monro. The 
chief portions of the Benedictine Rule may be found in Henderson, 
E. F., Select Historical Documents of the Middle Ages, pp. 74 ff., and in 
Thatcher and McNeal, A Source Book for Mediavat History, pp. 432 ff. 
See map, pp. 46-47, in Shepherd, Historical Atlas, showing spread of 
Christianity in Europe. 

Cambridge Medieval History, Vol. II, chap. xvi. The most complete C. Additional 
history of the monks is by the French writer Montalembert. The f^d^B 
Monks of the West from St. Benedict to St. Bernard, whkh has been 

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406 Tht Middle Period of European History 

transbled into EngHsh (6 toU.). The writer's cnthuuasm and excellent 
style make the work very attractive. 

For Mohammed and the Saracens, Thatchkr and Schwiu:., £uTiipe 
M Ikt MiddU Agi, chap. IV. GiLHAH, Tht Saraaht. Gibbon has a 
famous chapter on Mohammed and another on the conquests ol the 
Araba. These are the fiftieth and fifiy-firstot his great work. Cambridgi 
Mediaval History, Vol. II, chaps, i-iii. 

It is not hard to find a copy of one of the English translations of the 
Koran. See brief eittacts in Riadings and in Ogg, Source Boot ef 
Mtdiaval History, pp. 97 fE. Stanley LANE-PooLe. Speeches and 
Taile Tali of Mohammed, is very interesting. 
I Muis, Life of Mohammed. Ameer Ali, The Life and Teachings of 
Mohammed, a Short History of the Saracens, by one who sympathizes 
with them. 


A. General 

Emerton, Introduction to the Middle Ages, chaps, xii-xiv. Bryce, 
"^"^ Hi^y Roman Empircy chaps, iv-v. Henderson, History of Germany in 

the MiddU Ages, chaps, iv-v. Oman, Dark Ages, chaps, xii-xxii. 

B. Source Readings, pp. 120-115 and chap. vii. Dunqalf and Krey, Paratiel 
""'«"»' Source Problems in Medical History, pp. 3-26. 

C. Additional HodGKIn, Charles the Great, a smalt volume. MouBERT, A History 
reading of Charles the Great, (he most extensive treatment in English. Cambridge 

Mediavai History, Vol. II, chaps, xviii-xix. 


A. General Emerton, Introduction to tht Middle Ages, chap. xv. Oman, Dark 

reading ..4ffj, chaps. iiiii-xiv. 'E.UKtfTOti.Mediaval Eurofe,cY}.3p.xiv. Ai>ams, 

Civilization during the MiddU Ages, chap. ix. 

B. Source Readings, chaps, viii-ix. Ogg, Source Book of Mtdiaval History, 
material chap. x. T HfiTCHEI. and i/ICti rJ^L, -^ Source Boot for Med-aval History, 

pp. 341-417- 

C. Additional Seignobos, Feudal Rfgime (excellent). See " Feudalism," in Ettcyclo- 
""•""B padia Britannica,wCa&A.. ltl<it.KW,Histi}ry of Slavery and Serfdom, espe- 

dally chaps, iv-v. CheyNeY, Industrial and Social History of England. 


A. General There are a number of convenient general histories of England during 

'^^'"S the Middle Ages which can be used to supplement the short account 

here given: CHV.\vv.-i. Short History of England; Gheen , Short History 

of the English People ; CROSS, A, U, A ffitlory of E>^laitd and Greater- 


Bibliography 407 

Britain, chaps, iv-iviii; Andrbws, Charles M., HUtary a/ England; 
Terry, Nislory of England; and a number of others. For France, 
Adams, G. B., Grtmth oftht French Nation -. Duruy. Hiitery of France. 

Readings, (baps- xi, >x. There are several source books of English B. Soarce 
history ; CheyNEY, Riadings in English Nistery, chaps. Iv-iii : Colby, "^terifll 
SeUctims from the Sources of English History ; LEE, Source-Book of 
English History; KENDALL, Source Book of English History. 

There is, of course, a great deal more available in English relating to C. Additional 
English history than to the history of the continental countries. One """8 
will find plenty of references to the more extensive works in any of 
the books mentioned above. 


EMKHTON,^,frfj:«'o/£Hr,^/,chaps.iii-x. HknDEhsON, E. F.,/ffir/orf ^.General 
of Germany in Ike Middle Ages. A clear and scholarly account of the reading 
whole period. 

^iMi/i'ff^j, Vol. I, chaps, xii-xiv. DuNCALr and Krey, /'arii//f/.9ifu>-f^ £. Source 
Problems in Medieval Niilery, TioUfiTD II {Canoaasi). Thatcher and ""^tisl 
McNeal,,^ Source Book for Mediavat History, Stnioa III, pp. 132-259. 

Tout, The Empire and the Papacy, with chief attention to the C. Additional 
Strictly political history. Bryce, Holy Roman Empirt, chaps, viii-xi reading 
Excellent maps for the period wll be found in Shepherd, Historieai 


Emerton, Mtdiitval Europe, chap. xi. Tout, The Empire and the A. General 
Papacy, chaps, vii, viii, xiii, xiv, xix. Adams, Civilitatien during the "i^Jins 
Middle Ages, chap, xi, for discussion of general results. 

Readings, chap, nv. Thatcmkr and McNeal, A Source Book for B. Source 
^(■i/tlj]^B/^iffc>ri', Section IX, pp. 5ro-54H. Translations and ReprinU ""X™! 
published by the Depart^ient of Hislorj' of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania. Vol. I, Nos. z. 4, and Vol. Ill, No. i. 

Archer and Kingspord, The Crusades. Gibbon, Decline and Fall C. Additional 
of lie Roman Empire, chaps. Iviii-Iix. See "Crusades," in Eticyclo- ""^"E 
padia Britannica, llth ed. 


The available material on this important subject is rather scattered. A. General 
The author gives a somewhat fuller account of the Church in hU ^^^^ 
Western Europe, chaps, xvi, xvii, xxi. See good chapter in Emerton, 
Mediiaial Europe, chap. xvL Special topics can be looked up in thtt 

3 by Google 

4o8 The MiddU Period of European History 

IT anj other good 

Eiuyclefadia Brittumiea, the CathoUc EiKjtlef^ia, o. 

B, Source Readingi, Vol. 1, chaps. «vi, «vii, xri. Thatchbr and McNbaj, 
'°^'"**' A SffUTil Book for Mtdi<rtial Hiitory, contains many important docu- 

tnenis teUting to the Church. 

C. Additioiial Q\ym, Parish Priests and their Fmf It. The opening chapter of LSA, 
"^■"8 A History of Iht Inquiiitian of the Middle Ages, give* a remarkable 

account of the medieval Church and (he abuses which prevailed. The 
first vohime also contains chaplera upon the origin of both the Francis- 
can and Dominican orders. For St. Francis the best work is Sabatier, 
SI. Francis of Assist. See also Gasquet, English Mntastic Lift; Jes- 
SOPP, The Comingeflhe Friars, andOther Historis Esiayi\ CkeIGHTON, 
History of the Papacy, introduclory chapter. 

A. General Emkrton, Mediaval Europe, chap. xv. Historians are so accustomed 

^ to deal almost exclusively with political events that one looks to them 

in vain for much informalion in regard to town life in the Middle Ages 
and is forced to lum to special works: GibbiNs, History of Commrree, 
best short account with good maps; Cunningham, Western Civiliiation 
in its Economic Aspects, Vol. II; Chevnev, Industrial and Social His- 
tory of England; Gibbins, Industrial History of England; Day. C., 
History of Commet'ce; Luckaire, Seaal Life in the Time of Philip 
Augustus. SvMONDS, Agi of Despots, gives a charming account of 
town life in Italy in its more picturesque aspects. HAULm, History of 
ArchiticlMrt, good introduction. Good account of early discoveries in 
Cambridge Modern History, Vol. I, chaps, i-ii. 
S. Source Readings, Vol. I, chap, xviii. Ogo, Source Book of Mediirval History, 

■"^"^ chap. XX. Thatcher and McNeal^-^ Source Book for Mediaval His- 

tory. Section X, pp. 545-611, gives many interesting documents, Marco 
Polo's account of his travels is easily had in English. The best edition 
of Travels of Sir John Mandeville is that published by The Macmillan 
Company, because it contains the accounts on which the anonymous 
writer of the travels depended for his information. 

A. General Emerton, Media^al Europe, chap. xiiL RasHOall, History of the 

reading Universitits in the Middle Ages, introductory chapters. 

*' te^l™ Readings, Vol. I, chap. xix. Steele, Mtdiaval Lore, extracts from an 

encyclopedia of the thirteenth century. The Song of Roland is trans- 
lated into spirited English verse by O'Hagan. The reader will find a 

3 by Google 

Bibliography 409 

beautiful example of a French romance of the twelfth century in an 
English translation of Aucassin and Nicolitte. Mr. STEELE gives charm. 
ing slories of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries in Hwin 0/ Bordeaux, 
Renaud of Montaaban, and Tke Story of Ahxander. Maloby, Mert 
d'Arlhur, a collection of the stones of the Round Table made in the 
fifleenlh centuiy for English readers, is the best place to turn for these 
famous stories. Robinson and Rolfe, Petrarch (new enlarged edition, 
I9I4], a. collection of his most interesting letters. WhitComb, Literary 
Source Book ef Ihi Italian Renaissance. Coulter, Mediinial Garntr, 
a collection of selections from the hterary sources. 

Saintsbukv, Flourishing 0/ Romante, a. gpaA introduction to medieval C. 
literature. \i klSH. The rkirleinlh, Ike Greatest 0/ Centuries l,iaxiier too "«««« 
enthusiastic in its claims), Suitk, Justin H., Tie TVoubadirurs at Hmie. 
Cornish, C.iroafry. H^iwt., Invention of Printing, foTHAU, Buoir 
and their Makers during tke M%ddlt Agei. BdrckHardt, The Civiliia- 
tioH of the Renaiisanee in Italy. V auDvCK, The Jlistory of Painting. 

Johnson. Europe in the Sixteenth Century, chapt. i-li. Cambridge a. Genenl 
J/<i^<v»/^wA'rj',Vol.I,chap3.iv, ri. See " Charles V," in £'i>o'<^/<^^'ii reeling 
Britannica. DWRUY, History of France, Ninth and Tenth Periods. 

Readings, VoL II, chap. iniiL B. Source 

Cambridge Modem History, Vol. II, chap. ii. Dykr and HaSsaLL, ™AiMhioiial 
Modern Europe (a political history of Europe in 6 vols.), VoL I. leailing 
Creighton, History of the Papacy. Pastor, History of the Popei, 
Vol. V. Brvce, Holy Roman Empire, chap. xir. 


See fuller account in RoBINSON, History of Western Europe, chaps. A. Genera] 
xxi, xxiv-xxvi. llt.VDVAsaH,n. 7., Skorl History of Germany. John, reading 
SON, Europe in the Sixteenth Century, chaps, iii-v. Lindsay, .^uto^ of 
the Reformalionyal. I. Sec " Reformation," in Eneyelopadia Briianniea, 

Readings, Vol. I, chap, ixi, and Vol. II, chaps, xxiv-zxvi. Wage and B. Source 
BuCHHElM (Editors), Lutitr't Primary Worts and lie Augsburg "»«^ 
Confession. Whitcomb, Source Book of the German Renaissanee. 

McGiPFERT, Martin Luther. BEARD, MarHn Luther, especially in- C. Additional 
troductory chapters on general conditions. CreiohtoN, /firforf ^fci/ reading 
Papacy, Vol. VI. Cambridge Modem History, Vol. I, chaps, ix, jii, 
and Vol. II, chaps, iv-viii. Jakssen, History of the German People, 
Vols. III. EuERTON, Deiidtrius Erasmus, very interesting. 

3 by Google 

410 Tht MidiOt Ptritd of Bmpean History 


JOHMION, Enrtfr m lA* SxUtntk CnUury, pp. 171 S. See " ZwingH " 
ud " Calvin," \a Etteycl^trd'a Brilannua. Chaptcn oa the changes 
vikder Huuy VlII and Edwd VI will be found in all geoeiBl histories of 
England i lot taaxo^U, Cart KWf, Skor I //ut»ty ^ England, chap, idi; 
Ckos*, a HUtgry 0/ En^amd, chaps. U'^raii ; Gkkbn, Short //istory of 
tkt Engiiti Ptfflt, chi^t. vi-^viL 

Rtadingt, chap. urii. Gee and Hakdv, Dfcnrntntt IlluttnUiiie of 
Engliik Church Hiitmy, pp, 145 ff, vei7 useful and full. Cheynev, 
RuuUmgi in EngUsh Hitlarji, chap. xii. 

Camiri^ Medtn /Hilary, VoL II, chap*, x-xl, xiii^iv. Jacksok, 
'<^^'V 5. IL, Huldrtiik Zwingh. LiNDUV, Hiitory tf the Xifarmalim, VoL II, 

Bk.III,chapa. i-iii,andBk. IV. Gasqukt, T%t Eve af tk* RcfarmiUioti. 


A. Genend ' Johnson, Eurept in the SixUeniM Ctniury, chap«. vii-ix. Wakbu an, 
'^^^^ Euraftan Hiitory, isgS-ijij, chaps, i-v. The portion of the chapter 

dealing with Englith aSain can be readily lupplemented bj meani of the 
genetal hiuaiiea of England, CHEVNav, Caoss, Gkien, Andrews, etc. 

B. Soorce Readings, Vol II, cbap*. xxTiii, xis. Chbvhbv, Readings in English 
material History, chap, riii 

C. Addidoual Cawibridge Modern Hisli>ry,ViA.\\,Aa^A.\x,xn,xria~xa\ VoLIII, 
reading chapi. i, vi-x, av, u; Vol. IV, chape, i, iu~vi, xiii-xiv. Lindsay, 

Jlietory tf tkt StfcrmaUtm, VoL II, Bk. Ill, chipa. iv<-v and Bk. VI. 
Putnam, Rlttr, fViiliam Ikt SiUtO. Pavnb, Vayagts of Eiiiaietian 
Stamen to America, VoL I, Motley, Rite ef the Dutch Republic. 
GlNDELV, History of the Thirty Years' War, 


A. General Chevmbv, Short History of England, chaps. »iv-xvL Ckoss, A His- 
'■e*Jing tery of England, ch^w. zxvii-Ezzv. GasKK, Short History of tkt Et^isk 

People, chaps, viii-ii. 

B. Source ReaSngs, chap. xxx. Cheyney, Rtadings in EngHth History, chaps. 
"»**' riv-ETi. Lee, Sourci Book ofEngUsh History, Ft. VI ; Colby, SelecHons 

/ram the Soureet of English History, ¥t. VI, the Stain Period. Gee and 
HAS.DV, Documents Illustrative if English Chunk Histary,p^ 508-664. 

C. Additional CamMdgt Modern History, Vol. Ill, chap, xvii; Vol. IV, chaps. 
reading vUi-jd, rr, xin ; Vo], V, chaps. V, ii-xi. Moki«y. OUvtr Cromwell. 

Hacaulat, Essay on Milton. Gardinkk, The First Tuto Stuarts and 
Ihf Puritan Rev^uHon. 

D.D.t.zea by Google 

Bibliography 41 1 


Cambridge Modern History, Vol. V, chaps, i-ii, ziii-xiv. WAKEUAN, A. General 
Europe from i^gS to rji^, chaps, ix-ii, xiv-xv. DuLUr, History 0/ fea^inB 
France, Thirteenth Period. ADAMS, Growth of the French Nation. 

Readings, Vol. II, chap. xxxi. Memoir? of the period are often obtain- B. Source 
able in translation at reasonable prices. The greatest of these, those of maCenal 
Saint Simon, are condensed to a three-volume English edition. 

Perkins, France under the Regency, one of several valuable books C. Additional 
by this author. Taine, The Ancient Rigime, a brilliant picture of life '^^"^ 
in France in the eighteenth century. Lowell's Eve of the French 
Revolution is also general ; it is less picturesque but gives a fairer idea 
of conditions. 

3 by Google 

3 by Google 

Marked !M 

Abbeys, dissolution of, 

land, 319 
Ab'elard, 251 
Academy, French, 393 
Act of Supremacy, 317 
Act of Uniformity, 383 
Ad'ri an o'ple, battle of. 23 f. 
Advancemtnt 0/ Ltanting, 367 
Agincourt {aj'in court, Eng. pron.), 

battle of, 137 
Al'aric talces Rome, 24 
Albertus Magnus, 195, 253 
Al bi gen'sians, igSf. 
Al'che my, 250 
Al'cuin, 85 

Aleiius, Emperor, 167, 170 

Alfred the Great, inf. 

Al hamlira, the, 74 

Alsace (al sas') and Lorraine, 356 

Alva, Duke of, 334 f. 

Anabaptists, 307 

Andrea del barto (an dre'a del 
sar'to), 265 

Angles in Britain, 61 

Anglo-Saxon, 241 

Anglo-Saxon ChrenicU, 116 

Anjou(aD'jo,Eng.pion.), 122, 124; 
house of, T41 ; Charles of, 164 

Antioch (an'ti ok), Latin kingdom 
of. 173 

A qui'nas, Thomas, 195, 253 f. 

Arabian Nights' EnUrtainmtnts, 
The, 72 

Arabic numerals, 257 

Ar'abs, condition of, before Mo- 
hammed. 64; conquests of, 72 fF., 
167; civilization of, in Spain, 270 

Aragon, 270 

Archbishops, powers of, 184 

Architecture, medieval, 
Renaissance, 227 1. 

b Bx, thire, prudent, mSve, Frtnck bi 
I Eng- 

!I5 ff-i 

Aristotle, medieval v< 

.. 253; revolt against, 358 

Ar ma'da, 337, 350 

Astrology, 249 

At-ti la, 26 

Augsburg, battle of, 144, 155, 210; 

diet of, 307 ; confession of, 308 j 

peace of, 309, 352 
Aug'ust ine, bishop of Hippo, 24 
Austria, origin of, 269. See Haps- 

Avignon {av en yon'), residence of 
popes at, 199 

Babylonian captivity, 199 
Bacon, Francis, 362 f., 367 
Bacon, Roger, 255 
Bxda. See Venerable Bede 
Bagdad, 70 

Balance of power, 315 
Baldwin, king of Jerusalem, 170 f., 

Barbarossa. Ste Frederick f 
Bards, Welsh, 129 
Ba sil'i ca, the, 43 
Battering rams, 97 
Bayeux (bi yeh') tapestry, 115 
Becket, Thomas, ii9f, 
Benedict, St, 55 ; rule of, 55 f . 
Benedictine order. 55 and notej 

influence of, 56 
Bible, the, Luther's translation of, 

302; English translation of,3i8i 

King James version of, 367 
Bill of Rights, 385 
Bishop of Rome, early claims of* 

46; leading position of, 46-4S, 

I47f., l84f. Set Pope* 

:ectv Google 

414 Tfu Middle Period of European History 

BoheinU, 8i, jSr f-i35z 

Boleyn (bool'tn), Anne, 3t6(., 310 

Bologna (be I5n'yit), Univenity of, 

Boniface, St, apostle to the Gei^ 

mans, 63 f . 
Boniface VIJI, Pope, 196, 19S 
Books in Middle Ages, 158! 
Bouibon, House of, 141 ,- Spanish, 

398 f- 
Brandenburg, elector of, l3 1 
Bremen (b^'men), 80, zio 
Britain conquered by the Angles 

and Sazons, 61 
Bruce, Robert, 131 
Bubonic plague, 13J 
Burgundians, 18, 33 ; number of, 

entering the Empire, 35 
Burgundy, 138, 142, 179, 396 
Business in later Middle Age«, 

208 ff. 
Buttress. 218 f. 

Calais (kaTis), 139 
Caliph (kalif). tiUc of, 70 
Caliphate transferred from Medina 

to Damascus, 70 1 to Bagdad, 70, 

Calvin, 313 f., 338 
Canon law, 182 (note) 
Canossa, 155 
Capitularies, 84 

Cardinals, origin of, 151 and note 
Carplingian line, 75 (note) 
Cassio dS'rus, his treatises on the 

liberal arts and sciences, 18 f. 
Caltles, medieval, 93 ff. 
Cathedral, zi6f. 
Catherine of Aragon, 3l6£. 
Catherine of Medici (med'e ehS), 

338 ff. 
Catholic Church, cariy conception 

of, 40. Stt Church, Clergy 
Catholic League, 353 f. 
Cavaliers, 374 
Celts, 61 ; in Britain, 61 
Chatcedon (kal se'don). Act of the 

Council of, 48 
ChSlons (shaiaii'), batUe of, zd 
Charlemagne (shSrlemSn), 75ff.; 

disruption of Empire of, 87 

Charles 1, 368 ff. 

Charles II of England, 382 fi., 395 

Charles V, Emperor, t68, 272 fi., 

Charles VIII of France, Italian 
invasion of, 274 ft. 

Charles IX of France, 338 f. 

Charles Martel defeats the Mo- 
hammedans at Tours, 73, 75 

Charter, Great, I25f. 

Charters, town, 206 

Chaitres (shiirtr), cathedral of, 221 

Chaucer, 242 

Chivalry, 244 f. 

Christian church, rise of, 17 S. 

Christianity, promises of, 4r ; 
contrast between ideas of, and 
those of the pagans, 41 f, 

Chrysoloraa (kris o lo'ras), 254 

Church, greatness of, 40 ; sources 
of power of, 41 ff.; relation of. 
to the civil govemment, 43; 
begins to perform the functions 
of the civil government, 44 f . ; 
in time of Charlemagne, So, 
85; property of, i46fF.; char- 
acter and organization of, iSiff.; 
relation of, to State, 195; break- 
up of, 2S4. Sa Clergy, Popes 

Church of England, 317, 34J 

City-states. 222 ff. 

Civil war in England, 374 f. 

Clergy, position of, in Middle Ages, 
149 f., 186 f(. 

Clcritis laicas, 197 

Clermont, Council of, 167 

Clipping, 210 

Cloister, 57 

Clovis, conquests of, 32 f.; con- 
version of, 33; baptized, 35; 
number of soldiers of, 35 

Cnut(knot), liz 

Coinage, medieval, 211 

Colbert {kol bfir'), 392 i. 

Coligny (kolen'ye), 341 f. 

Columbus, 236 

Commerce in Middle Ages, 209(1. 

Commons, House of. See Parlia- 

:ectv Google 

Condottieri (kon dAt tyi're), zz6f. 

Con'stan tine, iS 

Constantinople, zo. 170, 178 f. 

Conventicle Act, 383 

Conventicles, 372 

Conversion, of the Gennans, 63 f . ; 
of the Saxons, 79 f. 

Coper'nicus. 358f. 

Cor'do va, mosque at, 73 ; univer- 
sity at, 74, 270 

Corooalion, religious ceremony, 76 

Covenant, National, 373 

Cr^cy (kra'se or Eng. pron. 
Itres'syl, battle of, 133 

Cromwell, Oliver, 375 ff< 

Crusades, 166 S. 

Cuiia, papal, 184 

Danegeld, 1 11 

Danes, invasion of England by, 

411 ff. 
Dark ages. 38. 85 
Degrees, university, explained, 

Z53 and note 
Denmark in Thirty Year»'War,353 
Descartes (da karr'}, 361 fl. 
Diet, of Germany, zSz ; at Worms, 

Discoveries, geognipliical, 232 fF. ; 

of the Portuguese, 234 f. 
Disorder, age of, 87 
Dispensations, 183 
Dissenters, 3S3 
Divine right of kings, 76, 365 f., 

388 ff. 
Dominicans, 194 
Don'jon, 98 
Drake, Sir Francis, 348 
Diirer, Albrecht, 265 
Dutch. Set Holland 

East, luxuries of, introduced into 

Europe, 210 
East Frankish kingdom. 88 
East Goths, z6 f ., 30 
Eastern Church, iiw Greek Church 
Eck, John, 297 
Edessa, 171, 173; fall of, 176 
Edict of Nantes (nanis), 344 ; reV- 
- -n of, 397 
Education, 85, 86, 147 S! 

iex 415 

Edward the ConfesMr, 112 f. 

Edward I, IZ7, iii)i., 196 

Edward 11, 128, 131 

Edward III, 128, 133 

Edward VI, 320 

Egbert, in 

Electors in the Empire, z3i 

Elizabeth, Queen, 317, 345 ff. 

E mir'ate of Cordova, Si 

Empire, Holy Roman, 8z, I45f^ 
158 ff., 164 

England, reconversion of, 63 ; in 
the Middle Ages, in ff.; rela- 
tions with Scotland, 131 1 con- 
dition of labor in, 1361.; Prot- 
estant revolt in, 3140.; under 
Elizabeth, 345 If.; constitutiaiial 
struggle in. 365 ff. 

English Church, 370 f. 

English language. 241 f. 

Erasmus, Z85 ff , ; attitude of, toward 
Luther, 294,314; Praite ef F^fy 
of. 3'S 

Estates General, 133 f., 141, ]9S< 

Excommunication, 187 

Eseter, cathedral of, zzi 

Fabliaux (fab le S'), 244 
Ferdinand, Emperor, 33 1 and note 
Ferdinand of Aragon. 271 
Feudal system. Set Feudalism 
Feudalism, 103 ff. ; warfare, 107 f. ; 
introduction of, into England, 
1 1 6; introducrion of, into France, 
141 i relation of, to Church, 
Fiefs. See Feudalism 
Flanders, 117, 210 

Fleur-de-lU (fliSr-de li'J. 133 
Florence, 165. 222, zzS, 264, 275, 

France, 135, i4off.; natural bound- 

zee tyGoOglc 

4i6 The Middle Period of European History 

Frank*, conqucio of, 28, 31 f.; 

conversionof, 33, 75, 87 
Frederick 1, Emperor, 15S f., i6z. 


Frederick II, Emperor, i6zf. 
Frederick the "winter king," 

Frederick the WUe, ?88, 197 
French language, Z43 and note 
French medieval romances. 143 
Fritzlar, sacred oak of Odin at, 

Gaelic (gSlikt, 130 

GaK'rius, iS 

Galile'o, 3S9f. 

Gascony (gai'kSni), 114 

Gelasius (je lii'shi us). Pope, his 
opinion of the relation of the 
Church and the civil govern- 
ment, 45 

Geneva, refomution at, 313 

Genoa, 178, 209. 223 

Geographical discoveries, 232 ff. 

Germanic languages, origin of, 36, 

Germans, objects of, in invading 
the Empire, 23 ; number of, in- 
vading, 35; fusion of, with the 
Romans, 351 character of early, 
38 : conversion of, 61 ff. 

Germany, 145 ff.; division of, into 
small states, 164, 26S ; universi- 
ties of, 2521 in the sixteenth 
■ y, 280 
f. 306 

Ghiberti (ge bgr'tS), 264 

Gibraltar, 400 

Godfrey of Bouillon (bo ySii')t 170 f- 

Golden Bull, 108 

Gothic architecture, 217 If. 

Gothic sculpture, 221 f. 

Granii'da, the Alhambra at, 74; 
fall of, Si 

Grand Remonstrance, 373 

"Great schism," 230 

Greek, study of, in the Middle 
Ages, 253 f, 

Greek Church tends to separate 
from the Latin, 48 

Gregory VII, Pope, 152 ff. 

Gregory of Tours, 30, 33 

Grotius, 400 
Guiennc (ge en'], IZ2, 124 
Guilds, in the Middle Ages, 20S ; 

of teachers, 251 
Guise (gei). House of, 337, 3408- 
Gunpowder, 257 f. 
Gustavua Adofphus, 3 53 ff. 

Hamburg, zio 

Hampden. John, 370 f. 

Hanseatic League, 114 

Hapsburg. Rudolf of, 164, 269; 
House of. :68ff. 

Ha'rem, 69 

Harold, Earl of Wessex, 113!. 

Harvey, William, 367 

Hastings, battle of, 115 

HejTra, the, 359 

Henry 1 of England. 117 

Henry II of England, 117 

Heniy III of England, 127 

Henry VII of England, 140 

Henry VII! of England, 279, 
3i5fF,; divorce case of, 3t6f.l 
revolt of, against papacy, 317^ 

Henry II of France, 338 

Henry III of France, 342 f. 

Henry IV of Gennany, 1 53 ; con- 
flict of, with Gregory Vlf, 1 53 ff. 

Henry V of Germany, 157 

Henry IV of Navarre, 343 ff. 

Heresy, 175, 187 f. 

High Church party, 372 

Highlands, 130 

History, continuity or unity of, 3 

Hohenstaufens, 158 f. See Fred- 
erick I, Frederick II 

Holbein (bomn), Hans, 165 

Holland, 335, 395; English war 
with, 37S f., 384 

Holy Land. 166 f. 
Holy League, 342 
Holy Roman Empire, 83, 144 ff., 

Homage, 104 
Hospitalers, 174 
Hrolf, 1 (3 

Huguenots, 339 ff., 3968. 
Humanists, 255 


Huns, 23, x6 

Independents, 371 
Index of prohibited book a, 316 
Indulgences, 190 and note 
Innocent III, Pope, IZ5, 175, 

192, 194 ; stmggle of, with the 

Hohenstaufcns, 162 ff. 
Inquisition, 109 f.; in Spain, 272; 

in the Netherlands, 333 t 
Instilute, French, 363 
Interdict, 125, 187 
Interest, attitude toward, in the 

Middle Ages, 212 
International law, 400 
InslHuUi of Chrislianily, Calvin's, 

3'3 f- 338 
Invasions in the ninth and tenth 

B, modem, 363 
e, 147 fI-> 1^1 questioa 
of, settled, 15S 
Ireland, 348 f., 376 f. 

Irene, Empress, 82 
aabella, queen of Castile, 271 
Italian cities, trade of. with Orient, 
209; of the Renaissance, 222 f[. 
Italian despots, 232 
Italy, in the Middle Ages, S8, 
222 fF. ; art of, 264 ff.; becomes 
battleground of Europe, 274 If. 


James II, 384 f. 

James VI of Scotland and I of 
England, 131 

Jerome, Sl, advocate of the mo. 
nastic life, 55 

Jerusalem, 167, 171, 177 i-i king- 
dom of, 173 

Jesuits, 3i6C; 352 

Jews, economic importance of, 
212 ; persecution of, 171 f. 

Joan of Arc, 137 f. 

John of England, 123 fF., 132 

John Frederick of Saiony, 309 

Journal des Savanls (joOTDiil'da 
sav on'), 394 

Jubilee of 1300, 197 

Julius II, Pope, 164 
Jury, trial by, 118 
"Just" price, 211 
Justinian, 30 f. 

Justs and toumeya in the Middle 
Ages, loS 

Kaaba (kald), 64, 67 
Kadijah(kade'ja), wife of Moham- 
med, 64 
Knighthood, 245 f. 
Knights in Germany, 282 
Knoi, John, 346 
Ko ran', the, 65 f. 

Lancaster, House of, 139 f. 
Land, ownership of, in Middle 

Ages, 89, 92 
Langton, Stephen, 124 
Lateran, palace of the, 231 
Latin kingdoms in Syria, 173 
Latin language, 36,239ff. 
Latin literature, eztinction of, 30 
Laud, William, 370!. 
Learning preserved byChurch,85 
Legates, papal, 183 
Leo the Great, 26, 48 
LeoX, 264, 277, 288 ft. 
Leonardo da Vinci (la on ar do da 

vin'chel, 265 
IJewellyn, 129 
Lombard League, 162 
I-ombard towns, 160 
Lombards, in Italy, 31; as bankers, 

Lombardy conquered by Charle- 
magne, 80 

Lord, medieval, io2 

Lords. House of, 12S 

Lorenzo the MagrJlficent, 228, 264 

Louis XI of France, 142 

Louis XIV of France, 387 ff. 

Louis the Pious, 87 

Ixiw Church party, 372 

Lowlands of Scotland, 130 

L5 yola, 326 ff . 

Lii'beck, 210, 214 

Luther, Martin, 288 ff. 

Lutheran revolt, 303 ff. 

:ectv Google 

4 1 8 The AfiddU Period ef EMropean History 

Magdeburg, deMnction of. 3S4 

Ml getlan. eipedJtioD of, Z36 

Maine. 121, 141, lU 

Malta, 174 

Manor, medjera). looff.; breaking 

up <rf the, in England, 136 
Marches, 81 
Hatco Polo, tyi 
Margraves, 81 
Maiignano (ina r«n ya'D6), battle 

«f. 278 
Marston Moor, battle of, 375 
Mary of Burgundy, 169 
Mary of England. 317, 311 £. 
Maiy Queen of Scots, 338, 347 f. 
MatUda, 115, 117 
Max i millan I, Emperor, 168 f. 
Mayence, elector of, 181 ; arcb- 

bishop of, 285 
MayfinKT, 371 
Mayor of (he Palace, 75 
Maiarin (mi ci ran'). 387 
Mecca, 64, 65 ; pilgrimage lo, 67 
Medici (nied'ecbC), (he, 228 
Medina, 65, 70 

Melanchthon (me langk'thon), 308 
Mendicant ordcrt, 190! 
Merovin'gian line, 34, 75 (note) 
Mer'Rcn, Treaty of, 87, 145 
Michael Angelo, (mile*! an'je 15), 

Middle Ages, meaning of term, 

3 f. ; character of. 38 
Hil'an, 160, 177, 278; despots of, 

Minnenngets, 146 f. 
Miracles, frequency of. in Middle 

Ages, 4! f. 
Missions of Jesuits, 329 f. 
Model Parliament. 127 
Modem inventions, 255 ff. 
Modem languages. 239 S. 
Moham'med, 64 f. 
Mohammedanism, 65 ff. 
Mohammedans. 64 ff. ; expelled 

from Spain, Si ; in Sicily. 90 
Monasteries, arrangement of, 

Monasticism. attraction of, for 
many different classes, 54 £. 

Money, lack of. in Middle Ages, 
89; replaces batter, loa, 105 

Monka, 41; origin and distin- 

gaiahcd senricea of, 54 f. ; mis- 

■ionaiy work of. 61 ff. 
Mon'te Cassino (kas s^'n^), foond- 

ing of.' 55 
Moors, 374, 270/.; cxpeDed from 

Spain, »7a, 351 
More, Sir Thomas, 314, 318 
Mosque. 69 

Nantes (nants). Edict of, 344 

Naples, kingdom of. 274 (note), 277 

Niseliy. battle of. 375 

National Covenant, 373 

Natural boundaries ot France, 355, 

Navarre. 339 

Navigation Act, 378 f. 

Neighbothood war in the Middle 
Ages. 107. 282 

Nctfaeriandi, revolt of the, 332 ff, ; 
LouU XlV's innuion of the, 

^/fm Atlanta, 361 f. 

New York, 384 

Niwca (nlse'a). 161, 169, 171 

Nicholas II, Pope. 151 

Ntmes (nem), 10 

Nobility, origin of titles of, 84 

Nogaret, t98 

Norman Conquest of England, 
Ml ff.; results of. It6f. 

Normandy, iizf.. t22, 124 

Nonhmen, 386 ; invasion of Eng- 
land by, III, 114 

Notre Dame (nS'tt<fiim), 216 

Nuremberg. 210 

O da a'cer. 26 

Orange, William of, 335 ff. 

Ordeals, 37 

Orient, European relations with, 

178 f., 209 
Orlffans, House of. 141 ; Maid of, 

137 f. 
Os'tro goths. Stt East Goilis 
Otto I. the Great, of Genrtan;, 

Oxford, University of, ij* 

■ CJoogIc 

Papacy, origin of, 46 f. Sk Pope 

Papal states, 222 

Paper and paper-making, intrO' 

duclioa of, in western Europe, 

Pa py'nis, 84 
Parchment, use of, 85 
Paris, University of, 251 
Parliament, English, 127 f., iooj 

" kneeling," 323 ; sini^le of, 

with Stuarts, 365 f. ; Long, 373 
Rinifal, 247 
Paschal II, Pope, 157 
Paulus Dt ac'6 nus, 86 
Pavia (piive'a), battle of, 314 
Peasants, medieval, loofF.; revolt 

of, in England, 136, 201 ; revolt 

of, in Germany, 304 f. 
Peasants' Revolt, 136, 201 
Penance, 186 
Persecution in England, 324 and 

Peter, St., regarded as first bishop 

of Rome, 46 
Peter the Hermit 169 
Petition of Right, 368 f. 
Petrarch, 254 

Philip Augustus, 122 f , 177 
Philip the Fair, i3i„i7S, 196 f. 
Philip of Hesse, 309 
Philip II of Spain, 323 ff., 34Sf. 
Pilgrim Fathers, 372 
Pippin the Short, 75 
Pirates in Middle Ages, 213 
Plantagenets, 122 ft. 
Poitou (pwato'), 124 
Pope, 46; origin of the title of, 

49 ; relations of, with Otto the 

Great, 145 ; position of, 183 f. 
Popes, duties of the early, 49!-; 

origin of the "temporal power 

of, 52, 75; election of, 151; 

claims of, I5zf.; at Avignon, 

Portcullis, 93 

Portuguese discoveries, 334 f. 
Praise gf Fslly, by Erasmus, 287 
Prayer book, English, 321 f., 345 
Prayer rugs, 67 
Presbyterian Church, 313 f. 
Pride's Purge, 375 
Priest, duties of, 186 

Ux 419 

Prince of Wales, 129 
Printing, invention of, 258, 262 f. 
Protestant, origin of term, 307 
Protestant revolt, in Germanvi 

288 if. ; in Switzerland, 311 ff; 

in England, 314 fi. 
Protestantism, progress of, 309 
Provencal (pro von sal'), 243 
Provence (pro vons'), 142 
Puritans, 666 and'note 

Quakers, 383 

Jiimadan (riimadan'), month of, 

Raphael, 2G5 

Ravenna, interior of a church at, 
27 ; tomb of Theodoric at, 28 

Raymond, Count, 170, 172 

Redress of grievances. 127 

Reform, spirit of, 363 

Regular clergy deSned, 57 

Rembrandt, 266 

Renaissance (re ns sons'), citiea 
of the. 222 fF. ; buildings of, 
22S f. ; art of, 264 ff. 

Restoration in England, 381 ff. 

Retainers, 139 

Revolution of 1688, 384 f. 

Rheims (rSmz), 137, 138 ; cathe- 
dral of, 22 1 

Rhodes, island of, r74 

Richard 1, the Lion-Mearted, 123, 


Richelieu, 344, 355 f- 

Rising in the north of England, 
347 f- 

Roads in the Middle Ages, 89 

Rollo, 113 

Roman art and architecture, 12 S. 

Roman Church, the mother 
church, 46 f. 

Roman Empire, and its govern- 
ment, 4fr; "fall" of, in the 
West, z6; relations of, with 
Church, 43 ; continuity of, 83 

Roman law, 7 f., 27, 37 

Romance languages, 240 

Romances in Middle Ages, 243,244 

Romanesque architecture, 217 

Rome, city of, in Middle Ages, 
24, 50, 230 f, 264 

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420 The Middle Period of Eumfieaa History 

Rouen (r6 oAO* i>3i '38 
Roundheadi. 37 j 
Rouuillon (rii *e yon'), 355 L 
Royal Society, Engliah, 363 
Rubeni, 366 

Rudolf of Hapsburg, 164, 369 
Runnymcde, 125 

St. Bartholomew, Haatacre of, 341 

St Benedict, Rule of, 147 

SL Bernard, I76f. 

St Boniface anoints Pippin, 75 

St Dominic, 194 

St Francis, 190 f. 

St Peter's, rebuilding of, 290, 291 

Saint-Simon (uh-se moil'], 39] 

Sal'adin takes Jerusalem, 177 

Saracens, 173, Jio 

Si vo nii rSIa, 275 

Saxons, settle in England, 61 ; con- 
quest of, by Charlemagne, 79; 
rebellion of, 1 56 

Saxony, elector of, 2S1 

Scholasttcisnt, 2 53 ; attack of Roger 
Bacon on. 255 

School of the paUce. 85 f 

Science, medieval, 747 ft. ; begin- 
nings of modern, 35S ff. 

Scone, Stone of, 131 

Scotch nation, language of, 130; 
differs from England, 131 

Scotland, 130 ft., 373, 377 i Pre»- 
byterian Church in, 346 

Secular clergy defined, 57 

Seljuk Turks, 167 

Senlac, 114 

Separatists, 372 

Serfdom, extinction of, 101 (note) ; 
in England, 137 

Serfs, medieval, 100 ft. 

Seville, tower at (Giralda), 73, 

Shakespeare, 367 

Ship money, 370 

Shires, 119 

Sicily, 163, 165, 179 

Sidon, 173 

Simony (^m'ony), 150 

Slavs, subdued by Charlemagne, 
Si ; invasions of, 92 

Seng of Raland, 243 

Sorbonne, 337 

Spain, 24, 81, 237, 270 f, 273; 

exhaustion of, 337, 350!. 
"Spanish fury," 336 
Spanish Inquisition, 271 
Spanish main, 237 
Spanish Succession, War of, 39S 
Speyer, Diet of, 306 
Spice trade in the Middle Ages, 

Stained glass, medieval, 220 
States of the Church. Stt Papal 

Statute of provisors, 199 

Statutes of Laboreia, 136 

Stephen, 117 

Strassburg, 396 

Stuarts, 365 If. 

Subvassal, 1031 not under control 
of king, 106 

Sully, 344 

Suzerain, 103 

Sweden, intervention of, in Thirty 
Years' War, 353 ff. 

Switzerland, origm of, 31 1 f. ; Prot- 
estant revolt in, 312 S.; merce- 
naricB. 313 (note) 

Syria, 166; Latiu kingdoms in, 

Tacitus, 79 

Taille (ti'ye), 141 

Tancred in First Crusade, 170 

Templars, I74f., 199 

"Temporalities," 14S 

Test Act, 384 

Tetzel, 291 

Tentbooks, 403 £F. 


Theodouan (the o dfi'shi an) Code, 

Theses of Luther on indulgences, 

20: f. 
"Thirty-Nine Articles," 333 
Thirty Years' War, 352 ff. 
Thomas Aquinas, 195 
Thomas of Canterbury, 310 
Tilly, 354 f. 
Tithe, 182 

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Tours, battle of, 73 

TowDs, of Germany, So, iSt ; in 
the Middle Ages, I59f., 165, 
203 ff., 2l$,i2lR. 

Trade, medieval, zo6, 208 S. ; regu- 
lated by the towns, ZI41 spice, 


Treaty of Mersen, 87 
Trent, Council of, 325 ff. 
Treves, elector of, iSi ; archbishop 

of, 304 
Tripoii, 172, 173. 178 
Troubadours, 244 f. 
Truce of God, 108 f. 
Tudor, House of, 140 f., 365 
Turks, 167, 168, 173 
Twelve Articles of peasants, 304 

Ulrich von Hutten, 295, 304 
United Netherlands, 335 tt., 3S4 
Unity of history, 3 
Universities, medieval, 250 ff., 254 
Urban II, Pope, 167 
Usury, doctrine of, 2iz 
Utrecht, Union of, 336; Treaty of, 

Valentinian III, decree of, 48 

Vandals, 24 f., 30 

Van Dyck, 266 

Van Eycic, the brothers, 265 

Vasa (va'sa), Gustavus, 354 

Vassal, medieval, 103 ff. 

Vassy, massacre of, 341 

Vil Sa Manor 

Villains, loo 

Vaie, 204 

Visigoths. Sa West Goths 

Vulgate, 323 

Wager of battle, 37 
Waldensians, 1S8 
Waldo, Peter, 188 
Wales, 128 ff. 
Wallenstein, 353 f. 
Walter the Penniless, 169 
Walther von der Vogelweide, 247 
Wars of the Roses, i39f. 
Wartbutg [vart'bbrgl, translation 
of Bible at, by Luther, 302 



Velasquez (vel ask'eth), 266 
Venerable Bede, the, 54, 63 
Venetian school of painting, 265 
Venice, ;65, 178,209, 210, 222 ff.; 

government of, 225! 
Versailles (versalz', Eng. pron.), 

palace of, 390 f. 
Vikings (vi'kings), 92 (note) 


■, 40s . 

West Frankish kingdom, 88, 112 

West Goths, 24 f., 33, 35 
Westminster Abbey, 115 
Westminster, city of, iz8 
Westphalia, Treaty of, 357 
William the Conqueror, 113 ff. 
William and Mary, 385 
William of Orange, 384 f., 396 
William Rufus, 117 
William the Silent, 335 ff. 
William III, 384 f. 
WifenagemSI. 116 
Wittenberg, 288, 291, 298 
Wolfram von Eschenbach, 247 
WoJsey, Thomas, Cardinal, 279, 

Worms, 154 i Concordat of, J$ji.t 

Diet at, 299; Edict of, 301 
Wycliffe, John, 201 

XavicT (ziv'e a), Francis, 329 

York, House of, 139 f. 

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